Esther Robison

Montefiore Medical Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (29)146.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Normal lipid metabolism and functioning of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the sebaceous gland is critical to maintaining a normal hair follicle. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects lipid metabolism; some have hypothesized a link between PPAR-gamma function and lipodystrophy in HIV infection. Our objective was to determine whether lipodystrophy is associated with altered hair characteristics in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Hair characteristics and scalp inflammation were assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Central lipohypertrophy and peripheral lipoatrophy were defined by self-report of moderate to severe fat gain in central body sites and fat loss in peripheral body sites, respectively confirmed by clinical examination. Additional covariates considered in the analyses included demographics, behavioral characteristics, medical history, and HIV-related factors. There were 1037 women with data on all study variables; 76 women reported central lipohypertrophy, while only four women reported lipoatrophy. Women with central lipohypertrophy were more likely to be older, had a self-reported history of injection drug use, statin medication use, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and have self-reported less hair and shorter eyelashes. After adjustment for age, central lipohypertrophy was associated with shorter eyelashes (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.8). Central lipohypertrophy was not associated with change in scalp hair texture or scalp inflammation in this cohort. Rather, we found an association between central lipohypertrophy and shorter eyelash length. This finding may be explained by an influence of prostaglandin E2 mediators on eyelash follicles.
    International journal of dermatology 06/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal in this study was to examine how Vitamin C interacts with antiretroviral therapy in individuals with HIV. We specifically evaluated how Vitamin C impacts highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence and HAART effectiveness as adjudicated by HIV viral loads and CD4 cell counts. Women served as their own controls, comparing periods of Vitamin C usage with periods of non-usage. An intra-individual, cross-sectional comparative study 'nested' in the WIHS observational cohort study. Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Adherence, CD4 count and viral load. Our study population was drawn from 2813 HIV+ participants who contributed 44,588 visits in WIHS from October, 1994 to April, 2009. Among them, there were 1122 Vitamin C users with 4954 total visits where use was reported. In the multivariate model adjusting for age, education, race, income, drug use, Vitamin C use order and depression score, there was a 44% increase in the odds of ≥ 95% HAART adherence among participants during their period of Vitamin C use compared to when they were not using Vitamin C (OR=1.44; 95% CI=1.1-1.9; P-value=0.0179). There was an association with Vitamin C usage and CD4 counts on viral loads. Vitamin C usage appears to be associated with improved adherence. Future Vitamin C studies should target specific HAART drugs, and prospective clinical outcomes.
    Complementary therapies in medicine 08/2012; 20(4):222-7. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals frequently have consumed garlic, a popular complementary supplement. Researchers rarely have studied garlic's association with antiretroviral therapies, however, even though that association is very relevant clinically. To examine associations of supplemental use of garlic with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) adherence level and HAART effectiveness (HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts) in HIV-infected women. The research team carried out a self-controlled, longitudinal study nested within the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The team used a paired study design that allowed participants to serve as their own controls. The team first identified all of the studies visits in which the participant self-reported the use of a garlic supplement since her last visit (index visit). Then for each index visit, the team identified a matching visit (a control visit) using the following criteria: (a) the visit must be one for the same participant in which that participant reported no garlic supplementation; (b) the visit must immediately precede the index visit (less than 1 year apart); and (c) at the time of the control visit, the participant must have been using antiretroviral therapy identical to that used at the time of the index visit. Participants were persons using garlic supplementation who already were participants in the WIHS. The research team used a logistic regression model to examine the association between garlic supplementation and HAART adherence level. The team used a mixed linear model to examine the association of garlic supplementation with HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. From October 1994 to April 2009, 390 HIV-infected women in the WIHS made 1112 visits at which they reported using garlic supplements. Seventy-seven HIV-infected women using HAART met the research teams selection criteria and contributed 99 pairs of visits for the study. Among the women who used garlic supplements, 22% were 50 years and older; 58% were black and non-Hispanic; and 23% had less than a high-school education. Neither use of garlic supplementation nor reasons for using garlic supplements were significantly associated with the HAART adherence level, HIV viral load, or CD4+ cell counts; however, use garlic as needed, a potential marker of a disease state, was significantly associated with higher viral load (P=.0003). Short-term garlic supplementation did not impact HAART adherence level, HIV viral load, and CD4+ cell counts.
    Alternative therapies in health and medicine 01/2012; 18(1):18-22. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 10/2011; 33(8):853-63. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two of the most pressing public health challenges in the United States are treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and illegal substance use. High rates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use have been reported by individuals who suffer from both of these diseases. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between CAM use and illegal substance use in a cohort of women with HIV or at risk for HIV disease. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that CAM use may decrease substance use. This was a longitudinal cohort study. The subjects comprised Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Outcome measures: The role of CAM use in illegal substance use was examined. Due to the hierarchical structure of the dataset, logistic regression analysis adjusting for repeated measurements (generalized estimating equation model) was carried out to assess associations of CAM use and illicit drug use. There were 2176 women included in the analysis. After excluding for marijuana use, CAM use was associated with less drug use (odds ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.90). The results supported our hypothesis that CAM users are more health conscious and thus less likely to use illicit drugs. Future studies should target both specific drugs and CAM modalities to help finalize this association.
    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 09/2010; 16(9):989-93. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare sexual problems among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and describe clinical and psychosocial factors associated with these problems. Data were collected during a study visit of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The WIHS studies the natural and treated history of HIV among women in the United States. Between October 01, 2006, and March 30, 2007, 1805 women (1279 HIV positive and 526 HIV negative) completed a study visit that included administration of the Female Sexual Function Index. In addition, the visit included completion of standardized interviewer-administered surveys, physical and gynecological examinations, and blood sample collection. Women with HIV reported greater sexual problems than did those without HIV. Women also reported lower sexual function if they were classified as menopausal, had symptoms indicative of depression, or if they reported not being in a relationship. CD4 cell count was associated with Female Sexual Function Index scores, such that those with CD4 <or=199 cells per microliter reported lower functioning as compared with those whose cell count was 200 or higher. Given research documenting relationships between self-reported sexual problems and both clinical diagnoses of sexual dysfunction and women's quality of life, greater attention to this issue as a potential component of women's overall HIV care is warranted.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2010; 54(4):360-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-associated immune injury is hypothesized to increase the risk of preclinical disability and frailty via inflammatory pathways. We investigated the role of CD4+ T cell depletion and clinical AIDS on preclinical disability and frailty in HIV-positive women with a history of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and HIV-negative women. This was a cross-sectional study nested within the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study initiated in 1994 across five U.S. cities. Questionnaires and tests were performed by 573 HIV-negative and 1206 HIV-positive women. Prevalence ratios were computed using regression models. Severe CD4+ cell depletion was an independent predictor of slowness, weakness, and frailty in HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. Women with CD4+ counts<100 cells/mm3 were 0.13 seconds slower to complete 4 meters (95% CI 0.06-0.21), 1.25 kg weaker (95% CI -2.31--0.19), and had 2.7 times higher prevalence of frailty (95% CI 1.46-5.01). This study is one of the largest studies to administer performance-based tests to investigate disability and frailty in HIV-positive women. HIV-positive women with intact immune systems and without a history of clinical AIDS were no different from HIV-negative women on tests of slowness, weakness, and frailty phenotype.
    Journal of Women's Health 12/2009; 18(12):1965-74. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use disclosure to health care providers and whether CAM use disclosure is associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence among HIV-infected women, we analyzed longitudinal data collected between October 1994 and March 2002 from HIV-infected CAM-using women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Repeated measures Poisson regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of selected predictors with CAM use disclosure and association between CAM use disclosure and HAART adherence. A total of 1,377 HIV-infected women reported CAM use during study follow-up and contributed a total of 4,689 CAM-using person visits. The overall prevalence of CAM use disclosure to health care providers was 36% across study visits. Women over 45 years old, with a college education, or with health insurance coverage were more likely to disclose their CAM use to health care providers, whereas women identified as non-Hispanic Black or other ethnicities were less likely to communicate their CAM usage. More health care provider visits, more CAM domains used, and higher health care satisfaction scores had significant relationships with increased levels of CAM use disclosure. Restricting analysis to use of herbal or nonherbal medications only, similar results were obtained. Compared to other CAM domains, mind-body practice had the lowest prevalence of CAM use disclosure. Additionally, CAM use disclosure was significantly associated with higher HAART adherence. From this study, we showed that a high percentage of HIV-infected women did not discuss their CAM use with health care providers. Interventions targeted towards both physicians and patients may enhance communication of CAM use, avoid potential adverse events and drug interactions, and enhance HAART adherence.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 10/2009; 23(11):965-71. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to assess study retention and attendance for two recruitment waves of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The WIHS, a prospective study at six clinical centers in the United States, has experienced two phases of participant recruitment. In phase one, women were screened and enrolled at the same time, and in phase two, women were screened and enrolled at separate visits. Compliance with study follow-up was evaluated by examining semiannual study retention and visit attendance. After 10 study visits, the retention rate in the original recruits (enrolled in 1994-1995) was 83% for the HIV-infected women and 69% for the HIV-uninfected women compared with 86% and 86%, respectively, in the new recruits (enrolled in 2001-2002). In logistic regression analysis of the HIV-infected women, factors associated with early (visits 2 and 3) nonattendance were temporary housing, moderate alcohol consumption, use of crack/cocaine/heroin, having a primary care provider, WIHS site of enrollment, lower CD4 cell count, and higher viral load. Among HIV-uninfected women, the factors associated with early nonattendance were recruitment into the original cohort, household income >or=$12,000 per year, temporary housing, unemployment, use of crack/cocaine/heroin, and WIHS site of enrollment. Factors associated with nonattendance at later visits (7-10) among HIV-infected participants were younger age, white race, not having a primary care provider, not having health insurance, WIHS site of enrollment, higher viral load, and nonattendance at a previous visit. In HIV-uninfected participants, younger age, white race, WIHS site of enrollment, and nonattendance at a previous visit were significantly associated with nonattendance at later visits. Preventing early loss to follow-up resulted in better study retention early, but late loss to follow-up may require different retention strategies.
    Journal of Women's Health 09/2009; 18(10):1627-37. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to describe the association that childcare burden, household composition, and health care utilization have with adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among women in the United States. The primary outcome was 95% or more adherence to HAART evaluated at 10,916 semiannual visits between October 1998 and March 2006 among 1419 HIV-infected participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. HAART adherence levels of 95% or more were reported at 76% of the semiannual visits. At only 4% of the person-visits did women report either quite a bit or extreme difficulty in caring for child; at 52% of the person-visits women reported at least one child 18 years of age or older living in the household. We found a one-unit increase in the difficulty in caring for children (childcare burden was assessed on a 5-point scale: not difficult [1] to extremely difficult [5]) was associated with a 6% decreased odds of 95% or more HAART adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.94; p = 0.07). Each additional child 18 years of age or less living in the household was associated with an 8% decreased odds of 95% or more adherence (adjusted OR = 0.92, p = 0.03). Both the number and type of adult living in the household, as well as health care utilization were not associated with HAART adherence. Greater child care burden and number of children 18 years old or younger living in household were both inversely associated with HAART adherence. Assessing patients' difficulties in caring for children and household composition are important factors to consider when addressing adherence to HAART.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 03/2009; 23(4):289-96. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether living with children adversely affects adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1998 and September 2005. The study outcome was > or = 95% adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy evaluated at 5832 semiannual visits among 1366 HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The primary exposure defined at the visit immediately before outcome ascertainment was the number of children < or = 18 years of age reported living in the household. The percentage of women who reported > or = 2 children in the household who also reported > or = 95% adherence ranged from 68% to 75% compared with adherence when either 1 child or no children were reported. Each additional child reported living in the household was associated with a 6% decrease in the odds of > or = 95% adherence. The impact of living with a child on the ability to take medications by HIV-infected women has not been examined thoroughly. Our data suggest that adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy is inversely associated with the number of children living in the household.
    PEDIATRICS 05/2008; 121(4):e787-93. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and childbearing before and after the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Enrollment in the Women's Interagency HIV study took place in 1994-1995 (pre-HAART era) and again in 2001-2002 (HAART era). Live birth rates prior to enrollment were compared between treatment era cohorts for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women aged 15-44 years using Poisson regression. For HIV-infected women, we included live births between HIV diagnosis date and study entry; the HAART era cohort included only women diagnosed with HIV in 1996 and afterward. Among HIV-infected women, the HAART era live birth rate was 150% higher than in the pre-HAART era (P = .001) vs a 5% increase among HIV-uninfected women. The rate of increase in live birth rate was higher for women > or = 35 years old (vs younger than 25 years, P = .02), and with more than a high school education (vs. less than high school, P = .05). The availability of effective therapeutic interventions has had a profound impact on child-bearing among HIV-infected women.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 07/2007; 196(6):541.e1-6. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the sexual behavior of HIV-positive women within new versus more established relationships and determines whether beliefs about HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) impact these behaviors. The Women's Interagency HIV Study is a longitudinal cohort study of HIV among women in the United States. Sexually active HIV-positive women (N = 1,090) completed interviews on beliefs and behaviors at 6-month intervals. Data were analyzed for the period between April 2002 and March 2003. Of 1,517 sexual partners reported, 32% were newly acquired within the previous 6 months. As compared with more established sexual relationships, newer partnerships were characterized by greater condom use consistency (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 -2.3). Holding beliefs that ART is protective for HIV transmission impacted the relationship between partner type and condom use. In established relationships, 63% reported consistent condom use if they believed that ART is not protective, whereas 54% reported consistent condom use if they believed that ART is protective. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of ongoing support for sexual risk reduction among women with HIV-infection and for strategies that reduce the strength of relationships between ART beliefs and sexual risk behavior.
    AIDS Education and Prevention 05/2007; 19(2):151-9. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-related quality of life (QOL) of HIV-1 infected individuals in large prospective cohorts has not been well studied. To assess the effect of HAART on QOL by comparing HIV-infected women using HAART with HIV-infected women remaining HAART naïve in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multicenter prospective cohort study begun in 1994 in the US. A 1:1 matching with equivalent (<or= 0.1%) propensity scores for predicting HAART initiation was implemented and 458 pairs were obtained. HAART effects were assessed using pattern mixture models. The changes of nine QOL domain scores and one summary score derived from a shortened version of the MOS-HIV from initial values were used as study outcomes. The background covariates of the treatment groups were well-balanced after propensity score matching. The 916 matched subjects had a mean age of 38.5 years and 42% had a history of AIDS diagnosis. The participants contributed a total of 4,292 person visits with a median follow-up time of 4 years. In the bivariate analyses with only HAART use and time as covariates, HAART was associated with short-term improvements of 4 QOL domains: role functioning, social functioning, pain and perceived health index. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, biological and clinical variables, HAART had small but significant short-term improvements on changes in summary QOL (mean change: 3.25; P = 0.02), role functioning (6.99; P < 0.01), social functioning (5.74; P < 0.01), cognitive functioning (3.59; P = 0.03), pain (6.73; P < 0.01), health perception (3.67; P = 0.03) and perceived health index (4.87; P < 0.01). These QOL scores typically remained stable or declined over additional follow-up and there was no indication that HAART modified these trends. Our study demonstrated significant short-term HAART effects on most QOL domains, but additional use of HAART did not modify long-term trends. These changes could be attributed to the direct effect of HAART and indirect HAART effect mediated through clinical changes.
    AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2006; 3:6. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is an ongoing long-term observational study of 3,772 women who are either infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or consid- ered to be at risk for acquiring HIV. Since 1994, the WIHS (pronounced like "wise") has developed a large database and specimen repository that serve as resources for WIHS investi- gators as well as for nonaffiliated researchers working on HIV- related or HIV coinfection issues. The purpose of this report is to update researchers on the progress of the WIHS and to provide information on WIHS resources, the methods by which they were obtained, and background for any new poten- tial researchers interested in conducting collaborative research through shared use of these resources. BACKGROUND
    Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 10/2005; 12(9):1013-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the frequency of diabetes, prediabetes, and insulin resistance among a subset of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Cross-sectional substudy nested within a prospective multicenter cohort study. Women underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing. Diagnoses of diabetes and prediabetes were made according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, and insulin resistance was determined by area under the curve insulin and homeostasis model assessment values. Six urban clinical sites in the United States (Brooklyn, NY; Bronx, NY; Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; Los Angeles, CA) participate in the entire WIHS. The Bronx, NY, and San Francisco, CA, WIHS sites participated in this substudy. A total of 258 women, 88 HIV negative, 74 HIV positive not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 96 HIV positive taking HAART were enrolled in the study. Prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, and insulin resistance was compared among the HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. The frequency of diabetes, prediabetes, or insulin resistance was unrelated to HIV status or antiretroviral treatment. Increasing body mass index was the only characteristic associated with the combined endpoints of diabetes and prediabetes (odds ratio = 1.104, P = 0.0002). Routine oral glucose tolerance testing of HIV-infected women is not supported by these findings. Elucidation of putative perturbations from HIV or antiretroviral medications requires direct studies of insulin resistance and beta-cell function.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 06/2005; 39(1):55-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surveys in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently demonstrate decreased levels of peripheral fat, with variable effects on central fat. This substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study was undertaken to examine fat distribution in a well-characterized cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the United States. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning with standardized regional analysis was performed in 271 nonpregnant women. Results were compared in the following groups: HIV negative (n = 88); and HIV positive on no ART (n = 70), highly active ART with a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI) (n = 48), or non-PI-containing HAART (n = 53). The groups were well matched with respect to race, with the majority of women coming from racial/ethnic minorities. The majority of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >/=25 kg/m), and many were obese (BMI >30 kg/m). Leg fat in both groups on HAART was significantly lower than in HIV-negative women (P = 0.01 and <0.0001 vs. HIV-negative for HAART/PI and HAART/no PI, respectively), whereas trunk fat was lower only in HAART/no PI (P = 0.0004 vs. HIV-negative). Thus, consistent with reports in men, lower levels of peripheral (leg) fat are seen in HIV-infected women on HAART, despite the high prevalence of obesity in this population.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2005; 38(1):18-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, Zidovudine) has been effectively used for HIV infection treatment. It inhibits virus reproduction through viral reverse transcriptase inhibition. However, the side effects of this anti-retroviral drug might be cumulative, particularly in its effects on the patients' DNA. As a nucleoside analogue, AZT might incorporate into hosts' DNA, and then form DNA adducts. This may result in potential long-term risks of mutagenesis in AIDS patients who received therapy. In this feasibility study, a (32)P-post-labeling thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assay is successfully used to measure AZT-DNA analogue and adducts formed in peripheral blood leukocytes of AZT treated patients. There are DNA analogue/adducts measured in all four AZT treated patients' DNA specimens. This assay is reliable with the significant coefficient of correlation in both intra-assay (r = 0.8761, P = 0.0001) and inter-assay (r = 0.8761, P = 0.0001).
    Journal of Chromatography B 11/2004; 810(1):1-6. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance in the female genital tract is relevant not only to antiretroviral treatment (ART), but also to prevention of heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Although ART can reduce MTCT rates, drug resistance may emerge, particularly in women treated with nevirapine (NVP). Methods: We compared HIV-1 genotypic resistance mutations in contemporaneous plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) from 20 non-pregnant, US women receiving ART. For 16 women, we sequenced pol genes (protease and RT, ~1600 bp) obtained by endpoint dilution PCR or cloning. In 4, we obtained consensus sequences of RT genes. 373 unique pol sequences were analyzed. One woman was studied at 4 serial timepoints, 2 before and 2 after initiating NVP; both gp120 env and pol genes were studied. Results: 50% of patients displayed high-level genotypic resistance to ART, and in each case, HIV-1 from CVL and plasma was resistant to the same drugs. In particular, 4 of 5 NVP-treated women harbored NVP-resistant strains in both sites. The woman who was studied serially demonstrated NVP resistance in both CVL and plasma soon after treatment began, but mutations differed in each compartment; K103N predominated in plasma and G190S in CVL. Six months later, the K103N mutation predominated in both sites. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences obtained during NVP treatment showed a high level of diversity and multiple intrapatient recombinants, with recombination breakpoints within the env region. Conclusion: 50% of women exhibited high-level genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance, with CVL and plasma harboring virus resistant to a very similar spectrum of drugs. One woman studied serially displayed a different pattern of evolution of resistance in CVL vs plasma and also showed evidence of multiple intrapatient HIV-1 recombinants involving the gp120 gene.
    Infectious Diseases Society of America 2004 Annual Meeting; 10/2004
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the association between initiation of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens and sexual risk behaviors among HIVinfected women. We analyzed data from 724 women who initiated HAART between January 1996 and January 2001 and who had pre-HAART viral loads at or above 400 copies per milliliter. Sexually active women were less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79) to report 2 or more partners during a 6-month period after HAART initiation than before HAART initiation. However, the risk for unprotected sex was higher after HAART initiation than before HAART initiation among all sexually active women (both those who reported 2 or more partners [OR = 1.84] and those who reported 1 partner [OR = 1.22]). Sexual risk behaviors are associated with receipt of therapy but not with therapeutic response, indicating a risk for transmission among female HAART recipients.
    American Journal of Public Health 08/2004; 94(7):1141-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

730 Citations
146.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2012
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      • Department of General Internal Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2005
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2004
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Epidemiology & Population Health
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Albany Medical College
      Albany, New York, United States
    • Bronx-Lebanon Hospital
      Bronxville, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • Cook County Hospital
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Chicago, Illinois, United States