F. Bouchy

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (462)1136.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exoplanet science is booming. In 20 years our knowledge has expanded considerably, from the first discovery of a Hot Jupiter, to the detection of a large population of Neptunes and super-Earths, to the first steps toward the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Between today and 2025, the field will evolve at an even faster pace with the advent of several space-based transit search missions, ground-based spectrographs, high-contrast imaging facilities, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Especially the ESA M-class PLATO mission will be a game changer in the field. From 2024 onwards, PLATO will find transiting terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zones of nearby, bright stars. These objects will require the power of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) to be characterized further. The technique of ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is establishing itself as a crucial pathway to measure chemical composition, atmospheric structure and atmospheric circulation in transiting exoplanets. A high-resolution spectrograph covering the visible and near-IR domains, mounted on the European ELT, will be able to detect molecules such as water vapour, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmospheres of habitable planets under favourable circumstances. E-ELT HiRES is the perfect ground-based match to the PLATO space mission and represents a unique opportunity for Europe to lead the world into the era of exploration of exoplanets with habitable conditions. HiRES will also be extremely complementary to other E-ELT planned instruments specialising in different kinds of planets, such as METIS and EPICS.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Planetary companions of a fixed mass induce larger amplitude reflex motions around lower-mass stars, which helps make M dwarfs excellent targets for extra-solar planet searches. State of the art velocimeters with $\sim$1m/s stability can detect very low-mass planets out to the habitable zone of these stars. Low-mass, small, planets are abundant around M dwarfs, and most known potentially habitable planets orbit one of these cool stars. Aims. Our M-dwarf radial velocity monitoring with HARPS on the ESO 3.6m telescope at La Silla observatory makes a major contribution to this sample. Methods. We present here dense radial velocity (RV) time series for three M dwarfs observed over $\sim5$ years: GJ 3293 (0.42M$_\odot$), GJ 3341 (0.47M$_\odot$), and GJ 3543 (0.45M$_\odot$). We extract those RVs through minimum $\chi^2$ matching of each spectrum against a high S/N ratio stack of all observed spectra for the same star. We then vet potential orbital signals against several stellar activity indicators, to disentangle the Keplerian variations induced by planets from the spurious signals which result from rotational modulation of stellar surface inhomogeneities and from activity cycles. Results. Two Neptune-mass planets - $msin(i)=1.4\pm0.1$ and $1.3\pm0.1M_{nept}$ - orbit GJ 3293 with periods $P=30.60\pm0.02$ d and $P=123.98\pm0.38$ d, possibly together with a super-Earth - $msin(i)\sim7.9\pm1.4M_\oplus$ - with period $P=48.14\pm0.12\;d$. A super-Earth - $msin(i)\sim6.1M_\oplus$ - orbits GJ 3341 with $P=14.207\pm0.007\;d$. The RV variations of GJ 3543, on the other hand, reflect its stellar activity rather than planetary signals.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As part of our follow-up campaign of Kepler planets, we observed Kepler-117 with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. This F8-type star hosts two transiting planets in non-resonant orbits. The planets, Kepler-117 b and c, have orbital periods $\simeq 18.8$ and $\simeq 50.8$ days, and show transit-timing variations (TTVs) of several minutes. We performed a combined Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) fit on transits, radial velocities, and stellar parameters to constrain the characteristics of the system. We included the fit of the TTVs in the MCMC by modeling them with dynamical simulations. In this way, consistent posterior distributions were drawn for the system parameters. According to our analysis, planets b and c have notably different masses ($0.094 \pm 0.033$ and $1.84 \pm 0.18$ M$_{\rm J}$) and low orbital eccentricities ($0.0493 \pm 0.0062$ and $0.0323 \pm 0.0033$). The uncertainties on the derived parameters are strongly reduced if the fit of the TTVs is included in the combined MCMC. The TTVs allow measuring the mass of planet b, although its radial velocity amplitude is poorly constrained. Finally, we checked that the best solution is dynamically stable.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the radial-velocity follow-up of two Kepler planetary transiting candidates (KOI-189 and KOI-686) carried out with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. These data promptly discard these objects as viable planet candidates and show that the transiting objects are in the regime of very low-mass stars, where a strong discrepancy between observations and models persists for the mass and radius parameters. By combining the SOPHIE spectra with the Kepler light curve and photometric measurements found in the literature, we obtain a full characterization of the transiting companions, their orbits, and their host stars. The two companions are in significantly eccentric orbits with relatively long periods (30 days and 52.5 days), which makes them suitable objects for a comparison with theoretical models, since the effects invoked to understand the discrepancy with observations are weaker for these orbital distances. KOI-189 B has a mass M = 0.0745 +/- 0.0033 Msun and a radius R = 0.1025 +/- 0.0024 Rsun. The density of KOI-189 B is significantly lower than expected from theoretical models for a system of its age. We explore possible explanations for this difference. KOI-189 B is the smallest hydrogen-burning star with such a precise determination of its fundamental parameters. KOI-686 B is larger and more massive (M = 0.0915 +/- 0.0043 Msun; R = 0.1201 +/- 0.0033 Rsun), and its position in the mass-radius diagram agrees well with theoretical expectations.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The characterization of four new transiting extrasolar planets is presented here. KOI-188b and KOI-195b are bloated hot Saturns, with orbital periods of 3.8 and 3.2 days, and masses of 0.25 and 0.34 M_Jup, respectively. They are located in the low-mass range of known transiting, giant planets. KOI-192b has a similar mass (0.29 M_Jup) but a longer orbital period of 10.3 days. This places it in a domain where only few planets are known. KOI-830b, finally, with a mass of 1.27 M_Jup and a period of 3.5 days, is a typical hot Jupiter. The four planets have radii of 0.98, 1.09, 1.2, and 1.08 R_Jup, respectively. We detected no significant eccentricity in any of the systems, while the accuracy of our data does not rule out possible moderate eccentricities. The four objects were first identified by the Kepler Team as promising candidates from photometry of the Kepler satellite. We establish here their planetary nature thanks to the radial velocity follow-up we secured with the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. The combined analyses of the whole datasets allow us to fully characterize the four planetary systems. These new objects increase the number of well-characterized exoplanets for statistics, and provide new targets for individual follow-up studies. The pre-screening we performed with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence as part of that study also allowed us to conclude that a fifth candidate, KOI-219.01, is not a planet but is a false positive.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The CoRoT satellite has provided high-precision photometric light curves for more than 163,000 stars and found several hundreds of transiting systems compatible with a planetary scenario. If ground-based velocimetric observations are the best way to identify the actual planets among many possible configurations of eclipsing binary systems, recent transit surveys have shown that it is not always within reach of the radial-velocity detection limits. In this paper, we present a transiting exoplanet candidate discovered by CoRoT whose nature cannot be established from ground-based observations, and where extensive analyses are used to validate the planet scenario. They are based on observing constraints from radial-velocity spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging and the CoRoT transit shape, as well as from priors on stellar populations, planet and multiple stellar systems frequency. We use the fully Bayesian approach developed in the PASTIS analysis software, and conclude that the planet scenario is at least 1400 times more probable than any other false positive scenario. The primary star is a metallic solar-like dwarf, with Ms = 1.099+-0.049 Msun and Rs = 1.136 (+0.038,-0.090) Rsun . The validated planet has a radius of Rp = 4.88 (+0.17,-0.39) RE and mass less than 49 ME. Its mean density is smaller than 2.56 g/cm^3 and orbital period is 9.7566+-0.0012 days. This object, called CoRoT-22 b, adds to a large number of validated Kepler planets. These planets do not have a proper measurement of the mass but allow statistical characterization of the exoplanet population.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d, whereas WASP-106b has the fourth-longest orbital period of any planet discovered by means of transits observed from the ground, orbiting every 9.29 d. Each planet is more massive than Jupiter (WASP-104b has a mass of $1.27 \pm 0.05~\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, while WASP-106b has a mass of $1.93 \pm 0.08~\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$). Both planets are just slightly larger than Jupiter, with radii of $1.14 \pm 0.04$ and $1.09 \pm 0.04~\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ for WASP-104 and WASP-106 respectively. No significant orbital eccentricity is detected in either system, and while this is not surprising in the case of the short-period WASP-104b, it is interesting in the case of WASP-106b, because many otherwise similar planets are known to have eccentric orbits.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: CoRoT-7b, the first super-Earth with measured radius discovered, has opened the new field of rocky exoplanets characterisation. To better understand this interesting system, new observations were taken with the CoRoT satellite. During this run 90 new transits were obtained in the imagette mode. These were analysed together with the previous 151 transits obtained in the discovery run and HARPS radial velocity observations to derive accurate system parameters. A difference is found in the posterior probability distribution of the transit parameters between the previous CoRoT run (LRa01) and the new run (LRa06). We propose this is due to an extra noise component in the previous CoRoT run suspected to be transit spot occultation events. These lead to the mean transit shape becoming V-shaped. We show that the extra noise component is dominant at low stellar flux levels and reject these transits in the final analysis. We obtained a planetary radius, $R_p= 1.585\pm0.064\,R_{\oplus}$, in agreement with previous estimates. Combining the planetary radius with the new mass estimates results in a planetary density of $ 1.19 \pm 0.27\, \rho_{\oplus}$ which is consistent with a rocky composition. The CoRoT-7 system remains an excellent test bed for the effects of activity in the derivation of planetary parameters in the shallow transit regime.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; 569. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SPIRou is a near-IR \'echelle spectropolarimeter and high-precision velocimeter under construction as a next-generation instrument for the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. It is designed to cover a very wide simultaneous near-IR spectral range (0.98-2.35 {\mu}m) at a resolving power of 73.5K, providing unpolarized and polarized spectra of low-mass stars at a radial velocity (RV) precision of 1m/s. The main science goals of SPIRou are the detection of habitable super-Earths around low-mass stars and the study of how critically magnetic fields impact star / planet formation. Following a successful final design review in Spring 2014, SPIRou is now under construction and is scheduled to see first light in late 2017. We present an overview of key aspects of SPIRou's optical and mechanical design.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Optical velocimetry has led to the detection of more than 500 planets to date and there is a strong effort to push m/s velocimetry to the near-infrared to access cooler and lighter stars. The presence of numerous telluric absorption lines in the nIR brings an important challenge. As the star's barycentric velocity varies through the year, the telluric absorption lines effectively varies in velocity relative to the star's spectrum by the same amount leading to important systematic RV offsets. We present a novel principal component analysis-based approach for telluric line subtraction and demonstrated its effectiveness with archival HARPS data for GJ436 and {\tau} Ceti, over parts of the R-band that contain strong telluric absorption lines. The main results are: 1) a better RV accuracy with excluding only a few percentage of the domain, 2) better use of the entire spectrum to measure RV and 3) a higher telescope time efficency by using A0V telluric standard from telescope archive.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we report a new transiting warm giant planet: KOI-1257 b. It was first detected in photometry as a planet-candidate by the $\textit{Kepler}$ space telescope and then validated thanks to a radial velocity follow-up with the SOPHIE spectrograph. It orbits its host star with a period of 86.647661 d $\pm$ 3 s and a high eccentricity of 0.772 $\pm$ 0.045. The planet transits the main star of a metal-rich, relatively old binary system with stars of mass of 0.99 $\pm$ 0.05 Msun and 0.70 $ \pm $ 0.07 Msun for the primary and secondary (respectively). This binary system is constrained thanks to a self-consistent modelling of the $\textit{Kepler}$ transit light curve, the SOPHIE radial velocities, line bisector and full-width half maximum (FWHM) variations as well as the spectral energy distribution. However, future observations are needed to confirm it. The PASTIS fully-Bayesian software was used to validate the nature of the planet and to determine which star of the binary system is the transit host. By accounting for the dilution from the binary both in photometry and in radial velocity, we find that the planet has a mass of 1.45 $ \pm $ 0.35 Mjup, and a radius of 0.94 $ \pm $ 0.12 Rjup, and thus a bulk density of 2.1 $ \pm $ 1.2 g.cm$^{-3}$. The planet has an equilibrium temperature of 511 $\pm$ 50 K, making it one of the few known membre of the warm-jupiter population. The HARPS-N spectrograph was also used to observe a transit of KOI-1257 b, simultaneously with a joint amateur and professional photometric follow-up, with the aims at constraining the orbital obliquity of the planet. However, the Rossiter-McLaughlin was not clearly detected, resulting in poor constraints on the orbital obliquity of the planet.
    06/2014;
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    Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a candidate multiply-transiting system, the first one found in the CoRoT mission. Two transit-like features with periods of 5.11 and 11.76d are detected in the CoRoT light curve, around a main sequence K1V star of r=15.1. If the features are due to transiting planets around the same star, these would correspond to objects of 3.7$\pm$0.4 and 5.0$\pm$0.5 R_earth respectively. Several radial velocities serve to provide an upper limit of 5.7 M_earth for the 5.11~d signal, and to tentatively measure a mass of 28$^{+11}_{-11}$ M_earth for the object transiting with a 11.76~d period. These measurements imply low density objects, with a significant gaseous envelope. The detailed analysis of the photometric and spectroscopic data serve to estimate the probability that the observations are caused by transiting Neptune-sized planets as $>$26$\times$ higher than a blend scenario involving only one transiting planet, and $>$900$\times$ higher than a scenario involving two blends and no planets. The radial velocities show a long term modulation that might be attributed to a 1.5 M_jup planet orbiting at 1.8~A.U. from the host, but more data are required to determine the precise orbital parameters of this companion.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis ($\lambda$). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of $\lambda={8^{\circ}}^{+13}_{-12}$ and $\lambda={-2^{\circ}}^{+17}_{-19}$, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6250$K and therefore these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was carried out on archival SuperWASP data for both systems. A statistically significant stellar rotation period detection (above 99.9\% confidence) was identified for the WASP-32 system with $P_{\mathrm{rot}}=11.6 \pm 1.0 $ days. This rotation period is in agreement with the predicted stellar rotation period calculated from the stellar radius, $R_{\star}$, and $v \sin i$ if a stellar inclination of $i_{\star}=90^{\circ}$ is assumed. With the determined rotation period, the true 3D angle between the stellar rotation axis and the planetary orbit, $\psi$, was found to be $\psi=11^{\circ} \pm 14$. We conclude with a discussion on the alignment of systems around cool host stars with $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6150$K by calculating the tidal dissipation timescale. We find that systems with short tidal dissipation timescales are preferentially aligned and systems with long tidal dissipation timescales have a broad range of obliquities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 440(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a massive and dense transiting planet CoRoT-27b on a 3.58 day orbit around a 4.2 Gyr-old G2~star. The planet candidate was identified from the CoRoT photometry, and was confirmed as a planet with ground-based spectroscopy. The confirmation of the planet candidate is based on radial velocity observations combined with imaging to rule out blends. The characterisation of the planet and its host star is carried out using a Bayesian approach where all the data (CoRoT photometry, radial velocities, and spectroscopic characterisation of the star) are used jointly. The Bayesian analysis includes a study whether the assumption of white normally distributed noise holds for the CoRoT photometry, and whether the use of a non-normal noise distribution offers advantages in parameter estimation and model selection. CoRoT-27b has a mass of $10.39 \pm 0.55$ $\mathrm{M}_{\rm Jup}$, a radius of $1.01 \pm 0.04$ $\mathrm{R}_{\rm Jup}$, a mean density of $12.6_{-1.67}^{+1.92}$ $\mathrm{g\,cm^{-3}}$, and an effective temperature of $1500 \pm 130$~K. The planet orbits around its host star, a 4.2 Gyr-old G2-star with a mass $M_{\star}=1.06$ $M_{\odot}$, and a radius $R_{\star}=1.05$ $R_{\odot}$, on a $0.048 \pm 0.007$ AU orbit every 3.58 days. The radial velocity observations allow us to exclude highly eccentric orbits, namely, $e<0.065$ with a 99% confidence. Given its high mass and density, theoretical modelling of CoRoT-27b is demanding. We identify two solutions with heavy element mass fractions of $0.11\pm0.08$ $\mathrm{M_{\oplus}}$ and $0.07\pm0.06$ $\mathrm{M_{\oplus}}$, but even solutions void of heavy elements cannot be excluded. We carry out a secondary eclipse search from the CoRoT photometry using a method based on Bayesian model selection, but conclude that the noise level is too high to detect eclipses shallower than 9% of the transit depth.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; 562. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We confirm the planetary nature of Kepler-412b, listed as planet candidate KOI-202 in the Kepler catalog, thanks to our radial velocity follow-up program of Kepler-released planet candidates, which is on going with the SOPHIE spectrograph. We performed a complete analysis of the system by combining the Kepler observations from Q1 to Q15, to ground-based spectroscopic observations that allowed us to derive radial velocity measurements, together with the host star parameters and properties. We also analyzed the light curve to derive the star's rotation period and the phase function of the planet, including the secondary eclipse. We found the planet has a mass of 0.939 $\pm$ 0.085 M$_{Jup}$ and a radius of 1.325 $\pm$ 0.043 R$_{Jup}$ which makes it a member of the bloated giant subgroup. It orbits its G3 V host star in 1.72 days. The system has an isochronal age of 5.1 Gyr, consistent with its moderate stellar activity as observed in the Kepler light curve and the rotation of the star of 17.2 $\pm$ 1.6 days. From the detected secondary, we derived the day side temperature as a function of the geometric albedo and estimated the geometrical albedo, Ag, is in the range 0.094 to 0.013. The measured night side flux corresponds to a night side brightness temperature of 2154 $\pm$ 83 K, much greater than what is expected for a planet with homogeneous heat redistribution. From the comparison to star and planet evolution models, we found that dissipation should operate in the deep interior of the planet. This modeling also shows that despite its inflated radius, the planet presents a noticeable amount of heavy elements, which accounts for a mass fraction of 0.11 $\pm$ 0.04.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We observed with HARPS, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for 40 of the 75 transiting hot Jupiters discovered in the Southern Hemisphere by WASP. Our observations reveal a wide distribution in orbital inclinations indicative of past dynamical interactions. Our data also demonstrate the important effect produced by tidal interactions in shaping the spin-orbit (β) angle distribution. We briefly present and interpret the data we collected in a series of graphs.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-precision radial-velocity measurements of three solar-type stars: HD 13908, HD 159243, and HIP 91258. The observations were made with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the 1.93-m telescope of Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France). They show that these three bright stars host exoplanetary systems composed of at least two companions. HD 13908 b is a planet with a minimum mass of 0.865+-0.035 Mjup, on a circular orbit with a period of 19.382+-0.006 days. There is an outer massive companion in the system with a period of 931+-17 days, e = 0.12+-0.02, and a minimum mass of 5.13+-0.25 Mjup. The star HD 159243, also has two detected companions with respective masses, periods, and eccentricities of Mp = 1.13+-0.05 and 1.9+-0.13 Mjup, $P$ = 12.620+-0.004 and 248.4+-4.9 days, and e = 0.02+-0.02 and 0.075+-0.05. Finally, the star HIP 91258 has a planetary companion with a minimum mass of 1.068+-0.038 Mjup, an orbital period of 5.0505+-0.0015 days, and a quadratic trend indicating an outer planetary or stellar companion that is as yet uncharacterized. The planet-hosting stars HD 13908, HD 159243, and HIP 91258 are main-sequence stars of spectral types F8V, G0V, and G5V, respectively, with moderate activity levels. HIP 91258 is slightly over-metallic, while the two other stars have solar-like metallicity. The three systems are discussed in the frame of formation and dynamical evolution models of systems composed of several giant planets.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The exoplanet KOI-142b (Kepler-88) shows transit timing variations (TTVs) with a semi-amplitude of $\sim 12\,$ hours, earning the nickname of king of transit variations. Only the transit of the planet b was detected in the Kepler data with an orbital period of $\sim 10.92\,$ days and a radius of $\sim 0.36$ RJup. The TTVs together with the transit duration variations (TDVs) of KOI-142b were analysed by Nesvorny et al 2013 who found a unique solution for a companion perturbing planet. The authors predicted an outer non-transiting companion, KOI-142c, with a mass of $0.626\pm 0.03$ MJup and a period of $22.3397^{+0.0021}_{-0.0018}\,$days, and hence close to the 2:1 mean-motion resonance with the inner transiting planet. We report independent confirmation of KOI-142c using radial velocity observations with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. We derive an orbital period of $22.10 \pm 0.25\,$days and a minimum planetary mass of $0.76^{+0.32}_{0.16}\,$ MJup, both in good agreement with the predictions by previous transit timing analysis. Therefore, this is the first radial velocities confirmation of non-transiting planet discovered with transit timing variations, providing an independent validation of the TTVs technique.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report three new transiting hot-Jupiter planets discovered from the WASP surveys combined with radial velocities from OHP/SOPHIE and Euler/CORALIE and photometry from Euler and TRAPPIST. All three planets are inflated, with radii 1.7-1.8 Rjup. All orbit hot stars, F5-F7, and all three stars have evolved, post-MS radii (1.7-2.2 Rsun). Thus the three planets, with orbits of 1.8-3.9 d, are among the most irradiated planets known. This reinforces the correlation between inflated planets and stellar irradiation.
    10/2013;

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,136.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille (UMR 7326 LAM)
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2007–2014
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007–2011
    • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005–2011
    • Observatoire de Haute-Provence
      Manosque, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2010
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2006–2010
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • • Observatoire de Paris
      • • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Aarhus University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Weizmann Institute of Science
      • Faculty of Physics
      Israel
  • 2008
    • Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg
      Tautenburg, Thuringia, Germany
  • 2005–2007
    • Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale de Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2004
    • Observatoire Astrophysique de Marseille Provence
      • Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France