T. E. Clarke

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (150)296.49 Total impact

  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 09/2015; 10(S313):277-282. DOI:10.1017/S174392131500232X
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    ABSTRACT: We know that magnetic fields are pervasive across all scales in the Universe and over all of cosmic time and yet our understanding of many of the properties of magnetic fields is still limited. We do not yet know when, where or how the first magnetic fields in the Universe were formed, nor do we fully understand their role in fundamental processes such as galaxy formation or cosmic ray acceleration or how they influence the evolution of astrophysical objects. The greatest challenge to addressing these issues has been a lack of deep, broad bandwidth polarimetric data over large areas of the sky. The Square Kilometre Array will radically improve this situation via an all-sky polarisation survey that delivers both high quality polarisation imaging in combination with observations of 7-14 million extragalactic rotation measures. Here we summarise how this survey will improve our understanding of a range of astrophysical phenomena on scales from individual Galactic objects to the cosmic web.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multiwavelength morphological analysis of star forming clouds and filaments in the central ($< 50$ kpc) regions of 16 low redshift ($z<0.3$) cool core brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). New Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of far ultraviolet continuum emission from young ($\sim 10$ Myr), massive ($> 5$ \Msol) stars reveals filamentary and clumpy morphologies, which we quantify by means of structural indices. The FUV data are compared with X-ray, Ly$\alpha$, narrowband H$\alpha$, broadband optical/IR, and radio maps, providing a high spatial resolution atlas of star formation locales relative to the ambient hot ($\sim10^{7-8}$ K) and warm ionised ($\sim 10^4$ K) gas phases, as well as the old stellar population and radio-bright AGN outflows. Nearly half of the sample possesses kpc-scale filaments that, in projection, extend toward and around radio lobes and/or X-ray cavities. These filaments may have been uplifted by the propagating jet or buoyant X-ray bubble, or may have formed {\it in situ} by cloud collapse at the interface of a radio lobe or rapid cooling in a cavity's compressed shell. The morphological diversity of nearly the entire FUV sample is reproduced by recent hydrodynamical simulations in which the AGN powers a self-regulating rain of thermally unstable star forming clouds that precipitate from the hot atmosphere. In this model, precipitation triggers where the cooling-to- freefall time ratio is $t_{\mathrm{cool}}/t_{\mathrm{ff}}\sim 10$. This condition is roughly met at the maxmial projected FUV radius for more than half of our sample, and clustering about this ratio is stronger for sources with higher star formation rates.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2015; 451(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1151 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Merging galaxy clusters leave long-lasting signatures on the baryonic and non-baryonic cluster constituents, including shock fronts, cold fronts, X-ray substructure, radio halos, and offsets between the dark matter and the gas components. Using observations from Chandra, the Jansky Very Large Array, the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a multiwavelength analysis of the merging Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 (z=0.396), which consists of a NE and a SW subclusters whose cores are separated on the sky by ~250 kpc. We find that the NE subcluster has a compact core and hosts an X-ray cavity, yet it is not a cool core. Approximately 450 kpc south-south west of the SW subcluster, we detect a density discontinuity that corresponds to a compression factor of ~1.5. The discontinuity was most likely caused by the interaction of the SW subcluster with a less massive structure detected in the lensing maps SW of the subcluster's center. For both the NE and the SW subclusters, the dark matter and the gas components are well-aligned, suggesting that MACS J0416.1-2403 is a pre-merging system. The cluster also hosts a radio halo, which is unusual for a pre-merging system. The halo has a 1.4 GHz power of (1.06 +/- 0.09) x 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}, which is somewhat lower than expected based on the X-ray luminosity of the cluster. We suggest that we are either witnessing the birth of a radio halo, or have discovered a rare ultra-steep spectrum halo.
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a very deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observation of the galaxy group NGC~5813, the deepest Chandra observation of a galaxy group to date. Earlier observations showed two pairs of cavities distributed roughly collinearly, with each pair associated with an elliptical shock front. The new observations confirm a third pair of outer cavities, collinear with the other pairs, and reveal an associated outer outburst shock at ~30 kpc. This system is therefore unique in exhibiting three cavity pairs, each associated with an unambiguous AGN outburst shock front. The implied mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, demonstrating that the average AGN kinetic luminosity can remain stable over long timescales (~50 Myr). The two older outbursts have larger, roughly equal total energies as compared with the youngest outburst, implying that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the radiative cooling rate and the mean shock heating rate of the gas are well balanced at each shock front, suggesting that AGN outburst shock heating alone is sufficient to offset cooling and establish AGN/ICM feedback within at least the central 30 kpc. This heating takes place roughly isotropically and most strongly at small radii, as is required for feedback to operate. We suggest that shock heating may play a significant role in AGN feedback at smaller radii in other systems, where weak shocks are more difficult to detect. We find non-zero shock front widths that are too large to be explained by particle diffusion. Instead, all measured widths are consistent with shock broadening due to propagation through a turbulent ICM with a mean turbulent speed of ~70 km/s. Finally, we place lower limits on the temperature of any volume-filling thermal gas within the cavities that would balance the internal cavity pressure with the external ICM.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 805(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/112 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of PLCK G036.7+14.9 from the Chandra-Planck Legacy Program. The high resolution X-ray observations reveal two close subclusters, G036N and G036S, which were not resolved by previous ROSAT, optical, or recent Planck observations. We perform detailed imaging and spectral analyses and use a simplified model to study the kinematics of this system. The basic picture is that PLCK G036.7+14.9 is undergoing a major merger (mass ratio close to unity) between the two massive subclusters, with the merger largely along the line-of-sight and probably at an early stage. G036N hosts a small, moderate cool-core, while G036S has at most a very weak cool-core in the central 40 kpc region. The difference in core cooling times is unlikely to be caused by the ongoing merger disrupting a pre-existing cool-core in G036S. G036N also hosts an unresolved radio source in the center, which may be heating the gas if the radio source is extended. The Planck derived mass is higher than the X-ray measured mass of either subcluster, but is lower than the X-ray measured mass of the whole cluster, due to the fact that Planck does not resolve PLCK G036.7+14.9 into subclusters and interprets it as a single cluster. This mass discrepancy could induce significant bias to the mass function if such previously unresolved systems are common in the Planck cluster sample. High resolution X-ray observations are necessary to identify the fraction of such systems and correct such a bias for the purpose of precision cosmological studies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 804(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/129 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a description of the Prototype All-Sky Imager (PASI), a backend correlator and imager of the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1). PASI cross-correlates a live stream of 260 dual-polarization dipole antennas of the LWA1, creates all-sky images, and uploads them to the LWA-TV website in near real-time. PASI has recorded over 13,000 hours of all-sky images at frequencies between 10 and 88 MHz creating opportunities for new research and discoveries. We also report rate density and pulse energy density limits on transients at 38, 52, and 74 MHz, for pulse widths of 5 s. We limit transients at those frequencies with pulse energy densities of $>2.7\times 10^{-23}$, $>1.1\times 10^{-23}$, and $>2.8\times 10^{-23}$ J m$^{-2}$ Hz$^{-1}$ to have rate densities $<1.2\times10^{-4}$, $<5.6\times10^{-4}$, and $<7.2\times10^{-4}$ yr$^{-1}$ deg$^{-2}$
    03/2015; DOI:10.1142/S225117171550004X
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    ABSTRACT: The Planck satellite has recently completed an all-sky galaxy cluster survey exploiting the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect to locate some of the most massive systems observable. With a median redshift of ⟨z⟩=0.22, the clusters found by Planck at z>0.3 are proving to be exceptionally massive and/or disturbed systems. One notable Planck discovery at z=0.645, PLCK G147.3-16.6, has a dual core and hosts a radio halo, indicating it is likely in the process of merging. We present a 16."5 resolution SZ observation of this high-z merger using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO), and compare it to X-ray follow-up observations with XMM-Newton. We find the SZ pressure substructure is offset from the core components seen in X-ray. We interpret this offset as possible line of sight temperature or density substructure due to the on-going merger.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2015; 808:L6. DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L6 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a technique to constrain galaxy cluster pressure profiles by jointly fitting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) data obtained with MUSTANG and Bolocam for the clusters Abell 1835 and MACS0647. Bolocam and MUSTANG probe different angular scales and are thus highly complementary. We find that the addition of the high resolution MUSTANG data can improve constraints on pressure profile parameters relative to those derived solely from Bolocam. In Abell 1835 and MACS0647, we find gNFW inner slopes of $\gamma = 0.36_{-0.21}^{+0.33}$ and $\gamma = 0.38_{-0.25}^{+0.20}$, respectively, and find that the SZE pressure profiles are in good agreement with X-ray derived pressure profiles.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 807(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/121 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giant Radio Halos (RH) are diffuse, Mpc-sized, synchrotron radio sources observed in a fraction of merging galaxy clusters. The current scenario for the origin of RHs assumes that turbulence generated during cluster mergers re-accelerates pre-existing fossil and/or secondary electrons in the intra-cluster-medium (ICM) to the energies necessary to produce the observed radio emission. Moreover, more relaxed clusters could host diffuse "off state" halos produced by secondary electrons. In this Chapter we use Monte Carlo simulations, that combine turbulent-acceleration physics and the generation of secondaries in the ICM, to calculate the occurrence of RHs in the Universe, their spectral properties and connection with properties of the hosting clusters. Predictions for SKA1 surveys are presented at low (100-300 MHz) and mid (1-2 GHz) frequencies assuming the expected sensitivities and spatial resolutions of SKA1. SKA1 will step into an unexplored territory allowing us to study the formation and evolution of RHs in a totally new range of cluster masses and redshift, allowing firm tests of the current theoretical hypothesis. In particular, the combination of SKA1-LOW and SUR will allow the discovery of ~1000 ultrasteep- spectrum halos and to detect for the very first time "off state" RHs. We expect that at least ~2500 giant RHs will be discovered by SKA1-LOW surveys up to z~0.6. Remarkably these surveys will be sensitive to RHs in a cluster mass range (down to ~10^14 solar masses) and redshifts (up to ~1) that are unexplored by current observations. SKA1 surveys will be highly competitive with present and future SZ-surveys in the detection of high-redshift massive objects.
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    ABSTRACT: New observations of Jupiter's decametric radio emissions have been made with the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) which is capable of making high quality observations as low as 11 MHz. Full Stokes parameters were determined for bandwidths of 16 MHz. Here we present the first LWA1 results for the study of six Io-related events at temporal resolutions as fine as 0.25 ms. LWA1 data show excellent spectral detail in Jovian DAM such as simultaneous left hand circular (LHC) and right hand circular (RHC) polarized Io-related arcs and source envelopes, modulation lane features, S-bursts structures, narrow band N-events, and interactions between S-bursts and N-events. The sensitivity of the LWA1 combined with the low radio frequency interference environment allow us to trace the start of the LHC Io-C source region to much earlier CML III than typically found in the literature. We find the Io-C starts as early as CML III =230° at frequencies near 11 MHz. This early start of the Io-C emission may be valuable for refining models of the emission mechanism. We also detect modulation lane structures that appear continuous across LHC and RHC emissions, suggesting that both polarizations may originate from the same hemisphere of Jupiter. We present a study of rare S-bursts detected during an Io-D event and show drift rates are consistent with those from other Io-related sources. Finally, S-N burst events are seen in high spectral and temporal resolution and our data strongly support the co-spatial origins of these events.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 12/2014; 119(12). DOI:10.1002/2014JA020289 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are conducting a large survey of distant clusters of galaxies using radio sources with bent jets and lobes as tracers. These radio sources are driven by AGN and achieve their bent morphologies through interaction with the surrounding gas found in clusters of galaxies. Based on low-redshift studies, these types of sources can be used to identify clusters very efficiently. We present initial results from our survey of 653 bent-double radio sources with optical hosts too faint to appear in the SDSS. The sample was observed in the infrared with Spitzer, and it has revealed $\sim$200 distant clusters or proto-clusters in the redshift range $z\sim0.7 - 3.0$. The sample of bent-doubles contains both quasars and radio galaxies enabling us to study both radiative and kinetic mode feedback in cluster and group environments at a wide range of redshifts.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 11/2014; 10(S313). DOI:10.1017/S1743921315002410
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy cluster Abell 2256 hosts one of the most intriguing examples in the class of radio relics. It has been found that this radio relic has a rather flat integrated spectrum at low frequencies that would imply an injection spectral index for the electrons that is inconsistent with the flattest allowed by the test particle diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). We performed new high-frequency observations at 2273, 2640, and 4850 MHz. Combining these new observations with images available in the literature, we constrain the radio integrated spectrum of the radio relic in Abell 2256 over the widest sampled frequency range collected so far for this class of objects (63 -10450 MHz). Moreover, we used X-ray observations of the cluster to check the temperature structure in the regions around the radio relic. We find that the relic keeps an unusually flat behavior up to high frequencies. Although the relic integrated spectrum between 63 and 10450 MHz is not inconsistent with a single power law with $\alpha_{63}^{10450}= 0.92\pm 0.02$, we find hints of a steepening at frequencies > 1400 MHz. The two frequency ranges 63-1369 MHz and 1369-10450 MHz are, indeed, best represented by two different power laws, with $\alpha_{63}^{1369}= 0.85\pm 0.01$ and $\alpha_{1369}^{10450}= 1.00\pm 0.02$. This broken power law would require special conditions to be explained in terms of test-particle DSA, e.g., non-stationarity of the spectrum and/or non-stationarity of the shock. On the other hand, the single power law would make of this relic the one with the flattest integrated spectrum known so far, even flatter than what allowed in the test-particle approach to DSA. We find a rather low temperature ratio of $T_2/T_1 \sim 1.7$ across the G region of the radio relic and no temperature jump across the H region.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 575. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423972 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present high resolution (9$^{\prime \prime}$) imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) toward two massive galaxy clusters, MACS J0647.7+7015 ($z=0.591$) and MACS J1206.2-0847 ($z=0.439$). We compare these 90 GHz measurements, taken with the MUSTANG receiver on the Green Bank Telescope, with generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (gNFW) models derived from Bolocam 140 GHz SZE data as well as maps of the thermal gas derived from {\it Chandra} X-ray observations. For MACS J0647.7+7015, we find a gNFW profile with core slope parameter $\gamma= 0.9$ fits the MUSTANG image with $\chi^{2}_{red}=1.005$ and probability to exceed (PTE) = 0.34. For MACS J1206.2-0847, we find $\gamma=0.7$, $\chi^{2}_{red}=0.993$, and PTE = 0.70. In addition, we find a significant ($>$3-$\sigma$) residual SZE feature in MACS J1206.2-0847 coincident with a group of galaxies identified in VLT data and filamentary structure found in a weak-lensing mass reconstruction. We suggest the detected sub-structure may be the SZE decrement from a low mass foreground group or an infalling group. GMRT measurements at 610 MHz reveal diffuse extended radio emission to the west, which we posit is either an AGN-driven radio lobe, a bubble expanding away from disturbed gas associated with the SZE signal, or a bubble detached and perhaps re-accelerated by sloshing within the cluster. Using the spectroscopic redshifts available, we find evidence for a foreground ($z=0.423$) or infalling group, coincident with the residual SZE feature.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a recent re-reduction of the data from the Very Large Array (VLA) Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS). We used the VLSS catalogue as a sky model to correct the ionospheric distortions in the data and create a new set of sky maps and corresponding catalogue at 73.8 MHz. The VLSS Redux (VLSSr) has a resolution of 75 arcsec, and an average map rms noise level of σ ̃ 0.1 Jy beam-1. The clean bias is 0.66 × σ and the theoretical largest angular size is 36 arcmin. Six previously unimaged fields are included in the VLSSr, which has an unbroken sky coverage over 9.3 sr above an irregular southern boundary. The final catalogue includes 92 964 sources. The VLSSr improves upon the original VLSS in a number of areas including imaging of large sources, image sensitivity, and clean bias; however the most critical improvement is the replacement of an inaccurate primary beam correction which caused source flux errors which vary as a function of radius to nearest pointing centre in the VLSS.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 440(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu256 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A community meeting on the topic of "Radio Astronomy in the LSST Era" was hosted by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA (2013 May 6--8). The focus of the workshop was on time domain radio astronomy and sky surveys. For the time domain, the extent to which radio and visible wavelength observations are required to understand several classes of transients was stressed, but there are also classes of radio transients for which no visible wavelength counterpart is yet known, providing an opportunity for discovery. From the LSST perspective, the LSST is expected to generate as many as 1 million alerts nightly, which will require even more selective specification and identification of the classes and characteristics of transients that can warrant follow up, at radio or any wavelength. The LSST will also conduct a deep survey of the sky, producing a catalog expected to contain over 38 billion objects in it. Deep radio wavelength sky surveys will also be conducted on a comparable time scale, and radio and visible wavelength observations are part of the multi-wavelength approach needed to classify and understand these objects. Radio wavelengths are valuable because they are unaffected by dust obscuration and, for galaxies, contain contributions both from star formation and from active galactic nuclei. The workshop touched on several other topics, on which there was consensus including the placement of other LSST "Deep Drilling Fields," inter-operability of software tools, and the challenge of filtering and exploiting the LSST data stream. There were also topics for which there was insufficient time for full discussion or for which no consensus was reached, which included the procedures for following up on LSST observations and the nature for future support of researchers desiring to use LSST data products.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 01/2014; 126(936). DOI:10.1086/675262 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We outline the science case for extended radio emission and polarization in galaxy clusters which would be a scientifically important area of research for an upcoming Jansky Very Large Array Sky Survey. The survey would provide a major contribution in three key areas of the physics of clusters: 1) the active galactic nucleus population and the impact of feedback on the evolution of the intra-cluster medium, 2) the origin and evolution of diffuse cluster radio sources to probe the physics of mergers with implications for cosmology, and 3) the origin and role of magnetic fields in the ICM and in large scale structures. Considering all three areas, a survey must have sufficient spatial resolution to study the tailed galaxies which trace the cluster weather as well as the radio lobes driving energy into the cluster from the central AGN. The survey must also have sensitivity to low surface brightness emission and large angular scales to probe radio halos and relics as well as the WHIM residing in the large scale structure filaments. Finally, we note that full polarization information would be a highly valuable tool to probe a number of cluster-related issues. Due to the general steep spectral index of the emission we consider the survey is best suited to this science when conducted in P, L, or S bands. We conclude that the choices of S Band + D Configuration, L Band + C Configuration, and P Band + B Configuration offer optimal resolutions for constraining galactic interactions and feedback in cluster environments, while still probing large scale structure and the bulk cluster environment itself. While the push to probe higher redshifts and lower mass limits strongly favors a narrow and deep (or even targeted) survey strategy, we note that a wide survey covering roughly 1/4-2/3 of the sky will have significant scientific return, discovery potential, and archival value.
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    ABSTRACT: LOBO is a proposed, dedicated, radio synoptic, high-z spectroscopy, and real-time transient and ionosphere monitoring capability of the Karl G. Jansky VLA. It will make use of the primary focus feeds to observe in parallel with the higher-frequency, Cassegrain feeds. LOBO will have dedicated samplers, fiber transmission, and backend processing systems, the latter to include correlator and pipelined calibration, imaging, and archive systems. With a ≥ 5 deg^2 field-of-view at meter wavelengths and longer (< 500 MHz), LOBO will perform efficient, blind searches for non-thermal transients and high-redshift spectral lines, e.g. by surveying 64 Mpc^2 at 4 at 330 MHz in each pointing. LOBO will provide synoptic, wide-field continuum images in a publicly available archive of all targeted VLA fields, annually surveying for ~6000 hours or over 25% of the available sky. We explore the potential for leveraging the scientific potential of this “Radio LSST” capability in the LSST era. A 10-antenna pilot project called the VLA Low Frequency Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) is currently funded by NRL and under development with NRAO to explore the LOBO concept.
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse radio emission permeating the cluster gravitational potential reveals the widespread presence of relativistic particles and magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM). This emission is observed in numerous clusters which are dynamically complex. The radio emission is observationally classified as halo or relic. Additional low frequency ICM emission is detected from cluster-center radio galaxies which are important for energy feedack into the ICM. I will present recent low frequency radio (VLA and GMRT) data and Chandra X-ray results on several cluster systems. The recently discovered ultra-steep spectrum source in Abell 2443 may be a member of the relatively rare class of adiabatically compressed radio relics. Chandra observations reveal the presence of two surface brightness edges in the ICM and new GMRT observations provide additional details of the spectral index distribution in the ICM. Upcoming improvements in radio instruments will be crucial for expanding our understanding of the relativistic particle and magnetic field content of the ICM. I will briefly discuss a new exploratory concept (LOBO or LOw Band Observatory) which could enable low band (<500 MHz) observing using the new NRL/NRAO Low Band receivers in parallel with all high frequency VLA observing programs.
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    ABSTRACT: The galactic continuum sources W51D and W51e1e2 have been long recognized as remarkable centers of ammonia maser phenomena in the centimeter wavelength range. Henkel et al. (2013 A&A 549, A90) have measured 19 masers, of which 13 are newly found for W51-IRS2, otherwise known as W51D. These arise from inversion-rotation transitions. The single dish data were taken with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope of the MPIfR with an angular resolution of 43 arc seconds. The conclusion that these lines were caused by maser action is based on: (1) time variability, and (2) narrow linewidths. In addition, some lines showed systematic velocity variations. High brightness temperatures and compact sizes are needed to conclusively prove maser action. We have measured a sub-set of these ammonia lines with the C array of the Jansky-Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in June 2013 with an angular resolution of better than 1 arc second. Source sizes, positions, excitation models and reasons why W51 shows such a plethora of masers will be presented.

Publication Stats

971 Citations
296.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2011
    • Boston University
      • Institute for Astrophysical Research
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • United States Naval Research Laboratory
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2001
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States