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ABSTRACT: Patients on chronic hemodialysis are likely to develop secondary hyperoxalemia. It is, however, difficult to measure plasma oxalate levels. To measure plasma oxalate levels, rapid plasma separation, deproteinization, and acidification are essential in preventing the formation of oxalate and the deposition of calcium oxalate within the test tube. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the oxalate level in dialyzer ultrafiltrate is potentially useful for estimating plasma oxalate levels.
In nine patients on chronic hemodialysis, the plasma, after deproteinization with a filter, and the ultrafiltrate from the dialyzer before hemodialysis were acidified to a pH level of less than 3, followed by the measurement of oxalate levels by ion chromatography. Also, oxalate levels were compared between acidified and non-acidified ultrafiltrates from the dialyzer. In the second part of the study, seven patients on chronic hemodialysis receiving erythropoietin therapy, in whom the ferritin level was more than 300 ng/ml and transferrin saturation was less than 25%, were intravenously administered ascorbic acid, 100 mg, three times a week, after each dialysis session to facilitate the utilization of stored iron. This treatment was continued until the serum ferritin level decreased to a level below 300 ng/ml (for 3 months, at a maximum). The oxalate level in the dialyzer ultrafiltrate after this treatment was compared with that before treatment.
The mean +/- SE oxalate level in the dialyzer ultrafiltrate was 45 +/- 6 micromol/l, essentially equal to the plasma oxalate level (46 +/- 7 micromol/l). The plasma oxalate level had a significant positive correlation with the dialyzer ultrafiltrate oxalate level (plasma oxalate level = 0.99 x dialyzer ultrafiltrate oxalate level + 1.5; r = 0.95; P < 0.0001). The oxalate level in the acidified ultrafiltrate (45 +/- 6 micromol/l) did not differ significantly from that in the non-acidified ultrafiltrate (45 +/- 6 micromol/l). The mean +/- SE duration of ascorbic acid administration was 64 +/- 13 days. The hemoglobin level remained unchanged at 9.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, whereas the serum iron level increased significantly, from 34 +/- 2 microg/dl to 43 +/- 4 microg/dl (P < 0.05), and serum ferritin levels decreased significantly, from 645 +/- 219 ng/ml to 231 +/- 30 ng/ml after the treatment (P < 0.05). The oxalate level in the acidified ultrafiltrate showed no significant change after ascorbic acid administration (31 +/- 8 micromol/l vs 47 +/- 7 micromol/l).
In patients on chronic hemodialysis, the oxalate level in acidified ultrafiltrate from the dialyzer was found to be useful for estimating the plasma level of non-protein-bound oxalate. When administering ascorbic acid to hemodialysis patients, the plasma oxalate level can be monitored using this method.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 07/2006; 10(2):118-23. DOI:10.1007/s10157-006-0406-y · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of intravenous ascorbic acid was compared with that of intravenous iron in the treatment of functional iron deficiency, as defined as serum ferritin levels over 300 ng/ml and serum iron levels below 50 microg/dl, in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Thirteen patients on chronic hemodialysis with functional iron deficiency received intravenous injections of ascorbic acid, 100 mg, three times a week, after hemodialysis. The therapy was continued until serum ferritin decreased to below 300 ng/ml (3 months at the maximum). The iron and control group were composed of patients who had serum iron levels below 50 microg/dl within 3 months after serum ferritin rose to over 300 ng/ml. Seven patients with the iron group received more than a total of 10 intravenous injections of saccharated ferric oxide (40 mg/dose) after hemodialysis, and seven patients with the control group received no iron preparation during the 3 months. In the ascorbic acid group, while hemoglobin did not change from 10.9 +/- 0.5 g/dl (mean +/- SE) during the three-month period, serum iron increased significantly from 37 +/- 4 microg/dl to 49 +/- 4 microg/dl after one month (p<0.01), and remained elevated until the end of the three-month period. Serum ferritin decreased significantly from 607 +/- 118 ng/ml to 354 +/- 30 ng/ml after 3 months (p<0.01). In the iron group, hemoglobin and serum iron increased significantly from the respective pre-treatment levels during the 2-month period, and serum ferritin rose significantly after 3 months. In the control group, hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin levels decreased significantly from the respective pre-treatment levels during the 3 months. The recombinant erythropoietin dose remained stable for three months in the ascorbic acid, iron, and control groups, respectively. These results suggest that in hemodialysis patients with a functional iron deficiency, treatment with intravenous ascorbic acid can prevent iron overload due to treatment with intravenous iron, and provide a useful adjuvant means of maintaining hemoglobin and serum iron levels.
Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 01/2004; 46(8):804-9.
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ABSTRACT: The spectrum of bone disease in end-stage renal failure is changing, but secondary hyperparathyroidism is still a troublesome complication. The vitamin D3 analog, maxacalcitol, has reduced calcemic action compared to vitamin D3, but show equivalent suppression of parathyroid hormone(PTH) secretion. In the first step of the study, we investigated the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism in 670 chronic hemodialysis patients, whose age, sex(male/female), and duration on dialysis were 63.5 +/- 12.4 years, 383/287, and 7.3 +/- 6.0 years, respectively. The number of patients with serum intact-PTH concentrations over 300 pg/ml was 118. Most patients in this group(87.3%) were already being prescribed oral vitamin D3 analog. In the second step, maxacalcitol was administered intravenously, instead of the oral vitamin D3 analog, to 92 patients selected from the above-described group. The age, sex(male/female), and duration of dialysis were 59.4 +/- 11.5 years, 56/36, and 7.3 +/- 6.0 years, respectively. Serum intact-PTH concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly, from 612.3 +/- 32.7 to 414.2 +/- 26.8 pg/ml, and from 329.3 +/- 17.3 to 277.0 +/- 12.5 IU/l, respectively. Serum calcium phosphorous concentration increased significantly, and maxacalcitol administration was interrupted because of hypercalcemia in 17 patients(18.5%). Serum intact-PTH concentration did not decrease in patients with serum Ca concentrations of 10.5 mg/dl or more before maxacalcitol therapy. In conclusion, maxacalcitol suppressed PTH secretion more effectively in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism than did oral active vitamin D3 therapy, especially in patients with serum Ca concentrations lower than 10.5 mg/dl.
Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 02/2002; 44(5):464-70.