[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FRA16D fragile site gene WWOX is a tumor suppressor that participates in p53-mediated apoptosis. The c-jun N-terminal kinase JNK1 interacts with WWOX and inhibits apoptosis. We investigated the function of WWOX in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the effect of JNK inhibition on WWOX-mediated apoptosis.
Allelic imbalance on chromosome 16 was analyzed in 73 HCCs using 53 microsatellite markers. WWOX mRNA in HCC cell lines and primary HCCs was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Effects of WWOX on proliferation and apoptosis and the interaction between WWOX and JNK inhibition were examined.
Loss on chromosome 16 occurred in 34 of 73 HCCs. Of 11 HCC cell lines, 2 had low, 7 intermediate, and 2 had high WWOX mRNA. Of 51 primary tumors, 23 had low WWOX mRNA. Forced expression of WWOX in SNU387 cells decreased FGF2-mediated proliferation and enhanced apoptosis induced by staurosporine and the JNK inhibitor SP600129. Conversely, knockdown of WWOX in SNU449 cells using shRNA targeting WWOX increased proliferation and resistance to SP600129-induced apoptosis.
WWOX induces apoptosis and inhibits human HCC cell growth through a mechanism enhanced by JNK inhibition.
Journal of Hepatology 07/2008; 49(3):373-83. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2008.05.015 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we cloned a novel sulfatase domain-containing downregulated gene, HSulf-1, which modulates heparin-binding growth factor signaling in ovarian cancer. Based on the pilot data showing the loss of HSulf-1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SCCHN), we sought to employ SCCHN as a model to define the role of HSulf-1 in the molecular regulation of tumorigenicity. Three SCCHN lines (012SCC, WMMSCC, and 015SCC) had no detectable HSulf-1 mRNA. Clonal lines of HSulf-1-expressing 012SCC attenuated the activation of ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling mediated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and both ERK/MAPK and Akt signaling mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Consistent with this downregulation, phosphorylation of HGF receptor, c-Met, which is frequently overexpressed in SCCHN, was also attenuated in HSulf-1 clonal 012SCC cell lines. HGF markedly enhanced the motility and migration of vector-transfected cells in a transwell invasion chamber. However, HGF-mediated motility and invasion was attenuated in HSulf-1 clonal 012SCC cell lines. In addition, transfected cells displayed significant growth inhibition concomitant with a decrease in mitogenicity, as measured by thymidine incorporation and increased sensitivity to staurosporine- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that HSulf-1 normally functions as a negative regulator in cell growth and loss of HSulf-1 in SCCHN potentiates growth factor signaling, enhances motility, invasiveness and inhibits stress-induced apoptosis, with a resulting increase in tumorigenicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heparin-binding growth factors fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are potent mitogens for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Heparin-binding growth factor signaling is regulated by sulfation of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). We hypothesized that hSulf1, a recently described sulfatase, regulates growth signaling in HCCs.
Expression of hSulf1 in human HCC tumors was determined by real-time PCR. Down-regulation of hSulf1 expression was investigated by analyzing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the hSulf1 locus and the effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine on hSulf1 expression. The subcellular location of hSulf1 and sulfation state of cell-surface HSPGs were assessed by immunocytochemistry. FGF and HGF signaling was examined by phospho-specific immunoblot analysis. Cell growth was measured by trypan blue exclusion, and the MTT assay and apoptosis were quantitated by fluorescence microscopy.
hSulf1 expression was decreased in 29% of HCCs and 82% of HCC cell lines. There was LOH at the hSulf1 locus in 42% of HCCs. Treatment with 5-aza-deoxycytidine reactivated hSulf1 expression in hSulf1-negative cell lines. Low hSulf1-expressing cells showed increased sulfation of cell-surface HSPGs, enhanced FGF and HGF-mediated signaling, and increased HCC cell growth. Conversely, forced expression of hSulf1 decreased sulfation of cell-surface HSPGs and abrogated growth signaling. HCC cells with high-level hSulf1 expression were sensitive to staurosporine- or cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas low expressing cells were resistant. Transfection of hSulf1 into hSulf1-negative cells restored staurosporine and cisplatin sensitivity.
Down-regulation of hSulf1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing heparin-binding growth factor signaling and resistance to apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic infections with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cervical cancer (CC), respectively. HBV and HPV are DNA viruses that almost invariably integrate into the host genome in invasive tumors. The viral integration sites occur throughout the genome, leading to the presumption that there are no preferred sites of integration. A number of viral integrations have been shown to occur within the vicinity of important cancer-related genes. In studies of HBV-induced HCC and HPV-induced CC, we have identified two HBV and three HPV integrations into the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. Detailed characterization of the integrations revealed that four integrations occurred within the hTERT promoter and upstream region and the fifth integration occurred in intron 3 of the hTERT gene. None of the integrations altered the hTERT coding sequence and all resulted in juxtaposition of viral enhancers near hTERT, with potential activation of hTERT expression. Our work supports the hypothesis that the sites of oncogenic viral integration are nonrandom and that genes at the sites of viral integration may play important roles in carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of microsatellite instability (MSI) in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is incompletely defined. Although high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) is infrequently seen in HCC, some studies have suggested a role for MSI in HCC development. While MSI has been clearly defined for a subset of tumors, in particular colorectal, gastric and endometrial cancers, generally accepted criteria have not been developed for other tumors. Colorectal cancers (CRC) are classified as MSI-H if >30-40% of >5 microsatellite loci analyzed show instability. The MSI-H phenotype is associated with defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and is observed in the majority of tumors from patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) and also in 15% of sporadic CRCs. Inactivating mutations of the hMLH1 or hMSH2 genes lead to defects in MMR in HNPCC. In sporadic CRCs, MMR is usually due to hypermethylation of the hMLH-1 promoter. The role of defective MMR in hepatocellular carcinogenesis is controversial. Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 and hMSH2 reliably indicates hMLH1 or hMSH2 loss in MSI-H CRC tumors. To investigate the role of defective MMR in HCC carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 and hMSH2 on 36 HCCs. BAT26, a microsatellite marker that reliably predicts MSI-H was also examined. All 36 of the tumors stained positively for both hMLH1 and hMSH2, strongly suggesting an absence of either inactivating mutations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 or promoter hypermethylation of hMLH1. None of the tumors showed MSI at the BAT26 locus. These findings suggest that defective MMR does not contribute significantly to hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
International Journal of Oncology 09/2001; 19(3):567-70. DOI:10.3892/ijo.19.3.567 · 3.03 Impact Factor