M. H. Pinsonneault

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

Are you M. H. Pinsonneault?

Claim your profile

Publications (189)902.88 Total impact

  • Gail Zasowski, Deokkeun An, Marc Pinsonneault
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) provides reddening estimates for its stars, based on the assumption of a simple exponential dusty screen. This project focuses on evaluating and improving these reddening estimates for the KIC's giant stars, for which extinction is a much more significant concern than for the nearby dwarf stars. We aim to improve the calibration (and thus consistency) amongst various photometric and spectroscopic temperatures of stars in the Kepler field by removing systematics due to incorrect extinction assumptions. The revised extinction estimates may then be used to derive improved stellar and planetary properties. We plan to eventually use the large number of KIC stars as probes into the structure and properties of the Galactic ISM.
    09/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III's Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey covering all of the major components of the Galaxy, including the dust-obscured regions of the inner Milky Way disk and bulge. Here we present a sample of 10,352 likely red-clump stars (RC) from the first two years of APOGEE operations, selected based on their position in color-metallicity-surface-gravity-effective-temperature space using a new method calibrated using stellar-evolution models and high-quality asteroseismology data. The narrowness of the RC locus in color-metallicity-luminosity space allows us to assign distances to the stars with an accuracy of 5 to 10%. The sample extends to typical distances of about 3 kpc from the Sun, with some stars out to 8 kpc, and spans a volume of approximately 100 kpc^3 over 5 kpc <~ R <~ 14 kpc, |Z| <~ 2 kpc, and -15 deg <~ Galactocentric azimuth <~ 30 deg. The APOGEE red-clump (APOGEE-RC) catalog contains photometry from 2MASS, reddening estimates, distances, line-of-sight velocities, stellar parameters and elemental abundances determined from the high-resolution APOGEE spectra, and matches to major proper motion catalogs. We determine the survey selection function for this data set and discuss how the RC selection samples the underlying stellar populations. We use this sample to limit any azimuthal variations in the median metallicity within the ~45 degree-wide azimuthal region covered by the current sample to be <= 0.02 dex, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the radial metallicity gradient. This result constrains coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kpc from the Sun.
    05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kepler ultra-high precision photometry of long and continuous observations provide a unique dataset in which surface rotation and variability can be studied for thousands of stars. Because many of these old field stars also have independently measured asteroseismic ages, measurements of rotation and activity are particularly interesting in the context of age-rotation-activity relations. These relations generally lack good calibrators at old ages, a problem that this Kepler sample of stars is uniquely suited to address. We study the surface rotation and the photometric magnetic activity of a subset of 540 solar-like stars on the main-sequence and the subgiant branch for which stellar pulsations have been measured. The rotation period is determined by comparing the results from two different sets of calibrated data and from two complementary analyses. Global photometric levels of magnetic activity in this sample of stars are also extracted by using a photometric activity index, which takes into account the rotation period of the stars. Out of the 540 solar-like pulsating stars in our sample, we successfully measured the rotation period of 310 stars (excluding known binaries and candidate planet host stars). The rotation periods lay between 1 and 100 days. The remaining stars are classified into two categories: those not showing any surface rotation (6 stars), and those in which the four analyses did not converge to a single and robust rotation period (213). The photometric magnetic activity levels were computed and for 61.5% of the dwarfs, its value is comparable to the solar one. We then extract an age-rotation relation only for the dwarfs with very precise asteroseismic age estimations, highlighting the necessity of excluding the hot stars and the subgiants when inferring such relations. We also studied age-activity-rotation relations with a hint of correlation for the subgiants.
    03/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fundamental stellar properties, such as mass, radius, and age, can be inferred using asteroseismology. Cool stars with convective envelopes have turbulent motions that can stochastically drive and damp pulsations. The properties of the oscillation frequency power spectrum can be tied to mass and radius through solar-scaled asteroseismic relations. Stellar properties derived using these scaling relations need verification over a range of metallicities. Because the age and mass of halo stars are well-constrained by astrophysical priors, they provide an independent, empirical check on asteroseismic mass estimates in the low-metallicity regime. We identify nine metal-poor red giants (including six stars that are kinematically associated with the halo) from a sample observed by both the Kepler space telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey. We compare masses inferred using asteroseismology to those expected for halo and thick-disk stars. Although our sample is small, standard scaling relations, combined with asteroseismic parameters from the APOKASC Catalog, produce masses that are systematically higher (<{\Delta}M>=0.17+/-0.05 Msun) than astrophysical expectations. The magnitude of the mass discrepancy is reduced by known theoretical corrections to the measured large frequency separation scaling relationship. Using alternative methods for measuring asteroseismic parameters induces systematic shifts at the 0.04 Msun level. We also compare published asteroseismic analyses with scaling relationship masses to examine the impact of using the frequency of maximum power as a constraint. Upcoming APOKASC observations will provide a larger sample of ~100 metal-poor stars, important for detailed asteroseismic characterization of Galactic stellar populations.
    03/2014;
  • Source
    Garrett Somers, Marc Pinsonneault
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate lithium depletion in standard stellar models (SSMs) and main sequence (MS) open clusters, and explore the origin of the Li dispersion in young, cool stars of equal mass, age and composition. We first demonstrate that SSMs accurately predict the Li abundances of solar analogs at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) within theoretical uncertainties. We then measure the rate of MS Li depletion by removing the [Fe/H]-dependent ZAMS Li pattern from three well-studied clusters, and comparing the detrended data. MS depletion is found to be mass dependent, in the sense of more depletion at low mass. A dispersion in Li abundance at fixed $T_{\rm eff}$ is nearly universal, and sets in by $\sim$200 Myr. We discuss mass and age dispersion trends, and the pattern is mixed. We argue that metallicity impacts the ZAMS Li pattern, in agreement with theoretical expectations but contrary to the findings of some previous studies, and suggest Li as a test of cluster metallicity. Finally, we argue that a radius dispersion in stars of fixed mass and age, during the epoch of pre-MS Li destruction, is responsible for the spread in Li abundances and the correlation between rotation and Li in young cool stars, most well known in the Pleiades. We calculate stellar models, inflated to match observed radius anomalies in magnetically active systems, and the resulting range of Li abundances reproduces the observed patterns of young clusters. We discuss ramifications for pre-MS evolutionary tracks and age measurements of young clusters, and suggest an observational test.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 790(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context : We still do not know which mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this issue. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependance of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extract the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then perform a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes CESAM2k and ASTEC. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we perform inversions of the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the mean rotation rate in the core and in the convective envelope of these stars. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, contrary to the RGB stars whose core has been shown to spin down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. These results will bring observational constraints to the scenarios of angular momentum transport in stars.
    01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accurate measurements of fundamental stellar properties are vital for improving our understanding of stellar populations and galactic evolution. Asteroseismology makes possible precise measurements of stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity. Combining these asteroseismic measurements with spectroscopic temperatures and abundances enables the derivation of precise ages for field stars. To achieve that goal, two complementary surveys, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC), are working together to characterize the fundamental properties thousands of red giants in the Kepler field. As a first step toward deriving ages, asteroseismic masses need to be calibrated with independent mass constraints. I will describe how we use a sample of halo stars to test asteroseismic results in the metal-poor regime. The age of halo stars is well constrained by many lines of evidence, including isochrones fits to globular clusters, white dwarf cooling sequence, and the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium. These age constraints translate to a strict prior on halo star masses. I show that the seismic masses are sensitive to the method used to derive seismic parameters and to published, theoretically motivated corrections. The implications of this work for stellar populations are discussed.
    01/2014;
  • Marc H. Pinsonneault, J. Tayar
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asteroseismology now permits the measurement of core rotation rates in evolved stars. Strong differential rotation sets in during the first dredge-up for red giants and is suppressed in the core-He burning phase. This data complements constraints on core-envelope coupling from the Sun and the spin down of young cluster stars. The implications for diagnosing the dominant angular momentum transport mechanisms in stars are discussed.
    01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We perform a quantitative analysis of the solar composition problem by using a statistical approach that allows us to combine the information provided by helioseimic and solar neutrino data in an effective way. We include in our analysis the helioseismic determinations of the surface helium abundance and of the depth of the convective envelope, the measurements of the $^7{\rm Be}$ and $^8{\rm B}$ neutrino fluxes, the sound speed profile inferred from helioseismic frequencies. We provide all the ingredients to describe how these quantities depend on the solar surface composition and to evaluate the (correlated) uncertainties in solar model predictions. We include errors sources that are not traditionally considered such as those from inversion of helioseismic data. We, then, apply the proposed approach to infer the chemical composition of the Sun. We show that the opacity profile of the Sun is well constrained by the solar observational properties. In the context of a two parameter analysis in which elements are grouped as volatiles (i.e. C, N, O and Ne) and refractories (i.e Mg, Si, S, Fe), the optimal composition is found by increasing the the abundance of volatiles by $\left( 45\pm 4\right)\%$ and that of refractories by $\left( 19\pm 3\right)\%$ with respect to the values provided by AGSS09. This corresponds to the abundances $\varepsilon_{\rm O}=8.85\pm 0.01$ and $\varepsilon_{\rm Fe}=7.52\pm0.01$. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that the observational data prefer values for the input parameters of the standard solar models (radiative opacities, gravitational settling rate, the astrophysical factors $S_{34}$ and $S_{17}$) that differ at the $\sim 1\sigma$ level from those presently adopted.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 787(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present revised properties for 196,468 stars observed by the NASA Kepler Mission and used in the analysis of Quarter 1-16 (Q1-Q16) data to detect and characterize transiting exoplanets. The catalog is based on a compilation of literature values for atmospheric properties (temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) derived from different observational techniques (photometry, spectroscopy, asteroseismology, and exoplanet transits), which were then homogeneously fitted to a grid of Dartmouth stellar isochrones. We use broadband photometry and asteroseismology to characterize 11,532 Kepler targets which were previously unclassified in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We report the detection of oscillations in 2,762 of these targets, classifying them as giant stars and increasing the number of known oscillating giant stars observed by Kepler by ~20% to a total of ~15,500 stars. Typical uncertainties in derived radii and masses are ~40% and ~20% for stars with photometric constraints only, and ~5-15% and ~10% for stars based on spectroscopy and/or asteroseismology, although these uncertainties vary strongly with spectral type and luminosity class. A comparison with the Q1-Q12 catalog shows a systematic decrease in radii for M dwarfs, while radii for K dwarfs decrease or increase depending on the Q1-Q12 provenance (KIC or Yonsei-Yale isochrones). Radii of F-G dwarfs are on average unchanged, with the exception of newly identified giants. The Q1-Q16 star properties catalog is a first step towards an improved characterization of all Kepler targets to support planet occurrence studies.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2013; 211(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The continuous high-precision photometric observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions have allowed us to better understand the structure and dynamics of red giants using asteroseismic techniques. A small fraction of these stars shows dipole modes with unexpectedly low amplitudes. The reduction in amplitude is more pronounced for stars with higher frequency of maximum power. In this work we want to characterize KIC 8561221 in order to confirm that it is currently the least evolved star among this peculiar subset and to discuss several hypotheses that could help explain the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. We used Kepler short- and long-cadence data combined with spectroscopic observations to infer the stellar structure and dynamics of KIC 8561221. We then discussed different scenarios that could contribute to the reduction of the dipole amplitudes such as a fast rotating interior or the effect of a magnetic field on the properties of the modes. We also performed a detailed study of the inertia and damping of the modes. We have been able to characterize 37 oscillations modes, in particular, a few dipole modes above nu_max that exhibit nearly normal amplitudes. We have inferred a surface rotation period of around 91 days and uncovered the existence of a variation in the surface magnetic activity during the last 4 years. As expected, the internal regions of the star probed by the l = 2 and 3 modes spin 4 to 8 times faster than the surface. With our grid of standard models we are able to properly fit the observed frequencies. Our model calculation of mode inertia and damping give no explanation for the depressed dipole modes. A fast rotating core is also ruled out as a possible explanation. Finally, we do not have any observational evidence of the presence of a strong deep magnetic field inside the star.
    11/2013;
  • Source
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 09/2013; 208(1):12. · 16.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We comment on the potential for continuing asteroseismology of solar-type and red-giant stars in a 2-wheel Kepler Mission. Our main conclusion is that by targeting stars in the ecliptic it should be possible to perform high-quality asteroseismology, as long as favorable scenarios for 2-wheel pointing performance are met. Targeting the ecliptic would potentially facilitate unique science that was not possible in the nominal Mission, notably from the study of clusters that are significantly brighter than those in the Kepler field. Our conclusions are based on predictions of 2-wheel observations made by a space photometry simulator, with information provided by the Kepler Project used as input to describe the degraded pointing scenarios. We find that elevated levels of frequency-dependent noise, consistent with the above scenarios, would have a significant negative impact on our ability to continue asteroseismic studies of solar-like oscillators in the Kepler field. However, the situation may be much more optimistic for observations in the ecliptic, provided that pointing resets of the spacecraft during regular desaturations of the two functioning reaction wheels are accurate at the < 1 arcsec level. This would make it possible to apply a post-hoc analysis that would recover most of the lost photometric precision. Without this post-hoc correction---and the accurate re-pointing it requires---the performance would probably be as poor as in the Kepler-field case. Critical to our conclusions for both fields is the assumed level of pointing noise (in the short-term jitter and the longer-term drift). We suggest that further tests will be needed to clarify our results once more detail and data on the expected pointing performance becomes available, and we offer our assistance in this work.
    09/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a three year survey that is collecting 100,000 high-resolution spectra in the near-IR across multiple Galactic populations. To derive stellar parameters and chemical compositions from this massive data set, the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) has been developed. Here, we describe empirical calibrations of stellar parameters presented in the first SDSS-III APOGEE data release (DR10). These calibrations were enabled by observations of 559 stars in 20 globular and open clusters. The cluster observations were supplemented by observations of stars in NASA's Kepler field that have well determined surface gravities from asteroseismic analysis. We discuss the accuracy and precision of the derived stellar parameters, considering especially effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity; we also briefly discuss the derived results for the abundances of the alpha-elements, carbon, and nitrogen. Overall, we find that ASPCAP achieves reasonably accurate results for temperature and metallicity, but suffers from systematic errors in surface gravity. We derive calibration relations that bring the raw ASPCAP results into better agreement with independently determined stellar parameters. The internal scatter of ASPCAP parameters within clusters suggests that, metallicities are measured with a precision better than 0.1 dex, effective temperatures better than 150 K, and surface gravities better than 0.2 dex. The understanding provided by the clusters and Kepler giants on the current accuracy and precision will be invaluable for future improvements of the pipeline.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2013; 146(5). · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of ~100,000 red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2013; 5.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the tenth public data release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R~22,500 300-fiber spectrograph covering 1.514--1.696 microns. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included.DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the ninth data release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra, comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra; 182,009 quasar spectra; and 159,327 stellar spectra, selected over 6373.2 square degrees.
    07/2013;
  • Source
    Jamie Tayar, Marc H. Pinsonneault
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. This data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal poor red giant KIC 7341231 ("Otto") and intermediate mass core helium burning stars. For both we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23 to 33 times the surface value expected from standard spin down models. The minimum coupling time scale (.17 to .45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and .0052 days depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 06/2013; 775(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Jennifer L. van Saders, Marc H. Pinsonneault
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stellar rotation is a strong function of both mass and evolutionary state. Missions such as Kepler and CoRoT provide tens of thousands of rotation periods, drawn from stellar populations that contain objects at a range of masses, ages, and evolutionary states. Given a set of reasonable starting conditions and a prescription for angular momentum loss, we address the expected range of rotation periods for cool field stellar populations. We find that cool stars fall into three distinct regimes in rotation. Rapid rotators with surface periods less than 10 days are either young low-mass main sequence (MS) stars, or higher mass subgiants which leave the MS with high rotation rates. Intermediate rotators (10-40 days) can be either cool MS dwarfs, suitable for gyrochronology, or crossing subgiants at a range of masses. Gyrochronology relations must therefore be applied cautiously, since there is an abundant population of subgiant contaminants. The slowest rotators, at periods greater than 40 days, are lower mass subgiants undergoing envelope expansion. We identify additional diagnostic uses of rotation periods. There exists a period-age relation for subgiants distinct from the MS period-age relations. There is also a period-radius relation that can be used as a constraint on the stellar radius, particularly in the interesting case of planet host stars. The high-mass/low-mass break in the rotation distribution on the MS persists onto the subgiant branch, and has potential as a diagnostic of stellar mass. Finally, this set of theoretical predictions can be compared to extensive datasets to motivate improved modeling.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 776(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 763:141. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Determining fundamental properties of stars through stellar modeling has improved substantially due to recent advances in asteroseismology. Thanks to the unprecedented data quality obtained by space missions, particularly CoRoT and Kepler, invaluable information is extracted from the high-precision stellar oscillation frequencies, which provide very strong constraints on possible stellar models for a given set of classical observations. In this work, we have characterized two relatively faint stars, KIC10920273 and KIC11395018, using oscillation data from Kepler photometry and atmospheric constraints from ground-based spectroscopy. Both stars have very similar atmospheric properties; however, using the individual frequencies extracted from the Kepler data, we have determined quite distinct global properties, with increased precision compared to that of earlier results. We found that both stars have left the main sequence and characterized them as follows: KIC10920273 is a one-solar-mass star (M=1.00 +/- 0.04 M_sun), but much older than our Sun (t=7.12 +/- 0.47 Gyr), while KIC11395018 is significantly more massive than the Sun (M=1.27 +/- 0.04 M_sun) with an age close to that of the Sun (t=4.57 +/- 0.23 Gyr). We confirm that the high lithium abundance reported for these stars should not be considered to represent young ages, as we precisely determined them to be evolved subgiants. We discuss the use of surface lithium abundance, rotation and activity relations as potential age diagnostics.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 763:49 (10pp). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
902.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2013
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Institute for Advanced Study
      • School of Natural Sciences
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Portsmouth
      • Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation ICG
      Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States