Patricia Somsel

MDCH Michigan Department of Community Health, Michigan Center, Michigan, United States

Are you Patricia Somsel?

Claim your profile

Publications (15)58.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile (CD), Salmonella, Campylobacter and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major causes of morbidity in a variety of enteric diseases in humans and animals, but subclinical carriage in both is probably more common than are clinical cases. Little is known regarding the prevalence of these pathogens in animals raised for exhibit at Michigan county fairs or the frequency with which Michigan citizens raising these animals may have been subclinically colonized. To address these issues, 361 fecal specimens from 158 humans and 203 of their farm animals were cultured for CD, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Additionally, 50 people and their cattle were tested for EHEC. No EHEC, Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. However, 16 specimens (4.4%) were positive for CD: 13 humans, two horses and one pig. None of the farm animal specimens submitted by any of the 13 CD-positive humans were positive for CD. Strain characterization [toxinotype, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)] demonstrated that the human CD isolates were similar to what has been reported previously in the general US population. We conclude that horses and farm animals (cattle, sheep, goats and swine) at 1-2 months before market weight showed no evidence of wide-spread carriage of the common enteric pathogens, including the recently reported CD toxinotype V. These results provide no support to the hypothesis that 4-H members or others visiting county fair animal husbandry projects in these counties may be at increased risk for acquisition of CD, Salmonella, Campylobacter or EHEC from animals.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 05/2011; 58(3):192-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While Group B Streptococcus (GBS) human colonization and infection has long been suspected as originating from cows, several investigators have suggested that ongoing interspecies GBS transmission is unlikely due to genotyping data demonstrating that human and bovine-derived GBS strains represent mostly distinct populations. The possibility of ongoing transmission between humans and their livestock has not been systematically examined. To examine ongoing interspecies transmission, we conducted a prospective cross-sectional cohort study of 68 families and their livestock. Stool specimens were collected from 154 people and 115 livestock; GBS was detected in 19 (12.3%) humans and 2 (1.7%) animals (bovine and sheep). Application of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified 8 sequence types (STs or clones), with STs 1 and 23 predominating. There were 11 families in which two members submitted stools and at least one had GBS colonization. In 3 of these families, both members (consisting of couples) were colonized, yielding a co-colonization rate of 27% (95% CI: 7%-61%). Two of these couples had strains with identical MLST, capsule (cps) genotype, susceptibility, and RAPD profiles. One couple co-colonized with ST-1 (cps5) strains also had a bovine colonized with the identical strain type. On multivariate analysis of questionnaire data, cattle exposure was a predictor of GBS colonization, with each unit increase in days of cattle exposure increasing the odds of colonization by 20% (P = 0.02). These results support interspecies transmission with additional evidence for transmission provided by the epidemiological association with cattle exposure. Although GBS uncommonly colonizes livestock stools, increased frequency of cattle exposure was significantly associated with human colonization and one couple shared the same GBS strains as their bovine suggesting intraspecies transmission. These results set the framework for GBS as a possible zoonotic infection, which has significant public health implications.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8795. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Public health surveillance is often dependent on sentinel testing performed in clinical microbiology laboratories, and recognition of emerging/ unusual antimicrobial resistance is especially challenging. We obtained cumulative antibiograms from hospitals to determine whether clinical laboratories recognized unusual resistance or reported antimicrobials inappropriate for various bacterial species, as measured before and after public health laboratory (PHL) educational and technical-support interventions. We compared cumulative antibiogram data from 81 clinical laboratories servicing 86 hospitals in Michigan from 2000 through 2005 with a standardized checklist derived from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) documents. We considered the reporting of unlikely percent-susceptible results and/or inappropriate antimicrobials serious errors, and we calculated error rates for each data year. We used CLSI-recommendation compliance as a measure to determine whether laboratories were implementing changes. Ninety-five of 239 (28%) cumulative antibiograms examined had one or more serious errors. The annual number of cumulative antibiograms with serious errors did not change radically (range: 10-13); however, when expressed as a percentage of cumulative antibiograms received, the occurrence of these errors declined from 59% in 2000 to 19% in 2005. The reporting of misleading or dangerous antimicrobial-organism combinations occurred less frequently than the reporting of unlikely percent-susceptible results. Compliance with new CLSI recommendations did not improve significantly. AST is complex and nuanced. PHL programs can provide resources, guidance, and technical support to help clinical microbiologists differentiate questionable AST results from true emerging antimicrobial resistance.
    Public Health Reports 01/2010; 125 Suppl 2:63-72. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin--producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. Prompt, accurate diagnosis of STEC infection is important because appropriate treatment early in the course of infection might decrease the risk for serious complications such as renal damage and improve overall patient outcome. In addition, prompt laboratory identification of STEC strains is essential for detecting new and emerging serotypes, for effective and timely outbreak responses and control measures, and for monitoring trends in disease epidemiology. Guidelines for laboratory identification of STEC infections by clinical laboratories were published in 2006. This report provides comprehensive and detailed recommendations for STEC testing by clinical laboratories, including the recommendation that all stools submitted for routine testing from patients with acute community-acquired diarrhea (regardless of patient age, season of the year, or presence or absence of blood in the stool) be simultaneously cultured for E. coli O157:H7 (O157 STEC) and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC. The report also includes detailed procedures for specimen selection, handling, and transport; a review of culture and nonculture tests for STEC detection; and clinical considerations and recommendations for management of patients with STEC infection. Improving the diagnostic accuracy of STEC infection by clinical laboratories should ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infections in patients and increase detection of STEC outbreaks in the community.
    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 10/2009; 58(RR-12):1-14.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic diversity among S. Enteritidis isolates from different geographic regions to evaluate the relationship between phage types (PTs) and variable number tandem repeat analysis (VNTR) loci. We performed multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and phage typing on 245 S. Enteritidis isolates collected from sporadic human clinical cases in Michigan, Minnesota, New York, and Washington states between 2000 and 2007. Ninety-four MLVA types and 22 different PTs were identified. Specific PTs were associated with a predominant allele for certain VNTR loci. Cluster analysis using a minimum-spanning tree demonstrated two major clusters (I, II) and one minor cluster of isolates. PTs 8, 13a, 13 and 34 were significantly associated with MLVA cluster I. Phage types 1, 4, 6a, and 18 were significantly associated with MLVA cluster II. We found significant association between MLVA-based clusters and PTs. Certain VNTR loci were associated with specific PTs and could serve as useful molecular markers for S. Enteritidis in epidemiological investigations. MLVA genotyping in combination with phage typing can be used for effective characterization of S. Enteritidis isolates. It can also be useful for tracing possible sources during investigations of sporadic and outbreak cases of S. Enteritidis.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2009; 108(3):859-67. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O157:H7, a toxin-producing food and waterborne bacterial pathogen, has been linked to large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness for more than two decades. E. coli O157 causes a wide range of clinical illness that varies by outbreak, although factors that contribute to variation in disease severity are poorly understood. Several recent outbreaks involving O157 contamination of fresh produce (e.g., spinach) were associated with more severe disease, as defined by higher hemolytic uremic syndrome and hospitalization frequencies, suggesting that increased virulence has evolved. To test this hypothesis, we developed a system that detects SNPs in 96 loci and applied it to >500 E. coli O157 clinical strains. Phylogenetic analyses identified 39 SNP genotypes that differ at 20% of SNP loci and are separated into nine distinct clades. Differences were observed between clades in the frequency and distribution of Shiga toxin genes and in the type of clinical disease reported. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were significantly more likely to be infected with clade 8 strains, which have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. Genome sequencing of a spinach outbreak strain, a member of clade 8, also revealed substantial genomic differences. These findings suggest that an emergent subpopulation of the clade 8 lineage has acquired critical factors that contribute to more severe disease. The ability to detect and rapidly genotype O157 strains belonging to such lineages is important and will have a significant impact on both disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2008; 105(12):4868-73. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A surveillance system used different detection methods to estimate prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli during 2003-2005 and 2001-2002. More non-O157 serotypes were detected by enzyme immunoassay than by evaluation of non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli isolates. We therefore recommend use of enzyme immunoassay and culture-based methods.
    Emerging infectious diseases 03/2007; 13(2):318-21. · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis is infrequently reported as a laboratory-acquired infection. Prompted by two cases in the United States in 2000, we assessed this risk among laboratorians. We identified cases of meningococcal disease that were possibly acquired or suspected of being acquired in a laboratory by placing an information request on e-mail discussion groups of infectious disease, microbiology, and infection control professional organizations. A probable case of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease was defined as illness meeting the case definition for meningococcal disease in a laboratorian who had occupational exposure to an N. meningitidis isolate of the same serogroup within 14 days of illness onset. Sixteen cases of probable laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease occurring worldwide between 1985 and 2001 were identified, including six U.S. cases between 1996 and 2000. Nine cases (56%) were serogroup B; seven (44%) were serogroup C. Eight cases (50%) were fatal. All cases occurred among clinical microbiologists. In 15 cases (94%), isolate manipulation was performed without respiratory protection. We estimated that an average of three microbiologists are exposed to the 3,000 meningococcal isolates seen in U.S. laboratories yearly and calculated an attack rate of 13/100,000 microbiologists between 1996 and 2001, compared to 0.2/100,000 among U.S. adults in general. The rate and case/fatality ratio of meningococcal disease among microbiologists are higher than those in the general U.S. population. Specific risk factors for laboratory-acquired infection are likely associated with exposure to droplets or aerosols containing N. meningitidis. Prevention should focus on the implementation of class II biological safety cabinets or additional respiratory protection during manipulation of suspected meningococcal isolates.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2005; 43(9):4811-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) in the United States is a cause for concern. Detecting resistance is complicated by the widespread use of molecular tests that do not provide isolates for susceptibility testing. The Michigan Department of Community Health developed a sentinel surveillance program to detect antimicrobial drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Sentinel surveillance from 11 laboratories submitted 1,122 isolates for antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and detected 2 clusters of QRNG from January 2003 to September 2004. These clusters were epidemiologically distinct: one involved young, heterosexual youth, and the other involved older men who have sex with men. This finding led to changes in local treatment recommendations that limited spread of resistant strains. Development of the sentinel program, collection of data, and epidemiologic analysis of the clusters are discussed.
    Emerging infectious diseases 08/2005; 11(7):1009-15. · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) reported 644 laboratory positive human cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the 2002 outbreak in the US, of which 559 cases presented with either meningitis or encephalitis. The first line test utilized for diagnosis of WNV infection was the immunoglobulin M (IgM)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). We continued testing for WNV even during winter months of the year 2002-2003 due to the awareness of other modes of WNV transmission (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental, breast milk, and occupational) as well as concern for people traveling to endemic areas. As a result of year-round testing for WNV infections during 2002-2003, we detected WNV IgM-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from three patients persisting for 110, 141, and 199 days post acute phase infection in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease. This is a new observation and there is no published data on the persistence of WNV IgM antibodies in CSF specimens beyond 47 days. Thus, it is important to note that the presence of WNV IgM class antibodies may not always reflect acute phase infection with this virus.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 01/2005; 31(4):289-91. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Patricia Somsel, David Warnock
    Emerging infectious diseases 12/2004; 10(11):2049-50. · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 868 isolates was screened from seven different collections of organisms from previous studies - pyelonephritis in children aged 1-24 months; first, second and recurring urinary tract infection (UTI) in women aged 18-39 years; UTI in women aged 40-65 years and peri-urethral and faecal isolates from women aged 18-39 years - for the presence of 10 potential Escherichia coli UTI virulence genes. Previously reported differences between the frequency of these genes in UTI compared with faecal isolates were confirmed and extended. A single virulence signature (strains containing aer, kpsMT, ompT, fim and papGAD) occurred in 29% of the pyelonephritic isolates, but in no more than 11% of the other collections. Peri-urethral isolates were found to have frequencies of these 10 genes that differed from those found for both UTI and faecal isolates.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 03/2002; 51(2):138-42. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a case–control study to explore the role of health behavior and sexual and medical history on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk among otherwise healthy women aged 40–65. Cases and controls were recruited from nine practices and clinics in Michigan and a single clinic in Israel. In both countries, several factors were reported significantly more frequently among UTI cases than controls: a previous UTI within 12 months, incontinence symptoms, a recent episode of 30-plus minutes of cold hands, feet, back or buttocks, and recent antibiotic use. Cases were less likely than controls to report recent estrogen use, but the results were only statistically significant in Michigan. Sexual activity during the previous 2 weeks and having ceased menses were modestly, but not statistically significantly, protective at both study sites. Risk factors for UTI among women 40–65 differ from those for younger women and these differences cannot be attributed solely to changes in menopausal status.
    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 08/2001; · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a case–control study to explore the role of health behavior and sexual and medical history on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk among otherwise healthy women aged 40–65. Cases and controls were recruited from nine practices and clinics in Michigan and a single clinic in Israel. In both countries, several factors were reported significantly more frequently among UTI cases than controls: a previous UTI within 12 months, incontinence symptoms, a recent episode of 30-plus minutes of cold hands, feet, back or buttocks, and recent antibiotic use. Cases were less likely than controls to report recent estrogen use, but the results were only statistically significant in Michigan. Sexual activity during the previous 2 weeks and having ceased menses were modestly, but not statistically significantly, protective at both study sites. Risk factors for UTI among women 40–65 differ from those for younger women and these differences cannot be attributed solely to changes in menopausal status.
    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - J CLIN EPIDEMIOL. 01/2001; 54(7):710-718.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied genetic diversity in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in throat culture isolates from 38 children attending two day-care centers in Michigan. Culture specimens were collected weekly; 184 S. pneumoniae and 418 H. influenzae were isolated from the cultures. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 29 patterns among the S. pneumoniae isolates and 87 among the H. influenzae isolates. Of the cultures, 5% contained multiple genetic types of S. pneumoniae, and 43% contained multiple types of H. influenzae. Carriage of multiple H. influenzae isolates, which was associated with exposure to smoking, history of allergies, and age 36 to 47 months, may increase risk for otitis media in children.
    Emerging infectious diseases 6(6):622-30. · 5.99 Impact Factor