[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although tranexamic acid is used to reduce bleeding after cardiac surgery, there is large variation in the recommended dose, and few studies of plasma concentrations of the drug during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been performed. The plasma tranexamic acid concentration reported to inhibit fibrinolysis in vitro is 10 microg/mL. Twenty-one patients received an initial dose of 10 mg/kg given over 20 min followed by an infusion of 1 mg. kg(-1). h(-1) via a central venous catheter. Two patients were removed from the study secondary to protocol violation. Perioperative plasma tranexamic acid concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma tranexamic acid concentrations (microg/mL; mean +/- SD [95% confidence interval]) were 37.4 +/- 16.9 (45.5, 29.3) after bolus, 27.6 +/- 7.9 (31.4, 23.8) after 5 min on CPB, 31.4 +/- 12.1 (37.2, 25.6) after 30 min on CPB, 29.2 +/- 9.0 (34.6, 23.8) after 60 min on CPB, 25.6 +/- 18.6 (35.1, 16.1) at discontinuation of tranexamic acid infusion, and 17.7 +/- 13.1 (24.1, 11.1) 1 h after discontinuation of tranexamic acid infusion. Four patients with renal insufficiency had increased concentrations of tranexamic acid at discontinuation of the drug. Repeated-measures analysis revealed a significant main effect of abnormal creatinine concentration (P = 0.02) and time (P < 0.001) on plasma tranexamic acid concentration and a significant time x creatinine concentration interaction (P < 0.001). IMPLICATIONS: A 10 mg/kg initial dose of tranexamic acid followed by an infusion of 1 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)produced plasma concentrations throughout the cardiopulmonary bypass period sufficient to inhibit fibrinolysis in vitro. The dosing of tranexamic acid may require adjustment for renal insufficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The need for the routine use of muscle relaxants to provide an adequate surgical field for intraabdominal surgery has not been established. This study tested the hypothesis that vecuronium decreases the frequency of unacceptable operating conditions for patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy who are anesthetized with isoflurane and fentanyl.
After obtaining informed consent, patients in this blinded, placebo-controlled study were randomized to receive either an infusion of vecuronium or saline (placebo) beginning 5 min after fascial incision during the maintenance of anesthesia with at least 1 minimum alveolar concentration end-tidal isoflurane and fentanyl infusion. The surgical field was graded from 1 (excellent) to 4 (unacceptable) by the surgeons at 15-min intervals. If a grade 4 rating occurred (defined as a treatment failure), the patient received rescue vecuronium.
A total of 120 patients are included in this report (59 in the vecuronium group and 61 in the placebo group). The frequency of treatment failure in the placebo group was 17 of 61 (27.9%) versus 1 of 59 (1.7%) in the control group who received vecuronium (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight patients (62.3%) in the placebo group and 52 patients (88.1%) in the vecuronium group had surgical field ratings of < or = 2 (good to excellent) at each time assessed throughout the procedure.
The study hypothesis was confirmed. However, an isoflurane-fentanyl anesthetic alone produced a good to excellent surgical field in approximately two thirds of patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy without the use of muscle relaxants. Thus, the routine use of muscle relaxants in adequately anesthetized patients undergoing this procedure may not be indicated.