[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin protein modification (haptenation) is thought to be a key step in the manifestation of sensitization to low molecular mass chemicals (<500 g/mol). For sensitizing chemicals that are not protein reactive, it is hypothesised that metabolic activation can convert such chemicals into protein reactive toxins within the skin. trans-Cinnamaldehyde, alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde, and trans-cinnamic alcohol are known sensitizers with differing potencies in man, where the former two are protein reactive and the latter is not. Here, we have used immunochemical methods to investigate the extent of protein-cinnamaldehyde binding in rat and human skin homogenates that have been incubated (for either 5, 15, 30, or 60 min) at 37 degrees C with cinnamaldehyde, alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde (at concentrations of between 1 and 40 mM), and cinnamic alcohol (at higher concentrations of 200 or 400 mM). Cinnamaldehyde specific antiserum was raised specially. A broad range (in terms of molecular mass) of protein-cinnamaldehyde adducts was detected (as formed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner) in skin treated with cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol but not with alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde. Mechanistic observations have been related to relative skin sensitization potential, as determined using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as a biological read-out. The work presented here suggests that there is a common hapten involved in cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol sensitization and that metabolic activation (to cinnamaldehyde) is involved in the latter. Conversely, there does not appear to be a common hapten for cinnamaldehyde and alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde. Such mechanistic work on protein modification is important in understanding the early mechanisms of skin sensitization. Such knowledge can then be used in order that effective and appropriate in vitro/in silico tools for predicting sensitization potential, with a high confidence, can be developed.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 03/2004; 17(3):301-10. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragrance substances represent a very diverse group of chemicals; a proportion of them are associated with the ability to cause allergic reactions in the skin. Efforts to find substitute materials are hindered by the need to undertake animal testing for determining both skin sensitization hazard and potency. One strategy to avoid such testing is through an understanding of the relationships between chemical structure and skin sensitization, so-called structure-activity relationships. In recent work, we evaluated 2 groups of fragrance chemicals -- saturated aldehydes and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Simple quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models relating the EC3 values [derived from the local lymph node assay (LLNA)] to physicochemical properties were developed for both sets of aldehydes. In the current study, we evaluated an additional group of carbonyl-containing compounds to test the predictive power of the developed QSARs and to extend their scope. The QSAR models were used to predict EC3 values of 10 newly selected compounds. Local lymph node assay data generated for these compounds demonstrated that the original QSARs were fairly accurate, but still required improvement. Development of these QSAR models has provided us with a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of action for aldehydes, and hence how to avoid or limit allergy. Knowledge generated from this work is being incorporated into new/improved rules for sensitization in the expert toxicity prediction system, deductive estimation of risk from existing knowledge (DEREK).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biocides used in many every day products often are able to act as haptens and so may cause allergic reactions in the skin. In addition, where exposure of the respiratory tract may occur, they should also be evaluated for their ability to cause respiratory allergy. Here we have used local lymph node assay (LLNA) data to compare the relative potency of four biocides together with cytokine profiling to determine whether these biocides can induce skin and/or respiratory allergy. Formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, 5‐chloro‐2‐methyl‐4‐isothiazolin‐3‐one and 2‐methyl‐2H‐isothiazol‐3‐one mix (3:1) (CMI/MI), and 2‐methyl‐2H‐isothiazol‐3‐one alone (MI) were tested in the LLNA in two vehicles [acetone:olive oil (AOO) and propylene glycol (PG)]. Their relative allergenic potency was measured by derivation of the EC3 value (the estimated concentration that will induce a stimulation index of 3 following topical application of chemical). In AOO, the EC3 value for the chemicals were ranked as follows: formaldehyde = MI < glutaraldehyde < CMI/MI, CMI/MI thus being the most potent allergen as it has the lowest EC3 figure. In PG, a similar rank order of biocides was achieved but the estimated potency in PG was at least 1 log lower than that in AOO. Data are available indicating that while formaldehyde is a contact allergen, glutaraldehyde is both a contact and respiratory allergen. Cytokine profiling was carried out to determine whether CMI/MI and MI also have the potential to cause sensitization of the respiratory tract. The data obtained for CMI/MI were consistent with behavior as a contact sensitizer. The MI is less strongly sensitizing than CMI/MI, being comparable to formaldehyde, and due to this weaker response it has not been possible to evaluate fully its cytokine profile, an outcome indicating it is unlikely to be a significant chemical respiratory allergen.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragrance substances represent a very diverse group of chemicals, a proportion of them providing not only desirable aroma characteristics, but also being associated with adverse effects, notably the ability to cause allergic reactions in the skin. However, efforts to find substitute materials are hampered by the need to undertake animal testing to evaluate both the presence and the degree of skin sensitization hazard. One potential route to avoid such testing is to understand the relationships between chemical structure and skin sensitization. In the present work we have evaluated two groups of fragrance chemicals, saturated aldehydes (aryl substituted and aliphatic aldehydes) and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Data on their skin sensitization potency defined using the local lymph node assay has been evaluated in relation to their physicochemical properties. The initial outcome has been consistent with the concept that alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes react largely via Michael addition, whilst the group of saturated aldehydes form Schiff bases with proteins. Simple models of chemical reactivity based on these mechanisms suggest that it may be possible to predict allergenic potency. Accordingly, the evaluation of an additional group of similar aldehydes is now underway to assess the robustness of these models, with some emphasis being based on ensuring a wider spread of chemical reactivity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing range of chemicals appears to be capable of causing skin sensitization as a result of their capacity to undergo air oxidation (autoxidation) with the consequent formation of reactive species such as epoxides and hydroperoxides. In this small investigation, the ability of linalool, a common fragrance ingredient, to cause such effects was quantified using the local lymph node assay before and after careful purification by vacuum distillation. The commercially available grade of linalool (97% purity) was shown to be a weak skin sensitizer. Various impurities, including linalool oxide, dihydrolinalool, epoxylinalool, 3-hexenyl butyrate and 3,7-dimethyl-1,7-octadiene-3,6-diol were identified and were completely removed (except for the dihydrolinalool remaining at 1.4%) and the re-purified linalool retested. Neither linalool or dihydrolinalool are protein-reactive compounds. The sensitization potency of the re-purified linalool sample was considerably reduced, but not entirely eliminated, suggesting either that an allergenic impurity could be very quickly reformed by mechanisms of activation or that certain potent undetectable allergens remained. Both possibilities are consistent with what is understood of the chemistry and composition of commercially available linalool.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective toxicologic evaluation of skin sensitization requires that potential contact allergens are identified and that the likely risks of sensitization among exposed populations are assessed. By definition, chemicals that are classified as contact sensitizers have the capacity to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in humans. However, this hazard is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon; clear dose-response relationships can be discerned and thresholds identified for both the induction of sensitization and the elicitation of ACD. Commonly, these parameters are grouped under the heading of potency, the determination of which is vital for risk assessment. Preclinical testing for sensitization potential is critically important for hazard assessment before human exposure. The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the most recently accepted test method for sensitization hazard assessment.
The aim was to compare potency estimations derived from LLNA data with clinical determinations of relative potency based on human data.
No-effect levels (NOELs) for a range of 21 chemicals were determined from nondiagnostic human repeat patch test studies as reported in the literature. These levels were compared with LLNA EC(3) values, the estimated concentration required to produce a 3-fold increase (positive response) in draining lymph node cell (LNC) proliferative activity.
Using available human repeat patch test data, together with expert judgment, the compounds were classified as strong, moderate, weak, extremely weak, or nonsensitizing. Additionally, the potency of each chemical was classified independently based on its LLNA EC(3) value. The results show clearly that LLNA EC(3) values are very comparable with the NOELs calculated from the literature. Moreover, the potency rankings based upon LLNA EC(3) data support their human classification.
The present investigations show that the LLNA can be used to provide quantitative estimates of relative skin sensitizing potency EC(3) values that correlate closely with NOELs established from human repeat patch testing and from our clinical experience.
American Journal of Contact Dermatitis 10/2001; 12(3):156-61.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) assesses skin sensitization potential as a function of proliferative responses induced in lymph nodes draining the site of topical exposure to test chemical. It has been shown that interpolation of LLNA dose-response data to define the concentration of test chemical required to induce a 3-fold stimulation of proliferation (EC3) offers the prospect of a quantitative index of the relative potency of a contact allergen. Initial studies have demonstrated that there exists a strong (inverse) correlation between EC3 values and contact allergenic potency in humans. Thus, materials with a low EC3 value were more potent contact allergens in humans. However, it is necessary to examine a wide range of allergens to demonstrate that such correlations are generally true. Thus, in the present study, 10 aldehydes of varying degrees of allergenicity in man were evaluated in the LLNA and their EC3 values derived. Formaldehyde was regarded as the strongest allergen in man and also had the lowest EC3 value, 0.35% (equivalent to 0.93% formalin). In contrast, the extremely weak allergen vanillin and the non-sensitizer ethyl vanillin both had EC3 values of >50%. For the remaining 7 aldehydes, there was a close similarity between what is judged to be their rank order of allergenicity in humans and EC3 values derived from analysis of LLNA data. These results support further the utility of EC3 determinations in the LLNA as a measure of the relative potency of a contact allergen.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the prospective identification of contact allergens assesses skin sensitization potential as a function of proliferative activity induced in lymph nodes draining the site of topical exposure to test chemical. This method has been endorsed recently as a stand alone test for the identification of contact allergens. We have now examined the suitability of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), a recommended positive control for skin sensitization testing, as a calibrant for comparing the consistency of LLNA responses with time, and between laboratories, and thus for the routine assessment of assay reliability. Standard LLNAs were performed with CBA strain mice in 3 independent laboratories over a period of 8 years. Dose-response curves were used to derive mathematically the EC3 value (the estimated concentration of chemical necessary to cause a stimulation index (SI) of 3 compared with proliferation induced by concurrent vehicle controls). In each laboratory, 6 separate experiments were conducted using a single concentration of HCA (25%). Very similar stimulation indices were achieved, with mean values of 9.0, 6.5 and 6.6 recorded. A total of 10 dose-response experiments were performed independently in the 3 laboratories and these revealed that there was very little inter-laboratory, or temporal, variation in EC3 values. These data confirm that HCA responses in the LLNA are very stable and demonstrate that HCA provides a suitable calibrant for determining assay sensitivity and performance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) can be used to determine the relative skin sensitizing potency of chemicals via interpolation of the quantitative dose response data generated. Using this approach we have demonstrated previously that the vehicle matrix in which a chemical allergen is encountered on the skin can have a significant influence on sensitizing potency. Estimates of relative potency are calculated from LLNA dose responses as a function of the mathematically derived EC3 value, this being the concentration estimated to induce a stimulation index (SI) of 3. To investigate further the influence of application vehicle on sensitizing potency, the LLNA has been used to examine the activity of four recognized human contact allergens: isoeugenol and cinnamic aldehyde, two fragrance chemicals; 3-dimethylaminopropylamine (a sensitizing impurity of cocamidopropyl betaine, a surfactant used in shower gel) and dibromodicyanobutane (the sensitizing component of Euxyl K 400, a preservative used in cosmetics). The four chemicals were applied in each of seven different vehicles (acetone: olive oil [4 : 1]; dimethylsulphoxide; methylethylketone; dimethyl formamide; propylene glycol; and both 50 : 50 and 90 : 10 mixtures of ethanol and water). It was found that the vehicle in which a chemical is presented to the epidermis can have a marked effect on sensitizing activity. EC3 values ranged from 0.9 to 4.9% for isoeugenol, from 0.5 to 1.7% for cinnamic aldehyde, from 1.7 to > 10% for dimethylaminopropylamine and from 0.4 to 6.4% for dibromodicyanobutane. These data confirm that the vehicle in which a chemical is encountered on the skin has an important influence on the relative skin sensitizing potency of chemicals and may have a significant impact on the acquisition of allergic contact dermatitis. The data also demonstrate the utility of the LLNA as a method for the prediction of these effects and thus for the development of more accurate risk assessments.
International journal of cosmetic science 04/2001; 23(2):75-83.