M. H. Pinsonneault

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (193)890.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We derive age constraints for 1639 red giants in the APOKASC sample for which seismic parameters from Kepler, as well as effective temperatures, metallicities and [{\alpha}/Fe] values from APOGEE DR12 are available. We investigate the relation between age and chemical abundances for these stars, using a simple and robust approach to obtain ages. We first derive stellar masses using standard seismic scaling relations, then determine the maximum possible age for each star as function of its mass and metallicity, independently of its evolutionary stage. While the overall trend between maximum age and chemical abundances is a declining fraction of young stars with increasing [{\alpha}/Fe], at least 14 out of 241 stars with [{\alpha}/Fe]>0.13 are younger than 6 Gyr. Five stars with [{\alpha}/Fe]>0.2 have ages below 4 Gyr. We examine the effect of modifications in the standard seismic scaling relations, as well as the effect of very low helium fractions, but these changes are not enough to make these stars as old as usually expected for {\alpha}-rich stars (i.e., ages greater than 8-9 Gyr). Such unusual {\alpha}-rich young stars have also been detected by other surveys, but defy simple explanations in a galaxy evolution context.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The open cluster NGC 6791 is among the oldest, most massive and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution $H$-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC 6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of $\sim$ 0.05 - 0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the red-giant branch (T$_{\rm eff}$ $\sim$ 3500K - 4600K), and include two red-clump giants. From the infrared spectra, this cluster is confirmed to be among the most metal-rich clusters in the Galaxy ($<$[Fe/H]$>$ = 0.34 $\pm$ 0.06), and is found to have a roughly solar value of [O/Fe] and slightly enhanced [Na/Fe]. Non-LTE calculations for the studied Na I lines in the APOGEE spectral region ($\lambda$16373.86\AA\ and $\lambda$16388.85\AA) indicate only small departures from LTE ($\leq$ 0.04 dex) for the parameter range and metallicity of the studied stars. The previously reported double population of cluster members with different Na abundances is not found among the studied sample.
    11/2014;
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    Garrett Somers, Marc H. Pinsonneault
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    ABSTRACT: The rapidly rotating cool dwarfs of the Pleiades are rich in lithium relative to their slowly rotating counterparts. Motivated by observations of inflated radii in young, active stars, and by calculations showing that radius inflation inhibits pre-main sequence (pre-MS) Li destruction, we test whether this pattern could arise from a connection between stellar rotation rate and radius inflation on the pre-MS. We demonstrate that pre-MS radius inflation can efficiently suppress lithium destruction by rotationally induced mixing, and that the net effect of inflation and rotational mixing is a pattern where rotation correlates with lithium abundance for $M_{*} < {\rm M}_{\odot}$, and anti-correlates with lithium abundance for $M_{*} > {\rm M}_{\odot}$, similar to the empirical trend in the Pleiades. Next, we adopt different prescriptions for the dependence of inflation on rotation, and compare their predictions to the Pleiades lithium/rotation pattern. A connection between rotation and radius inflation naturally and generically reproduces the important qualitative features of this pattern. This is the first consistent physical model to date that explains the Li-rotation correlation in the Pleiades. We discuss plausible mechanisms for inducing this correlation, show that our results are insensitive to assumptions about angular momentum transport, and suggest an observational test using granulation.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first APOKASC catalog of spectroscopic and asteroseismic properties of 1916 red giants observed in the Kepler fields. The spectroscopic parameters provided from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment project are complemented with asteroseismic surface gravities, masses, radii, and mean densities determined by members of the Kepler Asteroseismology Science Consortium. We assess both random and systematic sources of error and include a discussion of sample selection for giants in the Kepler fields. Total uncertainties in the main catalog properties are of order 80 K in Teff , 0.06 dex in [M/H], 0.014 dex in log g, and 12% and 5% in mass and radius, respectively; these reflect a combination of systematic and random errors. Asteroseismic surface gravities are substantially more precise and accurate than spectroscopic ones, and we find good agreement between their mean values and the calibrated spectroscopic surface gravities. There are, however, systematic underlying trends with Teff and log g. Our effective temperature scale is between 0-200 K cooler than that expected from the Infrared Flux Method, depending on the adopted extinction map, which provides evidence for a lower value on average than that inferred for the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We find a reasonable correspondence between the photometric KIC and spectroscopic APOKASC metallicity scales, with increased dispersion in KIC metallicities as the absolute metal abundance decreases, and offsets in Teff and log g consistent with those derived in the literature. We present mean fitting relations between APOKASC and KIC observables and discuss future prospects, strengths, and limitations of the catalog data.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a first determination of distances and extinctions for individual stars in the first release of the APOKASC catalogue, built from the joint efforts of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). Our method takes into account the spectroscopic constraints derived from the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline, together with the asteroseismic parameters from KASC. These parameters are then employed to estimate intrinsic stellar properties, including absolute magnitudes, using the Bayesian tool PARAM. We then find the distance and extinction that best fit the observed photometry in SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE passbands. The first 1989 giants targeted by APOKASC are found at typical distances between 0.5 and 5 kpc, with individual uncertainties of just ~1.8 per cent. Our extinction estimates are systematically smaller than provided in the Kepler Input Catalogue and by the Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis maps. Distances to individual stars in the NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 star clusters agree to within their credible intervals. Comparison with the APOGEE red clump and SAGA catalogues provide another useful check, exhibiting agreement with our measurements to within a few percent. Overall, present methods seem to provide excellent distance and extinction determinations for the bulk of the APOKASC sample. Approximately one third of the stars present broad or multiple-peaked probability density functions and hence increased uncertainties. Uncertainties are expected to be reduced in future releases of the catalogue, when a larger fraction of the stars will have seismically-determined evolutionary status classifications.
    10/2014;
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    Gail Zasowski, Deokkeun An, Marc Pinsonneault
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    ABSTRACT: The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) provides reddening estimates for its stars, based on the assumption of a simple exponential dusty screen. This project focuses on evaluating and improving these reddening estimates for the KIC's giant stars, for which extinction is a much more significant concern than for the nearby dwarf stars. We aim to improve the calibration (and thus consistency) amongst various photometric and spectroscopic temperatures of stars in the Kepler field by removing systematics due to incorrect extinction assumptions. The revised extinction estimates may then be used to derive improved stellar and planetary properties. We plan to eventually use the large number of KIC stars as probes into the structure and properties of the Galactic ISM.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III's Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey covering all of the major components of the Galaxy, including the dust-obscured regions of the inner Milky Way disk and bulge. Here we present a sample of 10,352 likely red-clump stars (RC) from the first two years of APOGEE operations, selected based on their position in color-metallicity-surface-gravity-effective-temperature space using a new method calibrated using stellar-evolution models and high-quality asteroseismology data. The narrowness of the RC locus in color-metallicity-luminosity space allows us to assign distances to the stars with an accuracy of 5 to 10%. The sample extends to typical distances of about 3 kpc from the Sun, with some stars out to 8 kpc, and spans a volume of approximately 100 kpc^3 over 5 kpc <~ R <~ 14 kpc, |Z| <~ 2 kpc, and -15 deg <~ Galactocentric azimuth <~ 30 deg. The APOGEE red-clump (APOGEE-RC) catalog contains photometry from 2MASS, reddening estimates, distances, line-of-sight velocities, stellar parameters and elemental abundances determined from the high-resolution APOGEE spectra, and matches to major proper motion catalogs. We determine the survey selection function for this data set and discuss how the RC selection samples the underlying stellar populations. We use this sample to limit any azimuthal variations in the median metallicity within the ~45 degree-wide azimuthal region covered by the current sample to be <= 0.02 dex, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the radial metallicity gradient. This result constrains coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kpc from the Sun.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Kepler ultra-high precision photometry of long and continuous observations provide a unique dataset in which surface rotation and variability can be studied for thousands of stars. Because many of these old field stars also have independently measured asteroseismic ages, measurements of rotation and activity are particularly interesting in the context of age-rotation-activity relations. These relations generally lack good calibrators at old ages, a problem that this Kepler sample of stars is uniquely suited to address. We study the surface rotation and the photometric magnetic activity of a subset of 540 solar-like stars on the main-sequence and the subgiant branch for which stellar pulsations have been measured. The rotation period is determined by comparing the results from two different sets of calibrated data and from two complementary analyses. Global photometric levels of magnetic activity in this sample of stars are also extracted by using a photometric activity index, which takes into account the rotation period of the stars. Out of the 540 solar-like pulsating stars in our sample, we successfully measured the rotation period of 310 stars (excluding known binaries and candidate planet host stars). The rotation periods lay between 1 and 100 days. The remaining stars are classified into two categories: those not showing any surface rotation (6 stars), and those in which the four analyses did not converge to a single and robust rotation period (213). The photometric magnetic activity levels were computed and for 61.5% of the dwarfs, its value is comparable to the solar one. We then extract an age-rotation relation only for the dwarfs with very precise asteroseismic age estimations, highlighting the necessity of excluding the hot stars and the subgiants when inferring such relations. We also studied age-activity-rotation relations with a hint of correlation for the subgiants.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<{\Delta}M>=0.17+/-0.05 Msun) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 Msun level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ~100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2014; 785(2). · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    Garrett Somers, Marc Pinsonneault
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate lithium depletion in standard stellar models (SSMs) and main sequence (MS) open clusters, and explore the origin of the Li dispersion in young, cool stars of equal mass, age and composition. We first demonstrate that SSMs accurately predict the Li abundances of solar analogs at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) within theoretical uncertainties. We then measure the rate of MS Li depletion by removing the [Fe/H]-dependent ZAMS Li pattern from three well-studied clusters, and comparing the detrended data. MS depletion is found to be mass dependent, in the sense of more depletion at low mass. A dispersion in Li abundance at fixed $T_{\rm eff}$ is nearly universal, and sets in by $\sim$200 Myr. We discuss mass and age dispersion trends, and the pattern is mixed. We argue that metallicity impacts the ZAMS Li pattern, in agreement with theoretical expectations but contrary to the findings of some previous studies, and suggest Li as a test of cluster metallicity. Finally, we argue that a radius dispersion in stars of fixed mass and age, during the epoch of pre-MS Li destruction, is responsible for the spread in Li abundances and the correlation between rotation and Li in young cool stars, most well known in the Pleiades. We calculate stellar models, inflated to match observed radius anomalies in magnetically active systems, and the resulting range of Li abundances reproduces the observed patterns of young clusters. We discuss ramifications for pre-MS evolutionary tracks and age measurements of young clusters, and suggest an observational test.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 790(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context : We still do not know which mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this issue. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependance of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extract the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then perform a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes CESAM2k and ASTEC. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we perform inversions of the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the mean rotation rate in the core and in the convective envelope of these stars. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, contrary to the RGB stars whose core has been shown to spin down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. These results will bring observational constraints to the scenarios of angular momentum transport in stars.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2014; 564. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate measurements of fundamental stellar properties are vital for improving our understanding of stellar populations and galactic evolution. Asteroseismology makes possible precise measurements of stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity. Combining these asteroseismic measurements with spectroscopic temperatures and abundances enables the derivation of precise ages for field stars. To achieve that goal, two complementary surveys, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC), are working together to characterize the fundamental properties thousands of red giants in the Kepler field. As a first step toward deriving ages, asteroseismic masses need to be calibrated with independent mass constraints. I will describe how we use a sample of halo stars to test asteroseismic results in the metal-poor regime. The age of halo stars is well constrained by many lines of evidence, including isochrones fits to globular clusters, white dwarf cooling sequence, and the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium. These age constraints translate to a strict prior on halo star masses. I show that the seismic masses are sensitive to the method used to derive seismic parameters and to published, theoretically motivated corrections. The implications of this work for stellar populations are discussed.
    01/2014;
  • Marc H. Pinsonneault, J. Tayar
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    ABSTRACT: Asteroseismology now permits the measurement of core rotation rates in evolved stars. Strong differential rotation sets in during the first dredge-up for red giants and is suppressed in the core-He burning phase. This data complements constraints on core-envelope coupling from the Sun and the spin down of young cluster stars. The implications for diagnosing the dominant angular momentum transport mechanisms in stars are discussed.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a quantitative analysis of the solar composition problem by using a statistical approach that allows us to combine the information provided by helioseimic and solar neutrino data in an effective way. We include in our analysis the helioseismic determinations of the surface helium abundance and of the depth of the convective envelope, the measurements of the $^7{\rm Be}$ and $^8{\rm B}$ neutrino fluxes, the sound speed profile inferred from helioseismic frequencies. We provide all the ingredients to describe how these quantities depend on the solar surface composition and to evaluate the (correlated) uncertainties in solar model predictions. We include errors sources that are not traditionally considered such as those from inversion of helioseismic data. We, then, apply the proposed approach to infer the chemical composition of the Sun. We show that the opacity profile of the Sun is well constrained by the solar observational properties. In the context of a two parameter analysis in which elements are grouped as volatiles (i.e. C, N, O and Ne) and refractories (i.e Mg, Si, S, Fe), the optimal composition is found by increasing the the abundance of volatiles by $\left( 45\pm 4\right)\%$ and that of refractories by $\left( 19\pm 3\right)\%$ with respect to the values provided by AGSS09. This corresponds to the abundances $\varepsilon_{\rm O}=8.85\pm 0.01$ and $\varepsilon_{\rm Fe}=7.52\pm0.01$. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that the observational data prefer values for the input parameters of the standard solar models (radiative opacities, gravitational settling rate, the astrophysical factors $S_{34}$ and $S_{17}$) that differ at the $\sim 1\sigma$ level from those presently adopted.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 787(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present revised properties for 196,468 stars observed by the NASA Kepler Mission and used in the analysis of Quarter 1-16 (Q1-Q16) data to detect and characterize transiting exoplanets. The catalog is based on a compilation of literature values for atmospheric properties (temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) derived from different observational techniques (photometry, spectroscopy, asteroseismology, and exoplanet transits), which were then homogeneously fitted to a grid of Dartmouth stellar isochrones. We use broadband photometry and asteroseismology to characterize 11,532 Kepler targets which were previously unclassified in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We report the detection of oscillations in 2,762 of these targets, classifying them as giant stars and increasing the number of known oscillating giant stars observed by Kepler by ~20% to a total of ~15,500 stars. Typical uncertainties in derived radii and masses are ~40% and ~20% for stars with photometric constraints only, and ~5-15% and ~10% for stars based on spectroscopy and/or asteroseismology, although these uncertainties vary strongly with spectral type and luminosity class. A comparison with the Q1-Q12 catalog shows a systematic decrease in radii for M dwarfs, while radii for K dwarfs decrease or increase depending on the Q1-Q12 provenance (KIC or Yonsei-Yale isochrones). Radii of F-G dwarfs are on average unchanged, with the exception of newly identified giants. The Q1-Q16 star properties catalog is a first step towards an improved characterization of all Kepler targets to support planet occurrence studies.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2013; 211(1). · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The continuous high-precision photometric observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions have allowed us to better understand the structure and dynamics of red giants using asteroseismic techniques. A small fraction of these stars shows dipole modes with unexpectedly low amplitudes. The reduction in amplitude is more pronounced for stars with higher frequency of maximum power. In this work we want to characterize KIC 8561221 in order to confirm that it is currently the least evolved star among this peculiar subset and to discuss several hypotheses that could help explain the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. We used Kepler short- and long-cadence data combined with spectroscopic observations to infer the stellar structure and dynamics of KIC 8561221. We then discussed different scenarios that could contribute to the reduction of the dipole amplitudes such as a fast rotating interior or the effect of a magnetic field on the properties of the modes. We also performed a detailed study of the inertia and damping of the modes. We have been able to characterize 37 oscillations modes, in particular, a few dipole modes above nu_max that exhibit nearly normal amplitudes. We have inferred a surface rotation period of around 91 days and uncovered the existence of a variation in the surface magnetic activity during the last 4 years. As expected, the internal regions of the star probed by the l = 2 and 3 modes spin 4 to 8 times faster than the surface. With our grid of standard models we are able to properly fit the observed frequencies. Our model calculation of mode inertia and damping give no explanation for the depressed dipole modes. A fast rotating core is also ruled out as a possible explanation. Finally, we do not have any observational evidence of the presence of a strong deep magnetic field inside the star.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; 563. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 09/2013; 208(1):12. · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We comment on the potential for continuing asteroseismology of solar-type and red-giant stars in a 2-wheel Kepler Mission. Our main conclusion is that by targeting stars in the ecliptic it should be possible to perform high-quality asteroseismology, as long as favorable scenarios for 2-wheel pointing performance are met. Targeting the ecliptic would potentially facilitate unique science that was not possible in the nominal Mission, notably from the study of clusters that are significantly brighter than those in the Kepler field. Our conclusions are based on predictions of 2-wheel observations made by a space photometry simulator, with information provided by the Kepler Project used as input to describe the degraded pointing scenarios. We find that elevated levels of frequency-dependent noise, consistent with the above scenarios, would have a significant negative impact on our ability to continue asteroseismic studies of solar-like oscillators in the Kepler field. However, the situation may be much more optimistic for observations in the ecliptic, provided that pointing resets of the spacecraft during regular desaturations of the two functioning reaction wheels are accurate at the < 1 arcsec level. This would make it possible to apply a post-hoc analysis that would recover most of the lost photometric precision. Without this post-hoc correction---and the accurate re-pointing it requires---the performance would probably be as poor as in the Kepler-field case. Critical to our conclusions for both fields is the assumed level of pointing noise (in the short-term jitter and the longer-term drift). We suggest that further tests will be needed to clarify our results once more detail and data on the expected pointing performance becomes available, and we offer our assistance in this work.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a three year survey that is collecting 100,000 high-resolution spectra in the near-IR across multiple Galactic populations. To derive stellar parameters and chemical compositions from this massive data set, the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) has been developed. Here, we describe empirical calibrations of stellar parameters presented in the first SDSS-III APOGEE data release (DR10). These calibrations were enabled by observations of 559 stars in 20 globular and open clusters. The cluster observations were supplemented by observations of stars in NASA's Kepler field that have well determined surface gravities from asteroseismic analysis. We discuss the accuracy and precision of the derived stellar parameters, considering especially effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity; we also briefly discuss the derived results for the abundances of the alpha-elements, carbon, and nitrogen. Overall, we find that ASPCAP achieves reasonably accurate results for temperature and metallicity, but suffers from systematic errors in surface gravity. We derive calibration relations that bring the raw ASPCAP results into better agreement with independently determined stellar parameters. The internal scatter of ASPCAP parameters within clusters suggests that, metallicities are measured with a precision better than 0.1 dex, effective temperatures better than 150 K, and surface gravities better than 0.2 dex. The understanding provided by the clusters and Kepler giants on the current accuracy and precision will be invaluable for future improvements of the pipeline.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2013; 146(5). · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of ~100,000 red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2013; 5.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
890.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2013
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Portsmouth
      • Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation ICG
      Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2004
    • Institute for Advanced Study
      • School of Natural Sciences
      Princeton, NJ, United States
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France