Hyung Mok Lee

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (103)359.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Widefield Infrared Survey for Fe$^+$ (UWIFE) is a 180 deg$^2$ imaging survey of the first Galactic quadrant (7$^{\circ}$ < l < 62$^{\circ}$; |b| < 1.5$^{\circ}$) using a narrow-band filter centered on the [Fe II] 1.644 {\mu}m emission line. The [Fe II] 1.644 {\mu}m emission is a good tracer of dense, shock-excited gas, and the survey will probe violent environments around stars: star-forming regions, evolved stars, and supernova remnants, among others. The UWIFE survey is designed to complement the existing UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2; Froebrich et al. 2011). The survey will also complement existing broad-band surveys. The observed images have a nominal 5{\sigma} detection limit of 18.7 mag for point sources, with the median seeing of 0.83". For extended sources, we estimate surface brightness limit of 8.1 x 10$^{-20}$ W m$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$ . In this paper, we present the overview and preliminary results of this survey.
    06/2014;
  • Yeong-Bok Bae, Chunglee Kim, Hyung Mok Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Performing N-body simulations, we examine the dynamics of black hole-black hole (BH-BH) (10 M☉ each) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) (1.4 M☉ each) binaries formed in a cluster and its implications for gravitational wave detection. A significant fraction of compact binaries are ejected from a globular cluster after core collapse. Among the total number of ejected compact objects, 30 per cent of them are in binaries. Merging time-scales of ejected binaries, which depend on the cluster's velocity dispersion, are in some cases shorter than the age of the Universe. During the merging event, these dynamically formed compact mergers are expected to produce gravitational waves that can be detectable by the advanced ground-based interferometers. Based on our reference assumptions, merger rates of ejected BH-BH and NS-NS binaries per globular cluster are estimated to be 2.5 and 0.27 per Gyr, respectively. Assuming the spatial density of globular clusters to be 8.4 h3 clusters Mpc-3 and extrapolating the merger rate estimates to the horizon distance of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory-Virgo network, we expect the detection rates for BH-BH and NS-NS binaries with cluster origin to be 15 and 0.024 yr-1, respectively. We find out that some of the dynamically formed binaries are ejected with a large escape velocity. They can be responsible for short gamma-ray bursts whose locations are far from host galaxies.
    04/2014; 440(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star-formation activity in these galaxies. The exact nature of this link is still under debate. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows AGN to interact with their host galaxy and regulate star-formation. In this context, we are using a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of the putative link between AGN activity and star-formation. This is done by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We use the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope together with the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. Through SED fitting we constrain both the AGN and host galaxy components. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio-sources ($<$mJy), that increases in power with increasing radio-luminosity. At the highest radio-luminosities, the presence of powerful jets dominates the radio emission of these sources. A positive correlation is found between the luminosity of the AGN component and that of star-formation in the host galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. By contrast, for a given redshift and AGN luminosity, we find that increasing radio-luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star-formation rate. The most radio-loud AGN are found to lie on the main sequence of star-formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, such a two-sided feedback process is seen in the same sample. We conclude that radio jets do suppress star-formation in their host galaxies but appear not to totally quench it. Our results therefore support the maintenance nature of "radio-mode" feedback from radio-AGN jets.
    09/2013; 784(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We present tentative H-alpha emission line detections of four submillimetre-detected galaxies at z>3.5: the radio galaxies 8C1909+722 and 4C60.07 at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 3.1 and 2.5, and two submillimetre-selected galaxies (SMGs) near the first of these at SNRs of 10.0 and 2.4, made with the AKARI Space Telescope as part of the FUHYU mission program. These are the highest-redshift H-alpha detections in such galaxies, made possible by AKARI's unique near-infrared spectroscopic capability. The two radio galaxies had known redshifts and surrounding structure, and we have detected broad H-alpha components indicating the presence of dust-shrouded quasars. We conclude that powerful AGNs at z>3.5 occur in peaks of the star-formation density fields, supporting a close connection between stellar mass build-up and black hole mass assembly at this redshift. We also show that 4C60.07 is a binary AGN. The H-alpha detections of the two SMGs are the first redshift determinations for these sources, confirming their physical association around their companion radio galaxy. The H-alpha-derived star formation rates (SFRs) for the SMGs are lower than their far-infrared derived SFRs by a factor of ~10, suggesting a level of dust obscuration similar to that found in studies at ~1<z<2.7.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Yeong-Bok Bae, Chunglee Kim, Hyung Mok Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Performing N-body simulations, we examine the dynamics of BH-BH (10 Msun each) and NS-NS (1.4 Msun each) binaries formed in a cluster and its implications for gravitational wave detection. A significant fraction of compact binaries are ejected from a globular cluster after core collapse. Among the total number of ejected compact objects, 30 per cent of them are in binaries. Merging time-scales of ejected binaries, which depend on the cluster's velocity dispersion, are in some cases shorter than the age of the universe. During the merging event, these dynamically formed compact mergers are expected to produce gravitational waves that can be detectable by the advanced ground-based interferometers. Based on our reference assumptions, merger rates of ejected BH-BH and NS-NS binaries per globular cluster are estimated to be 2.5 and 0.27 per Gyr, respectively. Assuming the spatial density of globular clusters to be 8.4 h^3 clusters Mpc^-3 and extrapolating the merger rate estimates to the horizon distance of the advanced LIGO-Virgo network, we expect the detection rates for BH-BH and NS-NS binaries with cluster origin are to be 15 and 0.024 yr^-1, respectively. We find out that some of the dynamically formed binaries are ejected with a large escape velocity. They can be responsible for short gamma-ray bursts whose locations are far from host galaxies.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 μm and 15 μm, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M ☉ yr–1. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 08/2013; 207(2):37. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features dominate the mid-infrared spectra of star-forming galaxies and can be useful to calibrate star formation rates (SFRs) and diagnose ionized states of grains. However, the PAH 3.3 {mu}m feature has not been studied as much as other PAH features since it is weaker than others and resides outside of Spitzer capability. In order to detect and calibrate the 3.3 {mu}m PAH emission and investigate its potential as an SFR indicator, we carried out an AKARI mission program, AKARI mJy Unbiased Survey of Extragalactic Sources (AMUSES), and compared its sample with various literature samples. We obtained 2-5 {mu}m low-resolution spectra of 20 flux-limited galaxies with mixed spectral energy distribution classes, which yielded the detection of the 3.3 {mu}m PAH emission from 3 out of 20 galaxies. For the combined sample of AMUSES and literature samples, the 3.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities correlate with the infrared luminosities of star-forming galaxies, albeit with a large scatter (1.5 dex). The correlation appears to break down at the domain of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), and the power of the 3.3 {mu}m PAH luminosity as a proxy for the infrared luminosity is hampered at log[L {sub PAH3.3} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1}] > {approx}42.0. Possible origins for this deviation in the correlation are discussed, including contributions from active galactic nuclei and strongly obscured young stellar objects, and the destruction of PAH molecules in ULIRGs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 760(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the effects of the initial rotation on the evolution of the tidally limited clusters with mass spectrum, we have performed N-body simulations of the clusters with different initial rotations and compared the results with those of the Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations. We confirmed that the cluster evolution is accelerated by not only the initial rotation but also the mass spectrum. For the slowly rotating models, the time evolutions of mass, energy and angular momentum show good agreements between N-body and FP simulations. On the other hand, for the rapidly rotating models, there are significant differences between these two approaches at the early stage of the evolutions because of the development of bar instability in N-body simulations. The shape of the cluster for N-body simulations becomes tri-axial or even prolate, which cannot be produced by the 2-dimensional FP simulations. The total angular momentum and the total mass of the cluster decrease rapidly while bar-like structure persists. After the rotational energy becomes smaller than the critical value for the bar instability, the shape of the cluster becomes nearly axisymmetric again, and follows the evolutionary track predicted by the FP equation. We have confirmed again that the energy equipartiton is not completely achieved when M2/M1(m2>/m1)^(3/2) > 0.16. By examining the angular momentum at each mass component, we found that the exchange of angular momentum between different mass components occurs, similar to the energy exchange leading to the equipartition.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 430(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents emission line detections for four galaxies at z > 3.5 made with AKARI as part of the FUHYU mission program. These are the highest-redshift detections to date in star-forming galaxies. AKARI's unique near-infrared spectroscopic capability has made these detections possible. For two of these galaxies, this represents the first evidence of their redshifts and confirms their physical association with a companion radio galaxy. The star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the lines under-predict the SFRs estimated from their far-infrared luminosities by a factor of ~ 2 - 3. We have also detected broad components in the two radio galaxies which indicate the presence of quasars.
    Publication of Korean Astronomical Society. 11/2012; 27(4):357-360.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a photometric catalog of infrared (IR) sources based on the North Ecliptic PoleWide field (NEP-Wide) survey of AKARI, which is an infrared space telescope launched by Japan. The NEP-Wide survey covered 5.4 deg2 area, a nearly circular shape centered on the North Ecliptic Pole, using nine photometric filter-bands from 2 - 25 {\mu}m of the Infrared Camera (IRC). Extensive efforts were made to reduce possible false objects due to cosmic ray hits, multiplexer bleeding phenomena around bright sources, and other artifacts. The number of detected sources varied depending on the filter band: with about 109,000 sources being cataloged in the near-IR bands at 2 - 5 {\mu}m, about 20,000 sources in the shorter parts of the mid-IR bands between 7 - 11 {\mu}m, and about 16,000 sources in the longer parts of the mid-IR bands, with \sim 4,000 sources at 24 {\mu}m. The estimated 5? detection limits are approximately 21 magnitude (mag) in the 2 - 5 {\mu}m bands, 19.5 - 19 mag in the 7 - 11 {\mu}m, and 18.8 - 18.5 mag in the 15 - 24 {\mu}m bands in the AB magnitude scale. The completenesses for those bands were evaluated as a function of magnitude: the 50% completeness limits are about 19.8 mag at 3 {\mu}m, 18.6 mag at 9 {\mu}m, and 18 mag at 18 {\mu}m band, respectively. To construct a reliable source catalog, all of the detected sources were examined by matching them with those in other wavelength data, including optical and ground-based near-IR bands. The final band-merged catalog contains about 114,800 sources detected in the IRC filter bands. The properties of the sources are presented in terms of the distributions in various color-color diagrams.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of a deep 20 cm radio survey at 20 cm are reported of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) near the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP), using the Australia Telescope Compact Array telescope, ATCA. The survey has 1 sigma detection limits ranging from 18.7--50 microJy per beam over an area of ~1.1 sq degrees, and ~2.5 sq degrees to lower sensitivity. The observations, data reduction and source count analysis are presented, along with a description of the overall scientific objectives, and a catalogue containing 530 radio sources detected with a resolution of 6.2" x 4.9". The derived differential source counts show a pronounced excess of sources fainter than ~1 mJy, consistent with an emerging population of star forming galaxies. Cross-correlating the radio with AKARI sources and archival data we find 95 cross matches, with most galaxies having optical R-magnitudes in the range 18-24 mag, and 52 components lying within 1" of a radio position in at least one further catalogue (either IR or optical). We have reported redshifts for a sub-sample of our catalogue finding that they vary between galaxies in the local universe to those having redshifts of up to 0.825. Associating the radio sources with the Spitzer catalogue at 24 microns, we find 173 matches within one Spitzer pixel, of which a small sample of the identifications are clearly radio loud compared to the bulk of the galaxies. The radio luminosity plot and a colour-colour analysis suggest that the majority of the radio sources are in fact luminous star forming galaxies, rather than radio-loud AGN. There are additionally five cross matches between ASTE or BLAST submillimetre galaxies and radio sources from this survey, two of which are also detected at 90 microns, and 41 cross-matches with submillimetre sources detected in the Herschel HerMES survey Public Data release.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 427(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We develop a numerical hydrodynamics code using a pseudo-Newtonian formulation that uses the weak field approximation for the geometry, and a generalized source term for the Poisson equation that takes into account relativistic effects. The code was designed to treat moderately relativistic systems such as rapidly rotating neutron stars. The hydrodynamic equations are solved using a finite volume method with High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) techniques. We implement several different slope limiters for second order reconstruction schemes and also investigate higher order reconstructions. We use the method of lines (MoL) to convert the mixed spatial-time partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that depend only on time. These ODEs are solved using 2nd and 3rd order Runge-Kutta methods. The Poisson equation for the gravitational potential is solved with a multigrid method. In order to confirm the validity of our code, we carry out four different tests including one and two dimensional shock tube tests, stationary star tests of both non-rotating and rotating models and radial oscillation mode tests for spherical stars. In the shock tube tests, the code shows good agreement with analytic solutions which include shocks, rarefaction waves and contact discontinuities. The code is found to be stable and accurate: for example, when solving a stationary stellar model the fractional changes in the maximum density, total mass, and total angular momentum per dynamical time are found to be $3 \times 10^{-6}$, $5 \times 10^{-7}$ and $2 \times 10^{-6}$, respectively. We also find that the frequencies of the radial modes obtained by the numerical simulation of the steady state star agree very well with those obtained by linear analysis.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2012; 424(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of galaxies within a supercluster in the north ecliptic pole region at z ~ 0.087 observed with the AKARI satellite. We use data from the AKARI NEP-Wide (5.4 deg2) IR survey and the CLusters of galaxies EVoLution studies (CLEVL) mission program. We show that near-IR (3 μm)-mid-IR (11 μm) color can be used as an indicator of the specific star formation rate and the presence of intermediate-age stellar populations. From the MIR observations, we find that red-sequence galaxies consist not only of passively evolving red early-type galaxies, but also of (1) "weak-SFGs" (disk-dominated star-forming galaxies that have star formation rates lower by ~4 × than blue-cloud galaxies) and (2) "intermediate-MXGs" (bulge-dominated galaxies showing stronger MIR dust emission than normal red early-type galaxies). These two populations can be a set of transition galaxies from blue, star-forming, late-type galaxies evolving into red, quiescent, early-type ones. We find that the weak-SFGs are predominant at intermediate masses (1010 M ☉ < M * < 1010.5 M ☉) and are typically found in local densities similar to the outskirts of galaxy clusters. As much as 40% of the supercluster member galaxies in this mass range can be classified as weak-SFGs, but their proportion decreases to <10% at larger masses (M * > 1010.5 M ☉) at any galaxy density. The fraction of the intermediate-MXG among red-sequence galaxies at 1010 M ☉ < M * < 1011 M ☉ also decreases as the density and mass increase. In particular, ~42% of the red-sequence galaxies with early-type morphologies are classified as intermediate-MXGs at intermediate densities. These results suggest that the star formation activity is strongly dependent on the stellar mass, but that the morphological transformation is mainly controlled by the environment.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 745(2):181. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By cross-correlating the AKARI all-sky survey in six infrared (IR) bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 μm) with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies, we identified 2357 IR galaxies with a spectroscopic redshift. This is not just one of the largest samples of local IR galaxies, but AKARI provides crucial far-IR (FIR) bands for accurately measuring the galaxy spectral energy distribution (SED) across the peak of the dust emission at > 100 μ m. By fitting modern IR SED models to the AKARI photometry, we measured the total infrared luminosity (LIR) of individual galaxies.Using this LIR, we constructed the luminosity functions (LF) of IR galaxies at a median redshift of z= 0.031. The LF agrees well with that at z= 0.0082 (the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample), showing smooth and continuous evolution towards higher redshift LFs measured in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field. By integrating the IR LF weighted by LIR, we measured the local cosmic IR luminosity density of ΩIR= (3.8+5.8−1.2) × 108 L⊙ Mpc−3. We separate galaxies into active galactic nuclei (AGN), star-forming galaxies (SFG) and composite by using the [N ii]/Hα versus [O iii]/Hβ line ratios. The fraction of AGN shows a continuous increase with increasing LIR from 25 to 90 per cent at 9 < log LIR < 12.5. The SFRHα and show good correlations with LIR for SFG and AGN, respectively. The self-absorption-corrected Hα/Hβ ratio shows a weak increase with LIR with a substantial scatter. When we separate IR LFs into contributions from AGN and SFG, the AGN contribution becomes dominant at LIR > 1011 L⊙, coinciding with the break of both the SFG and AGN IR LFs. At LIR≤ 1011 L⊙, SFG dominates IR LFs. Only 1.1 ± 0.1 per cent of ΩIR is produced by luminous infrared galaxies (LIR > 1011 L⊙), and only 0.03 ± 0.01 per cent by ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIR > 1012 L⊙) in the local Universe. Compared with high-redshift results from the AKARI NEP deep survey, we observed a strong evolution of ΩSFGIR∝ (1 +z)4.1±0.4 and ΩAGNIR∝ (1 +z)4.1±0.5. Our results show that all of our measured quantities (IR LFs, L*, ΩAGNIR, ΩSFGIR) show smooth and steady increase from lower redshift (the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample) to higher redshift (the AKARI NEP deep survey).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2011; 414(3):1903 - 1913. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Ilsang Yoon, Hyung Mok Lee, Jongsuk Hong
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    ABSTRACT: Isothermal and self-gravitating systems bound by non-conducting and conducting walls are known to be unstable if the density contrast between the center and the boundary exceeds critical values. We investigate the equilibrium and dynamical evolution of isothermal and self-gravitating system embedded in potential well, which can be the situation of many astrophysical objects such as the central parts of the galaxies, or clusters of galaxies with potential dominated by dark matter, but is still limited to the case where the potential well is fixed during the evolution. As the ratio between the depth of surrounding potential well and potential of embedded system becomes large, the potential well becomes effectively the same boundary condition as conducting wall, which behaves like a thermal heat bath. We also use the direct N-body simulation code, NBODY6 to simulate the dynamical evolution of stellar system embedded in potential wells and propose the equilibrium models for this system. In deep potential well, which is analogous to the heat bath with high temperature, the embedded self-gravitating system is dynamically hot, and loosely bound or can be unbound since the kinetic energy increases due to the heating by the potential well. On the other hand, the system undergoes core collapse by self-gravity when potential well is shallow. Binary heating can stop the collapse and leads to the expansion, but the evolution is very slow because the potential as a heat bath can absorb the energy generated by the binaries. The system can be regarded as quasi-static. Density and velocity dispersion profiles from the N-body simulations in the final quasi-equilibrium state are similar to our equilibrium models assumed to be in thermal equilibrium with the potential well.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2011; 414. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By cross-correlating AKARI infrared (IR) sources with the SDSS galaxies, we identified 2357 infrared galaxies with a spectroscopic redshift. This is not just one of the largest samples of local IR galaxies, but AKARI provides crucial FIR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160um) in accurately measuring galaxy SED across the peak of the dust emission at ~100um. By fitting modern IR SED models to the AKARI photometry, we measured the total infrared luminosity (L_IR) of individual galaxies more accurately. Using this L_IR, we constructed luminosity functions of infrared galaxies at a median redshift of z=0.031, with 4 times larger sample than previous work. The LF agrees well with that at z=0.0082 (RBGS), showing smooth and continuous evolution toward higher redshift LFs measured in the AKARI NEP deep field. The derived local cosmic IR luminosity density is Omega_IR=3.8x10^8 LsunMpc^-3. We separate galaxies into AGN, star-forming, and composite by using the [NII]/Ha vs [OIII]/Hb line ratios. The fraction of AGN shows a continuous increase with increasing L_IR from 25% to 90% at 9<log L_IR<12.5. The SFR_Ha and L_[OIII] show good correlations with L_IR for SFG (star-forming galaxies) and AGN, respectively. The self-absorption corrected Ha/Hb ratio shows a weak increase with L_IR with a substantial scatter. When we separate IR LFs into contributions from AGN and SFG, the AGN contribution becomes dominant at L_IR>10^11Lsun, coinciding the break of the both SFG and AGN IR LFs. At L_IR<10^11Lsun, SFG dominates IR Lfs. Only 1.1% of Omega_IR is produced by LIRG, and only 0.03% is by ULIRG in the local Universe. This work also provides the most accurate infrared luminosity density of the local Universe to date. Compared with high redshift results from the AKARI NEP deep survey, we observed a strong evolution of Omega_IR^SFG ~(1+z)^4.1+-0.4 and Omega_IR^AGN ~(1+z)^4.1+-0.5 (abridged).
    02/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, A2255, by the AKARI space telescope. Using AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3 and 24 μm and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (~11 μm) flux is a good indicator for discriminating galaxies at different evolutionary stages and for dividing galaxies into three classes accordingly: strong MIR-excess (N3 – S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies; weak MIR-excess (–2.0 < N3 – S11 < –1.2) galaxies that are quiescent, old (>5 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars; and intermediate MIR-excess (–1.2 < N3 – S11 < 0.2) galaxies in between the two classes that are less than a few Gyr old past the prime star formation activity. With the MIR-excess diagnostics, we investigate how local and cluster-scale environments affect the individual galaxies. We derive the total star formation rate (SFR) and the specific SFR of A2255 using the strong MIR-excess galaxies. The dust-free, total SFR of A2255 is ~130 M ☉ yr–1, which is consistent with the SFRs of other clusters of galaxies at similar redshifts and with similar masses. We find no strong evidence that supports enhanced star formation either inside the cluster or in the substructure region, suggesting that the infall or the cluster merging activities tend to suppress star formation. The intermediate MIR-excess galaxies, representing galaxies in transition from star-forming galaxies to quiescent galaxies, are located preferentially at the medium density region or cluster substructures with higher surface density of galaxies. Our findings suggest that galaxies are being transformed from star-forming galaxies into red, quiescent galaxies from the infall region through near the core which can be explained well by ram-pressure stripping as previous simulation results suggest. We conclude that the cluster merging and the group/galaxy infall suppress star formation and transform galaxies from star-forming galaxies into quiescent galaxies, most likely due to ram-pressure stripping.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2010; 727(1):14. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, Abell 2255 by the AKARI space telescope. Using the AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3-24 micron and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (11 micron) flux is a good indicator to discriminate galaxies at different evolutionary stages, and divide galaxies into three classes accordingly : strong MIR-excess (N3-S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies, weak MIR-excess (-2.0<N3-S11<-1.2) galaxies that are quiescent, old (>5 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars, and intermediate MIR-excess (-1.2<N3-S11<0.2) galaxies in between the two classes that are less than a few Gyrs old past the prime star formation activity. With the MIR-excess diagnostics, we investigate how local and cluster-scale environments affect the individual galaxies. We derive the total star formation rate of ~130 Msun/yr for A2255 using the strong MIR-excess galaxies, which is consistent with other clusters of galaxies at similar redshifts and with similar masses. We find no strong evidence that supports enhanced star formation neither inside the cluster nor in the substructure region. The intermediate MIR-excess galaxies, representing galaxies in transition from star-forming galaxies to quiescent galaxies, are located preferentially at the medium density region or cluster substructures. Our findings suggest that galaxies are being transformed from star-forming galaxies into red, quiescent galaxies from the infall region through near the core, which can be well-explained by the ram-pressure stripping as previous simulation suggests. Comment: to appear in the Astrophysical Journal, January 1, 2011 issue
    11/2010;
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    Jae Sok Oh, Hongsu Kim, Hyung Mok Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Ever since the first discovery of Poynting and Robertson, the radiation source has been treated as merely a point. Even in a very few studies where the size of the source has been taken into account, the treatment of the problem remained largely non-relativistic. In the present work, we address the issue of the finite size effects on the Poynting-Robertson effect in a fully relativistic manner for the first time. As a result, the emergence and the characteristic of the critical point/suspension orbit can be studied in a systematic and detailed manner. Comment: 11pages, 3figures
    New Astronomy 11/2010; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    Jae Sok Oh, Hongsu Kim, Hyung Mok Lee
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    ABSTRACT: As a sequel to our recent works challenging toward the systematic inclusion of the effect of radiation on the trajectory of a test particle orbiting around a luminous spinning relativistic star eventually aiming at its application to the accretion flow. We explore in the present work the fine structure of the trajectory of test particle just entering the ``suspension orbit" under the purpose of a detailed investigation of test particle's trajectory in the vicinity of the ``suspension orbit". We end up with a rather puzzling behavior that, contrary to our expectation, the specific angular momentum of the test particle instantly rises instead of decreasing monotonically just before the test particle enters the ``suspension orbit". Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures
    11/2010;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
359.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Kangwon National University
      • Department of Science Education
      Kang-neung, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2004
    • University of Kent
      • Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–1998
    • Pusan National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1987–1989
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada