[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidine analogs (5a-j) were synthesized. The alpha4beta2( *) and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding properties and functional activity in the tail-flick, hot-plate, locomotor, and body temperature tests in mice of 5a-j were compared to those of the nAChR agonist, nicotine (1), epibatidine (4), and deschloroepibatidine (13), the partial agonist, varenicline (3), and the antagonist 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidine analogs (7a-j). Unlike epibatidine and deschloroepibatidine, which are potent agonists in the tail-flick test, 5a-k show no or very low antinociceptive activity in the tail-flick or hot-plate test. However, they are potent antagonists in nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick test, but weaker than the corresponding 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 3'-substituted deschloroepibatidine analogues (3a-g and 4) showed high affinity for alpha4beta2 binding and relatively weak affinity for alpha7 nAChRs. The 3'-ethynyl (3g) and 3'-fluoro (3a) analogues with K(i) values of 0.02 and 0.037 nM, respectively, were the most potent. Even though the alpha4beta2 binding affinity of several of the analogues were equal to that of epibatidine, all of the compounds were weak agonists in the antinociceptive, hypothermia, and spontaneous activity test in mice. In contrast, all of the compounds were functional antagonists of nicotine-induced antinociception. In general, compounds 3a-g and 4 were more potent in the tail-flick assay than the hot-plate test. For example, the 3'-fluoro analogue 3a and the N-methyl-3'-iodo analogue 4 showed AD(50) values of 0.07 and 0.04 microg/kg, respectively, in the tail flick test and only 35 and 0% inhibition at 20 and 10 microg/kg in the hot-plate assay, respectively. These results suggest that these compounds will be highly useful for identifying which specific receptor subtypes are involved in each of nicotine's pharmacological effects. The high affinity of the N-methyl-3'-iodo analogue 4 combined with its weak agonist and potent antagonist activity suggests that carbon-11 and iodine-123 analogues may be useful as PET and SPECT ligands, respectively, for studying nAChRs in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of 2',3'-disubstituted epibatidine analogues were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and in vivo for antinociception activity in the tail-flick and hot-plate models of acute pain and for their ability to affect core body temperature. Compounds that possessed electron-withdrawing groups (F, Cl, Br, and I) in both the 2'- and the 3'-positions showed affinities at the nAChR similar to epibatidine. However, in vivo efficacy did not correlate with affinity. 2-exo-(3'-Amino-2'-chloro-5'-pyridinyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (2i), an epibatidine analogue possessing an electron-releasing amino group in the 3'-position, produced the highest affinity. Compound 2i was also the most selective epibatidine analogue with a K(i) of 0.001 nM at alphabeta nAChRs, which is 26 times greater than that of epibatidine, and a alphabeta/alpha(7) K(i) ratio of 14,000, twice that of epibatidine. In vivo testing revealed that this compound potently inhibited nicotine-induced antinociception with AD(50) values below 1 microg/kg. Surprisingly, this same compound was also an agonist at higher doses (ED(50) approximately 20 microg/kg). Thus, the addition of the 3'-amino group to epibatidine confers potent antagonist activity to the compound with little effect on agonist activity. 2,3-Disubstituted epibatidine analogues possessing a 2'-amino group combined with a 3'-bromo or 3'-iodo group showed in vitro and in vivo nAChR properties similar to nicotine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 2'-substituted-3'-phenyl epibatidine analogues were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of binding at nicotine acetylcholine receptors and for antinociceptive properties in mice. The introduction of a bulky phenyl group at the 3'-position exerted a profound influence on both receptor binding and antinociceptive effects. Substitution of different groups at the 2'-position distinguished between agonist and antagonist properties. These results demonstrate that structural requirements for receptor activities and recognition are distinctively different.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new, high yield, convenient synthesis of 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene which involved the addition of tributyltin hydride to 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-p-toluenesulfonyl-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]-2-ene followed by elimination of the tributyltin and p-tolylsulfonyl groups using tetrabutylammonium fluoride was developed.