[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testing the specific migration limits of all substances intentionally added to polymer material according to European Union (EU) regulation is a time-consuming and expensive task. Although mathematical modeling offers an interesting alternative, it can significantly overestimate the migration in situations which are strongly conservative due to significant uncertainty in transport properties. In addition, its application is of little use for end-users or enforcement laboratories, which do not have access to the formulation. This paper revises the paradigm of migration modeling by combining modeling with deformulation experiments and iterative modeling in the framework of decision theory. The complete approach is illustrated for polyolefins in contact with 50% ethanol for eight typical migrants, including hindered phenolic antioxidants and low molecular weight surrogates. Results from a French ACTIA project on the identification of formulation fingerprints and on the prediction of partition coefficients with alcoholic and aqueous stimulants is described. When the true migration was close but still lower than the limit of concern, the proposed compact decision tree, including up to four sources of uncertainty, showed that the chance of demonstrating compliance was about 3 : 4 in the presence of one source of uncertainty, whereas it fell below 2 : 4 and 1 : 4 with two and three sources of uncertainty, respectively. The recommendations for further food packaging safety surveys and future developments are discussed.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 12/2009; 26(12):1556-73.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during storage of a strawberry syrup for 1 year. Concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were determined during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted K app) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching equilibrium K app values and optimally identified from the kinetic data obtained between 30 and 90 days. They exhibited a similar behaviour for both polymers with values were between 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-3), 4 x 10(-5) and 3 x 10(-2), respectively, for PET and PVC. The variation of K app values in PET was mainly correlated to the polarity of tested compounds as assessed by their log P values. By contrast, the variations in K app values for PVC were mainly related to their chain lengths. Due to slightly higher partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients in PVC compared with PET, the amount of absorbed aroma was four times higher in PVC than in PET; however, the amount of absorbed aroma compounds was less than 0.1% of the initial amount present into the syrup, except for octyl butanoate. The variation in concentration in the syrup was interpreted as a combination of a degradation process and a transport process into the packaging material. Both effects were particularly noticeable for both PET and unstable aroma compounds.
Food Additives and Contaminants 12/2007; 24(11):1306-17. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When plastics are collected for recycling, possibly contaminated articles might be recycled into food packaging, and thus the contaminants might subsequently migrate into the food. Multilayer functional barriers may be used to delay and to reduce such migration. The contribution of the work reported here is to establish reference values (at 40 degrees C) of diffusion coefficients and of activation energies to predict the functional barrier efficiency of a broad range of polymers (polyolefins, polystyrene, polyamide, PVC, PET, PVDC, [ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer], polyacrylonitrile and [ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer]). Diffusion coefficients (D) and activation energies (Ea) were measured and were compiled together with literature data. This allowed identification of new trends for the log D=f(molecular weight) relationships. The slopes were a function of the barrier efficiency of the polymer and temperature. The apparent activation energy of diffusion displayed two domains of variation with molecular weight (M). For low M (gases), there was little variation of Ea. Focusing on larger molecules, high barrier polymers displayed a larger dependence of Ea with M. The apparent activation energy decreased with T. These results suggest a discontinuity between rubbery and glassy polymers.
Food Additives and Contaminants 03/2006; 23(2):202-11. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional barriers are multilayer structures deemed to prevent migration of some chemicals released by food-contact materials into food. In the area of plastics packaging, different migration behaviours of mono- and multilayer structures are assessed in terms of lag time and of their influence of the solubility of the migrants in food simulants. Whereas barriers to oxygen or to aromas must prevent the diffusion of these compounds under conditions of use, a functional barrier must also be efficient under processing conditions, to prevent diffusion of substances when the polymer layers are in contact at high (processing) temperatures. Diffusion in melted polymers at high temperatures is much slower for glassy polymers, than in polymers that are rubbery at ambient temperature. To evaluate the behaviour of functional barriers under conditions of use, a set of reference diffusion coefficients in the 40-60 degrees C range were determined for 14 polymers. Conditions for accelerated migration tests are proposed based on worst-case activation energy in the 40-60 degrees C range. For simulation of migration, numerical models are available. The rules derived from the models can be used both by industry (to optimize a material in terms of migration) or by risk assessors. Differences in migration behaviour between mono- and multilayer materials are discussed.
Food Additives and Contaminants 11/2005; 22(10):956-67. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plastic packaging materials are often associated to aroma losses and to a decrease of the organoleptic quality of foods. This work defines situations where, on the contrary, plastics play a regulating role on the concentration of reactive aroma compounds in foods. These systems can be described by a two step mechanism; first, aroma is sorbed in the polymer, while the fraction in solution degrades quickly; in a second step, as the concentration is close to zero in the solution, the polymer liberates progressively the sorbed aroma back to the food. A simple numerical model is proposed, describing competitive processes of aroma degradation in solution and sorption by a polymer in contact with a homogeneous aqueous food. The classical limonene/low density polyethylene (LDPE) system is studied experimentally for the validation of the model: in an acidic medium, limonene both degrades quickly and is sorbed quickly, with a large solubility in LDPE. To define which aroma packaging systems could also display this interesting behavior, all types of possible interactions, using thermodynamic and kinetic parameters describing most practical situations, are simulated. For that purpose, 35 values of reference diffusion coefficients and 35 partition coefficients of usual aroma compounds between polymers and water have been measured and combined with the few available data from literature. The situations where polymers regulate the aroma concentration in food correspond to large partition coefficients (above 10), large diffusion coefficients (>10(-9) cm2 x s(-1)), and large degradation constants.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2004; 52(18):5653-62. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different types of packaging (glass bottle, PVC, and PET) were compared for the preservation of aroma quality of a strawberry syrup during shelf life. Esters, alcohols, and aldehydes were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and solvent extraction. During storage, hydrolysis of esters in acids and alcohols led to a modification of the aroma profile which can be explained by the replacement of "fruity" and "fresh" notes by "dairy note" in the syrup. Aroma compounds that are responsible for fruity notes, such as methyl cinnamate, methyl anthranilate, and methyl dihydrojasmonate, were strongly reduced after 90 days. This could be explained by a selective interaction of these compounds with the polymer matrix (PET or PVC). After 330 days, a later and important decrease of the "fruity notes" occurred in both PETs; so PVC2 and the glass bottle were found to be able to maintain a balanced aroma for long-term storage.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2001; 49(5):2290-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor