Daniel J. Eisenstein

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (410)1463.23 Total impact

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    Zachary Slepian, Daniel J. Eisenstein
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    ABSTRACT: Though Fourier Transforms (FTs) are a common technique for finding correlation functions, they are not typically used in computations of the anisotropy of the two-point correlation function (2PCF) about the line of sight in wide-angle surveys because the line-of-sight direction is not constant on the Cartesian grid. Here we show how FTs can be used to compute the multipole moments of the anisotropic 2PCF. We also show how FTs can be used to accelerate the 3PCF algorithm of Slepian & Eisenstein (2015). In both cases, these FT methods allow one to avoid the computational cost of pair counting, which scales as the square of the number density of objects in the survey. With the upcoming large datasets of DESI, Euclid, and LSST, FT techniques will therefore offer an important complement to simple pair or triplet counts.
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the bluer star-forming population of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III/BOSS CMASS DR11 galaxies at $z>0.55$ to quantify their differences, in terms of redshift-space distortions and large-scale bias, with respect to the luminous red galaxy sample. We perform a qualitative analysis to understand the significance of these differences and whether we can model and reproduce them in mock catalogs. Specifically, we measure galaxy clustering in CMASS on small and intermediate scales ($r\lesssim 50\,h^{-1}$Mpc) by computing the two-point correlation function $-$ both projected and redshift-space $-$ of these galaxies, and a new statistic, $\Sigma(\pi)$, able to provide robust information about redshift-space distortions and large-scale bias. We interpret our clustering measurements by adopting a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) scheme that maps them onto high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations to produce suitable mock galaxy catalogs. The traditional HOD prescription can be applied to the red and the blue samples, independently, but this approach is unphysical since it allows the same mock galaxies to be either red or blue. To overcome this failure, we modify the standard formulation and infer the red and the blue mock catalogs directly from the full one, so that they are complementary and non-overlapping. This separation is performed by matching the observed CMASS red and blue galaxy fractions and produces reliable and accurate models.
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    Zachary Slepian, Daniel J. Eisenstein
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    ABSTRACT: We present an algorithm that computes the multipole coefficients of the galaxy three-point correlation function (3PCF) without explicitly considering triplets of galaxies. Rather, centering on each galaxy in the survey, it expands the radially-binned density field in spherical harmonics and combines these to form the multipoles without ever requiring the relative angle between a pair about the central. This approach scales with number and number density in the same way as the two-point correlation function, allowing runtimes that are comparable, and 500 times faster than a naive triplet count. It is exact in angle and easily handles edge correction. We demonstrate the algorithm on the LasDamas SDSS-DR7 mock catalogs, computing an edge corrected 3PCF out to $90\;{\rm Mpc}/h$ in under an hour on modest computing resources. We expect this algorithm will render it possible to obtain the large-scale 3PCF for upcoming surveys such as Euclid, LSST, and DESI.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the utility and robustness of a new statistic, $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$, for analyzing Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). We apply $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$, introduced in Xu et al. (2010), to mocks and data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) included in the SDSS Data Release Eleven (DR11). We fit the anisotropic clustering using the monopole and quadrupole of the $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$ statistic in a manner similar to conventional multipole fitting methods using the correlation function as detailed in (Xu et al. 2012). To test the performance of the $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$ statistic we compare our results to those obtained using the multipoles. The results are in agreement. We also conduct a brief investigation into some of the possible advantages of using the $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$ statistic for BAO analysis. The $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$ analysis matches the stability of the multipoles analysis in response to artificially introduced distortions in the data, without using extra nuisance parameters to improve the fit. When applied to data with systematics, the $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$ statistic again matches the performance of fitting the multipoles without using nuisance parameters. In all the analyzed circumstances, we find that fitting the $\omega_{\ell}\left(r_{c}\right)$ statistic removes the requirement for extra nuisance parameters.
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the clustering of X-ray, radio, and mid-IR-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 0.2 < z < 1.2 using multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRIMUS and DEEP2 redshift surveys, covering 7 separate fields spanning ~10 square degrees. Using the cross-correlation of AGN with dense galaxy samples, we measure the clustering scale length and slope, as well as the bias, of AGN selected at different wavelengths. Similar to previous studies, we find that X-ray and radio AGN are more clustered than mid-IR-selected AGN. We further compare the clustering of each AGN sample with matched galaxy samples designed to have the same stellar mass, star formation rate, and redshift distributions as the AGN host galaxies and find no significant differences between their clustering properties. The observed differences in the clustering of AGN selected at different wavelengths can therefore be explained by the clustering differences of their host populations, which have different distributions in both stellar mass and star formation rate. Selection biases inherent in AGN selection, therefore, determine the clustering of observed AGN samples. We further find no significant difference between the clustering of obscured and unobscured AGN, using IRAC or WISE colors or X-ray hardness ratio.
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We detect the large-scale structure of Lya emission in the Universe at redshifts z=2-3.5 by measuring the cross-correlation of Lya surface brightness with quasars in SDSS/BOSS. We use a million spectra targeting Luminous Red Galaxies at z<0.8, after subtracting a best fit model galaxy spectrum from each one, as an estimate of the high-redshift Lya surface brightness. The quasar-Lya emission cross-correlation we detect has a shape consistent with a LambdaCDM model with Omega_M =0.30^+0.10-0.07. The predicted amplitude of this cross-correlation is proportional to the product of the mean Lya surface brightness, , the amplitude of mass fluctuations, and the quasar and Lya emission bias factors. Using known values, we infer (b_alpha/3) = (3.9 +/- 0.9) x 10^-21 erg/s cm^-2 A^-1 arcsec^-2, where b_alpha is the Lya emission bias factor. If the dominant sources of Lya emission are star forming galaxies, we infer rho_SFR = (0.28 +/- 0.07) (3/b_alpha) /yr/Mpc^3 at z=2-3.5. For b_alpha=3, this value is a factor of 21-35 above previous estimates from individually detected Lya emitters, although consistent with the total rho_SFR derived from dust-corrected, continuum UV surveys. 97% of the Lya emission in the Universe at these redshifts is therefore undetected in previous surveys of Lya emitters. Our measurement is much greater than seen from stacking analyses of faint halos surrounding previously detected Lya emitters, but we speculate that it arises from similar Lya halos surrounding all luminous star-forming galaxies. We also detect redshift space anisotropy of the quasar-Lya emission cross-correlation, finding evidence at the 3.0 sigma level that it is radially elongated, consistent with distortions caused by radiative-transfer effects (Zheng et al. (2011)). Our measurements represent the first application of the intensity mapping technique to optical observations.
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    ABSTRACT: We utilize $\Lambda$CDM halo occupation models of galaxy clustering to investigate the evolving stellar mass dependent clustering of galaxies in the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and DEEP2 Redshift Survey over the past eight billion years of cosmic time, between $0.2<z<1.2$. These clustering measurements provide new constraints on the connections between dark matter halo properties and galaxy properties in the context of the evolving large-scale structure of the universe. Using both an analytic model and a set of mock galaxy catalogs, we find a strong correlation between central galaxy stellar mass and dark matter halo mass over the range $M_\mathrm{halo}\sim10^{11}$-$10^{13}~h^{-1}M_\odot$, approximately consistent with previous observations and theoretical predictions. However, the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) and the mass scale where star formation efficiency reaches a maximum appear to evolve more strongly than predicted by other models. We find that the fraction of satellite galaxies in haloes of a given mass decreases by $\approx5\%$ from $z\sim0.5$ to $z\sim0.9$, and we find that the $M_1/M_\mathrm{min}$ ratio, which quantifies the critical mass above which haloes host at least one satellite, decreases from $\approx20$ at $z\sim0$ to $\approx13$ at $z\sim0.9$. Considering the evolution of the subhalo mass function vis-\`{a}-vis satellite abundances, this trend has implications for relations between satellite galaxies and halo substructures and for intracluster mass, which we argue has grown due to stripped and disrupted satellites between $z\sim0.9$ and $z\sim0.5$.
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    ABSTRACT: We present sCOLA -- an extension of the N-body COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method to the spatial domain. Similar to the original temporal-domain COLA, sCOLA is an N-body method for solving for large-scale structure in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. Incorporating the sCOLA method in an N-body code allows one to gain computational speed by capturing the gravitational potential from the far field using perturbative techniques, while letting the N-body code solve only for the near field. The far and near fields are completely decoupled, effectively localizing gravity for the N-body side of the code. Thus, running an N-body code for a small simulation volume using sCOLA can reproduce the results of a standard N-body run for the same small volume embedded inside a much larger simulation. We demonstrate that sCOLA can be safely combined with the original temporal-domain COLA. sCOLA can be used as a method for performing zoom-in simulations. It also allows N-body codes to be made embarrassingly parallel, thus allowing for efficiently tiling a volume of interest using grid computing. Moreover, sCOLA can be useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering. Surveys that will benefit the most are ones with large aspect ratios, such as pencil-beam surveys, where sCOLA can easily capture the effects of large-scale transverse modes without the need to substantially increase the simulated volume. As an illustration of the method, we present proof-of-concept zoom-in simulations using a freely available sCOLA-based N-body code.
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    ABSTRACT: We report small-scale clustering measurements from the PRIMUS spectroscopic redshift survey as a function of color and luminosity. We measure the real-space cross-correlations between 62,106 primary galaxies with PRIMUS redshifts and a tracer population of 545,000 photometric galaxies over redshifts from z=0.2 to z=1. We separately fit a power-law model in redshift and luminosity to each of three independent color-selected samples of galaxies. We report clustering amplitudes at fiducial values of z=0.5 and L=1.5 L*. The clustering of the red galaxies is ~3 times as strong as that of the blue galaxies and ~1.5 as strong as that of the green galaxies. We also find that the luminosity dependence of the clustering is strongly dependent on physical scale, with greater luminosity dependence being found between r=0.0625 Mpc/h and r=0.25 Mpc/h, compared to the r=0.5 Mpc/h to r=2 Mpc/h range. Moreover, over a range of two orders of magnitude in luminosity, a single power-law fit to the luminosity dependence is not sufficient to explain the increase in clustering at both the bright and faint ends at the smaller scales. We argue that luminosity-dependent clustering at small scales is a necessary component of galaxy-halo occupation models for blue, star-forming galaxies as well as for red, quenched galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: The SDSS-III/APOGEE survey operated from 2011-2014 using the APOGEE spectrograph, which collects high-resolution (R~22,500), near-IR (1.51-1.70 microns) spectra with a multiplexing (300 fiber-fed objects) capability. We describe the survey data products that are publicly available, which include catalogs with radial velocity, stellar parameters, and 15 elemental abundances for over 150,000 stars, as well as the more than 500,000 spectra from which these quantities are derived. Calibration relations for the stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [M/H], [alpha/M]) and abundances (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni) are presented and discussed. The internal scatter of the abundances within clusters indicates that abundance precision is generally between 0.05 and 0.09 dex across a broad temperature range; within more limited ranges and at high S/N, it is smaller for some elemental abundances. We assess the accuracy of the abundances using comparison of mean cluster metallicities with literature values, APOGEE observations of the solar spectrum and of Arcturus, comparison of individual star abundances with other measurements, and consideration of the locus of derived parameters and abundances of the entire sample, and find that it is challenging to determine the absolute abundance scale; external accuracy may be good to 0.1-0.2 dex. Uncertainties may be larger at cooler temperatures (Teff<4000K). Access to the public data release and data products is described, and some guidance for using the data products is provided.
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    Alex G. Krolewski, Daniel J. Eisenstein
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by WISE about z $\sim$ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z $\sim$ 0.8 quasars at 0.2--6.4 h$^{-1}$ Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of $-$0.01 $\pm$ 0.06 (1 $\sigma$ errorbar). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 803(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/4 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 sq. deg of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 sq. deg of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 sq. deg; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5,513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of galaxy environment on the evolution of the quiescent fraction ($f_\mathrm{Q}$) from z =0.8 to 0.0 using spectroscopic redshifts and multi-wavelength imaging data from the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and the Sloan Digitial Sky Survey (SDSS). Our stellar mass limited galaxy sample consists of ~14,000 PRIMUS galaxies within z = 0.2-0.8 and ~64,000 SDSS galaxies within z = 0.05-0.12. We classify the galaxies as quiescent or star-forming based on an evolving specific star formation cut, and as low or high density environments based on fixed cylindrical aperture environment measurements on a volume-limited environment defining population. For quiescent and star-forming galaxies in low or high density environments, we examine the evolution of their stellar mass function (SMF). Then using the SMFs we compute $f_\mathrm{Q}(M_{*})$ and quantify its evolution within our redshift range. We find that the quiescent fraction is higher at higher masses and in denser environments. The quiescent fraction rises with cosmic time for all masses and environments. At a fiducial mass of $10^{10.5}M_\odot$, from z~0.7 to 0.1, the quiescent fraction rises by 15% at the lowest environments and by 25% at the highest environments we measure. These results suggest that for a minority of galaxies their cessation of star formation is due to external influences on them. However, in the recent Universe a substantial fraction of the galaxies that cease forming stars do so due to internal processes.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of 9 088 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum dominated DCs, 397 metal polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6887 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 446(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2388 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Zachary Slepian, Daniel J. Eisenstein
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    ABSTRACT: We develop a configuration-space picture of the relative velocity between baryons and dark matter that clearly explains how it can shift the BAO scale in the galaxy-galaxy correlation function. The shift occurs because the relative velocity is non-zero only within the sound horizon and thus adds to the correlation function asymmetrically about the BAO peak. We further show that in configuration space the relative velocity has a localized, distinctive signature in the three-point galaxy correlation function (3PCF). In particular, we find that a multipole decomposition is a favorable way to isolate the relative velocity in the 3PCF, and that there is a strong signature in the l=1 multipole for triangles with 2 sides around the BAO scale. Finally, we investigate a further compression of the 3PCF to a function of only one triangle side that preserves the localized nature of the relative velocity signature while also nicely separating linear from non-linear bias. We expect that this scheme will substantially lessen the computational burden of finding the relative velocity in the 3PCF. The relative velocity's 3PCF signature can be used to correct the shift induced in the galaxy-galaxy correlation function so that no systematic error due to this effect is introduced into the BAO as used for precision cosmology.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 448(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2627 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We derive constraints on cosmological parameters and tests of dark energy models from the combination of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Type Ia supernova (SN) data. We take advantage of high-precision BAO measurements from galaxy clustering and the Ly-alpha forest (LyaF) in the BOSS survey of SDSS-III. BAO data alone yield a high confidence detection of dark energy, and in combination with the CMB angular acoustic scale they further imply a nearly flat universe. Combining BAO and SN data into an "inverse distance ladder" yields a 1.7% measurement of $H_0=67.3 \pm1.1$ km/s/Mpc. This measurement assumes standard pre-recombination physics but is insensitive to assumptions about dark energy or space curvature, so agreement with CMB-based estimates that assume a flat LCDM cosmology is an important corroboration of this minimal cosmological model. For open LCDM, our BAO+SN+CMB combination yields $\Omega_m=0.301 \pm 0.008$ and curvature $\Omega_k=-0.003 \pm 0.003$. When we allow more general forms of evolving dark energy, the BAO+SN+CMB parameter constraints remain consistent with flat LCDM. While the overall $\chi^2$ of model fits is satisfactory, the LyaF BAO measurements are in moderate (2-2.5 sigma) tension with model predictions. Models with early dark energy that tracks the dominant energy component at high redshifts remain consistent with our constraints, but models where dark matter decays into radiation are sharply limited. Expansion history alone yields an upper limit of 0.56 eV on the summed mass of neutrino species, improving to 0.26 eV if we include Planck CMB lensing. Standard dark energy models constrained by our data predict a level of matter clustering that is high compared to most, but not all, observational estimates. (Abridged)
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    ABSTRACT: We present the redshift evolution of the high-mass end of the ^{0.55}i-band Red Sequence Luminosity Function (RS LF) within the redshift range 0.52<z<0.65, obtained from the DR10 BOSS CMASS sample, which comprises ~ 600,000 galaxies. We have developed an analytical method based on an unbinned maximum likelihood approach for deconvolving the observed CMASS distribution from photometric errors and accounting for selection effects. This procedure requires modeling the covariance matrix for the i-band magnitude, g-r color and r-i color using Stripe 82 multi-epoch data. The error-deconvolved intrinsic RS distribution is consistent with a single point in the color-color plane, which implies that the great majority of the observed scatter is due to photometric errors. We estimate that RS completeness is ~0.80-0.85 at z\geq0.52 in the CMASS sample, dropping drastically below that redshift. Approximately 37% of all objects in the CMASS sample belong intrinsically to the blue cloud. Within the redshift and absolute magnitude range considered (^{0.55}M_i \lesssim -22), the evolution of the RS LF is consistent with a Schechter Function of \Phi_* = (6.693\pm0.042) x 10^{-4} Mpc^{-3} mag^{-1}, passively fading at a rate of 1.180\pm0.001 mag per unit redshift. This result implies an age of ~4-5 Gyr at z=0.70, and a formation redshift of z=2-3, for the LRG population, independently of the SPS model used. As for the intrinsic RS colors, FSPS models within a grid covering a wide range of metallicities and dust contents tend to predict a milder evolution as compared to the observations. The best agreement seems to be found for solar-metallicity, dust-free FSPS models with ages greater than ~5 Gyr, which would be consistent with our fading rate results. The Maraston et al. (2009) passive LRG model provides an excellent match to the color-redshift trend, implying an age of ~3-4 Gyr at z=0.70. [ABRIDGED]
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    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project (SDSS-RM) is a dedicated multi-object RM experiment that has spectroscopically monitored a sample of 849 broad-line quasars in a single 7 deg$^2$ field with the SDSS-III BOSS spectrograph. The RM quasar sample is flux-limited to i_psf=21.7 mag, and covers a redshift range of 0.1<z<4.5. Optical spectroscopy was performed during 2014 Jan-Jul dark/grey time, with an average cadence of ~4 days, totaling more than 30 epochs. Supporting photometric monitoring in the g and i bands was conducted at multiple facilities including the CFHT and the Steward Observatory Bok telescopes in 2014, with a cadence of ~2 days and covering all lunar phases. The RM field (RA, DEC=14:14:49.00, +53:05:00.0) lies within the CFHT-LS W3 field, and coincides with the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field MD07, with three prior years of multi-band PS1 light curves. The SDSS-RM 6-month baseline program aims to detect time lags between the quasar continuum and broad line region (BLR) variability on timescales of up to several months (in the observed frame) for ~10% of the sample, and to anchor the time baseline for continued monitoring in the future to detect lags on longer timescales and at higher redshift. SDSS-RM is the first major program to systematically explore the potential of RM for broad-line quasars at z>0.3, and will investigate the prospects of RM with all major broad lines covered in optical spectroscopy. SDSS-RM will provide guidance on future multi-object RM campaigns on larger scales, and is aiming to deliver more than tens of BLR lag detections for a homogeneous sample of quasars. We describe the motivation, design and implementation of this program, and outline the science impact expected from the resulting data for RM and general quasar science.
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    ABSTRACT: We study the evidence for a symbiotic connection between active galactic nuclei (AGN) fueling and star formation by investigating the relationship between the X-ray luminosities of AGN and the star formation rates (SFRs) of their host galaxies. We identify a sample of 309 AGN with X-ray luminosities $10^{41}<L_\mathrm{X}<10^{44} $ erg s$^{-1}$ at $0.2 < z < 1.2$ in the PRIMUS spectroscopic redshift survey. There is a wide range of SFR at a given $L_X$, and we do not find a significant correlation between SFR and the observed instantaneous $L_X$ for star forming galaxies. However, there is a weak but significant correlation between the mean $L_\mathrm{X}$ of detected AGN and SFR, which likely reflects that $L_\mathrm{X}$ varies on shorter timescales than SFR. We also find no correlation between stellar mass and AGN luminosity. AGN are found in star forming and quiescent galaxies, and both galaxy populations have a similar power-law distribution in the probability of hosting an AGN as a function of specific accretion rate. However, a higher fraction of AGN hosts are classified as star forming with increasing $L_\mathrm{X}$, and a star forming galaxy is $\sim2-3$ times more likely to host an AGN of a given specific accretion rate than a quiescent galaxy of the same stellar mass. The probability of a galaxy hosting an AGN remains constant across the main sequence of star formation. These results indicate that there is an underlying connection between star formation and the presence of AGN, but AGN are also widespread in quiescent galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a one per cent measurement of the cosmic distance scale from the detections of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of galaxies from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. Our results come from the Data Release 11 (DR11) sample, containing nearly one million galaxies and covering approximately 8500 square degrees and the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.7. We also compare these results with those from the publicly released DR9 and DR10 samples. Assuming a concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model, the DR11 sample covers a volume of 13 Gpc3 and is the largest region of the Universe ever surveyed at this density. We measure the correlation function and power spectrum, including density-field reconstruction of the BAO feature. The acoustic features are detected at a significance of over 7σ in both the correlation function and power spectrum. Fitting for the position of the acoustic features measures the distance relative to the sound horizon at the drag epoch, rd, which has a value of rd,fid = 149.28 Mpc in our fiducial cosmology. We find DV = (1264 ± 25 Mpc)(rd/rd,fid) at z = 0.32 and DV = (2056 ± 20 Mpc)(rd/rd,fid) at z = 0.57. At 1.0 per cent, this latter measure is the most precise distance constraint ever obtained from a galaxy survey. Separating the clustering along and transverse to the line of sight yields measurements at z = 0.57 of DA = (1421 ± 20 Mpc)(rd/rd,fid) and H = (96.8 ± 3.4 km s-1 Mpc-1)(rd,fid/rd). Our measurements of the distance scale are in good agreement with previous BAO measurements and with the predictions from cosmic microwave background data for a spatially flat CDM model with a cosmological constant.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 441(1):24-62. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu523 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

29k Citations
1,463.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • New Mexico State University
      Las Cruces, New Mexico, United States
  • 1995–2015
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • Cambridge College
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      • Center for Cosmology and Astoparticle Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2013
    • Siena College
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      Troy, New York, United States
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1999–2012
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Eötvös Loránd University
      • Department of Physics of Complex Systems
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 1997–2009
    • Institute for Advanced Study
      Princeton Junction, New Jersey, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Toronto
      • Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States