Hyung Mok Lee

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (120)145.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity functions (LFs) of local (z < 0.3) star-forming (SF) galaxies in the AKARI's North Ecliptic Pole (NEP)-Wide survey field. In order to derive more accurate LF, we used spectroscopic sample only. Based on the NEP-Wide point source catalogue containing a large number of infrared (IR) sources distributed over the wide (5.4 deg2) field, we incorporated the spectroscopic redshift (z) data for ∼1790 selected targets obtained by optical follow-up surveys with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra. The AKARI's continuous 2–24 μm wavelength coverage as well as photometric data from optical u* band to near-infrared H band with the spectroscopic redshifts for our sample galaxies enable us to derive accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the MIR. We carried out SED fit analysis and employed 1/Vmax method to derive the MIR (e.g. 8, 12, and 15 μm rest-frame) LFs. We fit our 8 μm LFs to the double power-law with the power index of α = 1.53 and β = 2.85 at the break luminosity 4.95 × 109 L⊙. We made extensive comparisons with various MIR LFs from several literatures. Our results for local galaxies from the NEP region are generally consistent with other works for different fields over wide luminosity ranges. The comparisons with the results from the NEP-Deep data as well as other LFs imply the luminosity evolution from higher redshifts towards the present epoch.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2015; 454(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv2006 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present infrared (IR) galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field using recently-obtained, wider Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) optical/near-IR images. AKARI has obtained deep images in the mid-infrared (IR), covering 0.6 deg2 of the NEP deep field. However, our previous work was limited to the central area of 0.25 deg2 due to the lack of optical coverage of the full AKARI NEP survey. To rectify the situation, we recently obtained CFHT optical and near-IR images over the entire AKARI NEP deep field. These new CFHT images are used to derive accurate photometric redshifts, allowing us to fully exploit the whole AKARI NEP deep field. AKARI's deep, continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelengths (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24 μm) exists nowhere else, due to filter gaps of other space telescopes. It allows us to estimate rest-frame 8 and 12 μm luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on spectral energy distribution fitting, which was the largest uncertainty in previous studies. Total infrared (TIR) luminosity is also obtained more reliably due to the superior filter coverage. The resulting rest-frame 8 and 12 μm, and TIR LFs at 0.15 < z < 2.2 are consistent with previous works, but with reduced uncertainties, especially at the high-luminosity end, thanks to the wide-field coverage. In terms of cosmic infrared luminosity density (ΩIR), we found that the ΩIR evolves as ∝ (1 + z)4.2 ± 0.4.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2015; 452(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1411 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Sang Hoon Oh · Woong-Tae Kim · Hyung Mok Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Using self-consistent three-dimensional (3D) N-body simulations, we investigate the physical properties of non-axisymmetric features in a disk galaxy created by a tidal interaction with its companion. The primary galaxy consists of a stellar disk, a bugle, and a live halo, corresponding to Milky-Way type galaxies, while the companion is represented by a halo alone. We vary the companion mass and the pericenter distance to explore situations with differing tidal strength parameterized by either the relative tidal force P or the relative imparted momentum S. We find that the formation of a tidal tail in the outer parts requires P > 0.05 or S > 0.07. A stronger interaction results in a stronger, less wound tail that forms earlier. Similarly, a stronger tidal forcing produces stronger, more loosely wound spiral arms in the inner parts. The arms are approximately logarithmic in shape, with both amplitude and pitch angle decaying with time. The derived pattern speed decreases with radius and is close to the Omega-kappa/2 curve at late time, with Omega and kappa denoting the angular and epicycle frequencies, respectively. This suggests that the tidally-induced spiral arms are most likely kinematic density waves weakly modified by self-gravity. Compared to the razor-thin counterparts, arms in the 3D models are weaker, have a smaller pitch angle, and wind and decay more rapidly. The 3D density structure of the arms is well described by the concentrated and sinusoidal models when the arms are in the nonlinear and linear regimes, respectively. We demonstrate that dynamical friction between interacting galaxies transfers the orbital angular momentum of one galaxy to the spin angular momentum of the companion halo.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 807(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/73 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the rest-frame optical spectral properties of 155 luminous quasars at 3.3<z<6.4 taken with the AKARI space telescope, including the first detection of H$\alpha$ emission line as far out as z~6. We extend the scaling relation between the rest-frame optical continuum and line luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the high luminosity, high redshift regime that has rarely been probed before. Remarkably, we find that a single log-linear relation can be applied to the 5100${\rm \AA}$ and H$\alpha$ AGN luminosities over a wide range of luminosity (10$^{42}$<$L_{5100}$<10$^{47}$ergs/s) or redshift (0<z<6), suggesting that the physical mechanism governing this relation is unchanged from z=0 to 6, over five decades in luminosity. Similar scaling relations are found between the optical and the UV continuum luminosities or line widths. Applying the scaling relations to the H$\beta$ black hole mass ($M_{\rm BH}$) estimator of local AGNs, we derive the $M_{\rm BH}$ estimators based on H$\alpha$, MgII, and CIV lines, finding that the UV-line based masses are overall consistent with the Balmer-line based, but with a large intrinsic scatter of 0.40dex for the CIV estimates. Our 43 $M_{\rm BH}$ estimates from H$\alpha$ confirm the existence of BHs as massive as ~10$^{10}M_{\odot}$ out to z~5, and provide a secure footing for previous MgII-line based studies that a rapid $M_{\rm BH}$ growth has occurred in the early universe.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 806(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/109 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 2.5-5.0 $\mu$m spectra of 83 nearby ($0.002\,<\,z\,<\,0.48$) and bright ($K<14$mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board $\it{AKARI}$. The 2.5-5.0 $\mu$m spectral region contains emission lines such as Br$\beta$ (2.63 $\mu$m), Br$\alpha$ (4.05 $\mu$m), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; 3.3 $\mu$m), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activities in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green (PG) and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson et al. (2004). Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region (BLR). Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, $\it{WISE}$, and $\it{ISO}$ to the $\it{AKARI}$ spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of $\sim1100\,\rm{K}$ and $\sim220\,\rm{K}$, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2015; 216(1):17. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/216/1/17 · 11.22 Impact Factor
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    Jongsuk Hong · Hyung Mok Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar black hole (BH) binaries are one of the most promising gravitational wave (GW) sources for GW detection by the ground-based detectors. Nuclear star clusters (NCs) located at the centre of galaxies are known to harbour massive black holes (MBHs) and to be bounded by a gravitational potential by other galactic components such as the galactic bulge. Such an environment of NCs provides a favourable conditions for the BH–BH binary formation by the gravitational radiation capture due to the high BH number density and velocity dispersion. We carried out detailed numerical study of the formation of BH binaries in the NCs using a series of N-body simulations for equal-mass cases. There is no mass segregation introduced. We have derived scaling relations of the binary formation rate with the velocity dispersion of the stellar system beyond the radius of influence and made estimates of the rate of formation of BH binaries per unit comoving volume and thus expected detection rate by integrating the binary formation rate over galaxy population within the detection distance of the advanced detectors. We find that the overall formation rates for BH–BH binaries per NC is ∼10−10 yr−1 for the Milky Way-like galaxies and weakly dependent on the mass of MBH as Γ ∝ $M_{\rm MBH}^{3/28}$. We estimate the detection rate of 0.02–14 yr−1 for advanced LIGO/Virgo considering several factors such as the dynamical evolution of NCs, the variance of the number density of stars and the mass range of MBH giving uncertainties.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2015; 448(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv035 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    Yiseul Jeon · Myungshin Im · Eugene Kang · Hyung Mok Lee · Hideo Matsuhara ·
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    ABSTRACT: We present the J- and H-band source catalog covering the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole field. Filling the gap between the optical data from other follow-up observations and mid-infrared (MIR) data from AKARI, our near-infrared (NIR) data provides contiguous wavelength coverage from optical to MIR. For the J- and H-band imaging, we used the FLoridA Multi-object Imaging Near-ir Grism Observational Spectrometer on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1 m telescope covering a 5.1 deg2 area down to a 5σ depth of ~21.6 mag and ~21.3 mag (AB) for the J and H bands with an astrometric accuracy of 0.''14 and 0.''17 for 1σ in R.A. and decl. directions, respectively. We detected 208,020 sources for the J band and 203,832 sources for the H band. This NIR data is being used for studies including the analysis of the physical properties of infrared sources such as stellar mass and photometric redshifts, and will be a valuable data set for various future missions.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 09/2014; 214(2):20. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/214/2/20 · 11.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A compact infrared space telescope called MIRIS (Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System) was developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), and launched onboard the Science and Technology Satellite-3 of Korea (STSAT-3) in 2013 November. The main mission of MIRIS is the Paschen-α emis-sion line survey along the Galactic plane and the cosmic infrared background (CIB) observation, particularly around the north ecliptic pole region. For these missions, a wide field of view (3:67 × 3:67°) with an angular resolution of 51.6″ and wavelength coverage from 0:9 ∼ 2:0 μm have been adopted for MIRIS, having optical components con-sisting of a 80 mm main lens and four other lenses with F/2 focal ratio optics. The opto-mechanical system was carefully designed to minimize any effects from shock during the launch process and thermal variation. Also, the telescope was designed to use a passive cooling technique to maintain the temperature around 200 K in order to reduce thermal noise. A micro Stirling cooler was used to cool down the Teledyne PICNIC infrared array to 90 K, which was equipped in a dewar with four filters for infrared passbands of I, H, and Paschen-α and a dual-band continuum line filter. MIRIS system was integrated into the STSAT-3 as its primary payload and successfully passed required tests in the laboratory, such as thermal-vacuum, vibration, and shock tests. MIRIS is now operating in sun synchronous orbits for initial tests and has observed its first images successfully.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 09/2014; 126(943):853-862. DOI:10.1086/678130 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Widefield Infrared Survey for Fe+ (UWIFE) is a 180 deg2 imaging survey of the first Galactic quadrant (7° < l < 62°; |b| ≲ 1 $_{.}^{\circ}$5) that uses a narrow-band filter centred on the [Fe ii] 1.644-μm emission line. The [Fe ii] 1.644-μm emission is a good tracer of dense, shock-excited gas, and the survey will probe violent environments around stars: star-forming regions, evolved stars, and supernova remnants, among others. The UWIFE survey is designed to complement the existing UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2). The survey will also complement existing broad-band surveys. The observed images have a nominal 5σ detection limit of 18.7 mag for point sources, with a median seeing of 0.83 arcsec. For extended sources, we estimate a surface brightness limit of 8.1 × 10−20 W m−2 arcsec−2. In this paper, we present an overview and some preliminary results of this survey.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 443(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1146 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Yeong-Bok Bae · Chunglee Kim · Hyung Mok Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Performing N-body simulations, we examine the dynamics of black hole-black hole (BH-BH) (10 M☉ each) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) (1.4 M☉ each) binaries formed in a cluster and its implications for gravitational wave detection. A significant fraction of compact binaries are ejected from a globular cluster after core collapse. Among the total number of ejected compact objects, 30 per cent of them are in binaries. Merging time-scales of ejected binaries, which depend on the cluster's velocity dispersion, are in some cases shorter than the age of the Universe. During the merging event, these dynamically formed compact mergers are expected to produce gravitational waves that can be detectable by the advanced ground-based interferometers. Based on our reference assumptions, merger rates of ejected BH-BH and NS-NS binaries per globular cluster are estimated to be 2.5 and 0.27 per Gyr, respectively. Assuming the spatial density of globular clusters to be 8.4 h3 clusters Mpc-3 and extrapolating the merger rate estimates to the horizon distance of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory-Virgo network, we expect the detection rates for BH-BH and NS-NS binaries with cluster origin to be 15 and 0.024 yr-1, respectively. We find out that some of the dynamically formed binaries are ejected with a large escape velocity. They can be responsible for short gamma-ray bursts whose locations are far from host galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 440(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu381 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star-formation activity in these galaxies. The exact nature of this link is still under debate. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows AGN to interact with their host galaxy and regulate star-formation. In this context, we are using a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of the putative link between AGN activity and star-formation. This is done by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We use the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope together with the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. Through SED fitting we constrain both the AGN and host galaxy components. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio-sources ($<$mJy), that increases in power with increasing radio-luminosity. At the highest radio-luminosities, the presence of powerful jets dominates the radio emission of these sources. A positive correlation is found between the luminosity of the AGN component and that of star-formation in the host galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. By contrast, for a given redshift and AGN luminosity, we find that increasing radio-luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star-formation rate. The most radio-loud AGN are found to lie on the main sequence of star-formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, such a two-sided feedback process is seen in the same sample. We conclude that radio jets do suppress star-formation in their host galaxies but appear not to totally quench it. Our results therefore support the maintenance nature of "radio-mode" feedback from radio-AGN jets.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 784(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/2/137 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present tentative H-alpha emission line detections of four submillimetre-detected galaxies at z>3.5: the radio galaxies 8C1909+722 and 4C60.07 at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 3.1 and 2.5, and two submillimetre-selected galaxies (SMGs) near the first of these at SNRs of 10.0 and 2.4, made with the AKARI Space Telescope as part of the FUHYU mission program. These are the highest-redshift H-alpha detections in such galaxies, made possible by AKARI's unique near-infrared spectroscopic capability. The two radio galaxies had known redshifts and surrounding structure, and we have detected broad H-alpha components indicating the presence of dust-shrouded quasars. We conclude that powerful AGNs at z>3.5 occur in peaks of the star-formation density fields, supporting a close connection between stellar mass build-up and black hole mass assembly at this redshift. We also show that 4C60.07 is a binary AGN. The H-alpha detections of the two SMGs are the first redshift determinations for these sources, confirming their physical association around their companion radio galaxy. The H-alpha-derived star formation rates (SFRs) for the SMGs are lower than their far-infrared derived SFRs by a factor of ~10, suggesting a level of dust obscuration similar to that found in studies at ~1<z<2.7.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1572 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    Yeong-Bok Bae · Chunglee Kim · Hyung Mok Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Performing N-body simulations, we examine the dynamics of BH-BH (10 Msun each) and NS-NS (1.4 Msun each) binaries formed in a cluster and its implications for gravitational wave detection. A significant fraction of compact binaries are ejected from a globular cluster after core collapse. Among the total number of ejected compact objects, 30 per cent of them are in binaries. Merging time-scales of ejected binaries, which depend on the cluster's velocity dispersion, are in some cases shorter than the age of the universe. During the merging event, these dynamically formed compact mergers are expected to produce gravitational waves that can be detectable by the advanced ground-based interferometers. Based on our reference assumptions, merger rates of ejected BH-BH and NS-NS binaries per globular cluster are estimated to be 2.5 and 0.27 per Gyr, respectively. Assuming the spatial density of globular clusters to be 8.4 h^3 clusters Mpc^-3 and extrapolating the merger rate estimates to the horizon distance of the advanced LIGO-Virgo network, we expect the detection rates for BH-BH and NS-NS binaries with cluster origin are to be 15 and 0.024 yr^-1, respectively. We find out that some of the dynamically formed binaries are ejected with a large escape velocity. They can be responsible for short gamma-ray bursts whose locations are far from host galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 μm and 15 μm, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M ☉ yr–1. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 08/2013; 207(2):37. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/207/2/37 · 11.22 Impact Factor
  • Dong-Ho Park · Inyong Cho · Gungwon Kang · Hyung Mok Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: We present a fully general relativistic open-source code that can be used for simulating a system of spherically symmetric perfect fluid matter. It is based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism with maximal slicing and isotropic spatial coordinates. For hydrodynamic matter High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) schemes with a monotonized central-difference limiter and approximated Riemann solvers are used in the Eulerian viewpoint. The accuracy and the convergence of our numerical code are verified by performing several test problems. These include a relativistic blast wave, relativistic spherical accretion of matter into a black hole, Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) stars and Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS) dust collapses. In particular, a dynamical code test is done for the OS collapse by explicitly performing numerical coordinate transformations between our coordinate 8system and the one used for the analytic solution. Finally, some TOV star solutions are presented for the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity theory.
    Journal- Korean Physical Society 02/2013; 62(3). DOI:10.3938/jkps.62.393 · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features dominate the mid-infrared spectra of star-forming galaxies and can be useful to calibrate star formation rates (SFRs) and diagnose ionized states of grains. However, the PAH 3.3 {mu}m feature has not been studied as much as other PAH features since it is weaker than others and resides outside of Spitzer capability. In order to detect and calibrate the 3.3 {mu}m PAH emission and investigate its potential as an SFR indicator, we carried out an AKARI mission program, AKARI mJy Unbiased Survey of Extragalactic Sources (AMUSES), and compared its sample with various literature samples. We obtained 2-5 {mu}m low-resolution spectra of 20 flux-limited galaxies with mixed spectral energy distribution classes, which yielded the detection of the 3.3 {mu}m PAH emission from 3 out of 20 galaxies. For the combined sample of AMUSES and literature samples, the 3.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities correlate with the infrared luminosities of star-forming galaxies, albeit with a large scatter (1.5 dex). The correlation appears to break down at the domain of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), and the power of the 3.3 {mu}m PAH luminosity as a proxy for the infrared luminosity is hampered at log[L {sub PAH3.3} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1}] > {approx}42.0. Possible origins for this deviation in the correlation are discussed, including contributions from active galactic nuclei and strongly obscured young stellar objects, and the destruction of PAH molecules in ULIRGs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 760(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/760/2/120 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    Jongsuk Hong · Eunhyeuk Kim · Hyung Mok Lee · Rainer Spurzem ·
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the effects of the initial rotation on the evolution of the tidally limited clusters with mass spectrum, we have performed N-body simulations of the clusters with different initial rotations and compared the results with those of the Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations. We confirmed that the cluster evolution is accelerated by not only the initial rotation but also the mass spectrum. For the slowly rotating models, the time evolutions of mass, energy and angular momentum show good agreements between N-body and FP simulations. On the other hand, for the rapidly rotating models, there are significant differences between these two approaches at the early stage of the evolutions because of the development of bar instability in N-body simulations. The shape of the cluster for N-body simulations becomes tri-axial or even prolate, which cannot be produced by the 2-dimensional FP simulations. The total angular momentum and the total mass of the cluster decrease rapidly while bar-like structure persists. After the rotational energy becomes smaller than the critical value for the bar instability, the shape of the cluster becomes nearly axisymmetric again, and follows the evolutionary track predicted by the FP equation. We have confirmed again that the energy equipartiton is not completely achieved when M2/M1(m2>/m1)^(3/2) > 0.16. By examining the angular momentum at each mass component, we found that the exchange of angular momentum between different mass components occurs, similar to the energy exchange leading to the equipartition.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 430(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt099 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents emission line detections for four galaxies at z > 3.5 made with AKARI as part of the FUHYU mission program. These are the highest-redshift detections to date in star-forming galaxies. AKARI's unique near-infrared spectroscopic capability has made these detections possible. For two of these galaxies, this represents the first evidence of their redshifts and confirms their physical association with a companion radio galaxy. The star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the lines under-predict the SFRs estimated from their far-infrared luminosities by a factor of ~ 2 - 3. We have also detected broad components in the two radio galaxies which indicate the presence of quasars.
    11/2012; 27(4):357-360. DOI:10.5303/PKAS.2012.27.4.357
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    ABSTRACT: We present a photometric catalog of infrared (IR) sources based on the North Ecliptic PoleWide field (NEP-Wide) survey of AKARI, which is an infrared space telescope launched by Japan. The NEP-Wide survey covered 5.4 deg2 area, a nearly circular shape centered on the North Ecliptic Pole, using nine photometric filter-bands from 2 - 25 {\mu}m of the Infrared Camera (IRC). Extensive efforts were made to reduce possible false objects due to cosmic ray hits, multiplexer bleeding phenomena around bright sources, and other artifacts. The number of detected sources varied depending on the filter band: with about 109,000 sources being cataloged in the near-IR bands at 2 - 5 {\mu}m, about 20,000 sources in the shorter parts of the mid-IR bands between 7 - 11 {\mu}m, and about 16,000 sources in the longer parts of the mid-IR bands, with \sim 4,000 sources at 24 {\mu}m. The estimated 5? detection limits are approximately 21 magnitude (mag) in the 2 - 5 {\mu}m bands, 19.5 - 19 mag in the 7 - 11 {\mu}m, and 18.8 - 18.5 mag in the 15 - 24 {\mu}m bands in the AB magnitude scale. The completenesses for those bands were evaluated as a function of magnitude: the 50% completeness limits are about 19.8 mag at 3 {\mu}m, 18.6 mag at 9 {\mu}m, and 18 mag at 18 {\mu}m band, respectively. To construct a reliable source catalog, all of the detected sources were examined by matching them with those in other wavelength data, including optical and ground-based near-IR bands. The final band-merged catalog contains about 114,800 sources detected in the IRC filter bands. The properties of the sources are presented in terms of the distributions in various color-color diagrams.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; 548. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219105 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of a deep 20 cm radio survey at 20 cm are reported of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) near the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP), using the Australia Telescope Compact Array telescope, ATCA. The survey has 1 sigma detection limits ranging from 18.7--50 microJy per beam over an area of ~1.1 sq degrees, and ~2.5 sq degrees to lower sensitivity. The observations, data reduction and source count analysis are presented, along with a description of the overall scientific objectives, and a catalogue containing 530 radio sources detected with a resolution of 6.2" x 4.9". The derived differential source counts show a pronounced excess of sources fainter than ~1 mJy, consistent with an emerging population of star forming galaxies. Cross-correlating the radio with AKARI sources and archival data we find 95 cross matches, with most galaxies having optical R-magnitudes in the range 18-24 mag, and 52 components lying within 1" of a radio position in at least one further catalogue (either IR or optical). We have reported redshifts for a sub-sample of our catalogue finding that they vary between galaxies in the local universe to those having redshifts of up to 0.825. Associating the radio sources with the Spitzer catalogue at 24 microns, we find 173 matches within one Spitzer pixel, of which a small sample of the identifications are clearly radio loud compared to the bulk of the galaxies. The radio luminosity plot and a colour-colour analysis suggest that the majority of the radio sources are in fact luminous star forming galaxies, rather than radio-loud AGN. There are additionally five cross matches between ASTE or BLAST submillimetre galaxies and radio sources from this survey, two of which are also detected at 90 microns, and 41 cross-matches with submillimetre sources detected in the Herschel HerMES survey Public Data release.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 427(3). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21684.x · 5.11 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
145.24 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2015
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Korea Aerospace Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute
      • Division of Space Science
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2007
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Kent
      • Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997-1998
    • Pusan National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1990
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1988-1990
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1985
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States