Peder Norberg

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (163)648.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The "Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey" (WAVES) is a 4MOST Consortium Design Reference Survey which will use the VISTA/4MOST facility to spectroscopically survey ~2million galaxies to $r_{\rm AB} < 22$ mag. WAVES consists of two interlocking galaxy surveys ("WAVES-Deep" and "WAVES-Wide"), providing the next two steps beyond the highly successful 1M galaxy Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 250k Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. WAVES will enable an unprecedented study of the distribution and evolution of mass, energy, and structures extending from 1-kpc dwarf galaxies in the local void to the morphologies of 200-Mpc filaments at $z\sim1$. A key aim of both surveys will be to compare comprehensive empirical observations of the spatial properties of galaxies, groups, and filaments, against state-of-the-art numerical simulations to distinguish between various Dark Matter models.
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    ABSTRACT: The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey is one of the largest contemporary spectroscopic surveys of low-redshift galaxies. Covering an area of ~286 deg^2 (split among five survey regions) down to a limiting magnitude of r < 19.8 mag, we have collected spectra and reliable redshifts for 238,000 objects using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In addition, we have assembled imaging data from a number of independent surveys in order to generate photometry spanning the wavelength range 1 nm - 1 m. Here we report on the recently completed spectroscopic survey and present a series of diagnostics to assess its final state and the quality of the redshift data. We also describe a number of survey aspects and procedures, or updates thereof, including changes to the input catalogue, redshifting and re-redshifting, and the derivation of ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared photometry. Finally, we present the second public release of GAMA data. In this release we provide input catalogue and targeting information, spectra, redshifts, ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared photometry, single-component S\'ersic fits, stellar masses, H$\alpha$-derived star formation rates, environment information, and group properties for all galaxies with r < 19.0 mag in two of our survey regions, and for all galaxies with r < 19.4 mag in a third region (72,225 objects in total). The database serving these data is available at http://www.gama-survey.org/.
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    ABSTRACT: We explore trends in galaxy properties with Mpc-scale structures using catalogues of environment and large scale structure from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Existing GAMA catalogues of large scale structure, group and pair membership allow us to construct galaxy stellar mass functions for different environmental types. To avoid simply extracting the known underlying correlations between galaxy properties and stellar mass, we create a mass matched sample of galaxies with stellar masses between $9.5 \leq \log{M_*/h^{-2} M_{\odot}} \leq 11$ for each environmental population. Using these samples, we show that mass normalised galaxies in different large scale environments have similar energy outputs, $u-r$ colours, luminosities, and morphologies. Extending our analysis to group and pair environments, we show galaxies that are not in groups or pairs exhibit similar characteristics to each other regardless of broader environment. For our mass controlled sample, we fail to see a strong dependence of S\'{e}rsic index or galaxy luminosity on halo mass, but do find that it correlates very strongly with colour. Repeating our analysis for galaxies that have not been mass controlled introduces and amplifies trends in the properties of galaxies in pairs, groups, and large scale structure, indicating that stellar mass is the most important predictor of the galaxy properties we examine, as opposed to environmental classifications.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first cosmological measurement derived from a galaxy density field subject to a `clipping' transformation. By enforcing an upper bound on the galaxy number density field in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey (GAMA), contributions from the nonlinear processes of virialisation and galaxy bias are greatly reduced. This leads to a galaxy power spectrum which is easier to model, without calibration from numerical simulations. We develop a theoretical model for the power spectrum of a clipped field in redshift space, which is exact for the case of anisotropic Gaussian fields. Clipping is found to extend the applicability of the conventional Kaiser prescription by more than a factor of three in wavenumber, or a factor of thirty in terms of the number of Fourier modes. By modelling the galaxy power spectrum on scales k < 0.3 h/Mpc and density fluctuations $\delta_g < 4$ we measure the normalised growth rate $f\sigma_8(z = 0.18) = 0.29 \pm 0.10$.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe modifications to the joint stepwise maximum likelihood method of Cole (2011) in order to simultaneously fit the GAMA-II galaxy luminosity function (LF), corrected for radial density variations, and its evolution with redshift. The whole sample is reasonably well-fit with luminosity (Qe) and density (Pe) evolution parameters Qe, Pe = 1.0, 1.0 but with significant degeneracies characterized by Qe = 1.4 - 0.4Pe. Blue galaxies exhibit larger luminosity density evolution than red galaxies, as expected. We present the evolution-corrected r-band LF for the whole sample and for blue and red sub-samples, using both Petrosian and Sersic magnitudes. Petrosian magnitudes miss a substantial fraction of the flux of de Vaucouleurs profile galaxies: the Sersic LF is substantially higher than the Petrosian LF at the bright end.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2015; 451(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1013 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the performance of a variety of different estimators for the mass of galaxy groups, based on their galaxy distribution alone. We draw galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for a set of groups and clusters for which hydrostatic mass estimates based on high-quality Chandra X-ray data are available. These are used to calibrate the galaxy-based mass proxies, and to test their performance. Richness, luminosity, galaxy overdensity, rms radius and dynamical mass proxies are all explored. These different mass indicators all have their merits, and we argue that using them in combination can provide protection against being misled by the effects of dynamical disturbance or variations in star formation efficiency. Using them in this way leads us to infer the presence of significant non-statistical scatter in the X-ray based mass estimates we employ. We apply a similar analysis to a set of mock groups derived from applying a semi-analytic galaxy formation code to the Millennium dark matter simulation. The relations between halo mass and the mass proxies differ significantly in some cases from those seen in the observational groups, and we discuss possible reasons for this.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2015; 449(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv463 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate how the properties of a galaxy depend on the mass of its host dark matter subhalo, using two independent models of galaxy formation. For the cases of stellar mass and black hole mass, the median property value displays a monotonic dependence on subhalo mass. The slope of the relation changes for subhalo masses for which heating by active galactic nuclei becomes important. The median property values are predicted to be remarkably similar for central and satellite galaxies. The two models predict considerable scatter around the median property value, though the size of the scatter is model dependent. There is only modest evolution with redshift in the median galaxy property at a fixed subhalo mass. Properties such as cold gas mass and star formation rate, however, are predicted to have a complex dependence on subhalo mass. In these cases subhalo mass is not a good indicator of the value of the galaxy property. We illustrate how the predictions in the galaxy property - subhalo mass plane differ from the assumptions made in empirical models of galaxy clustering by reconstructing the model output using a subhalo abundance matching scheme. In its simplest form, abundance matching generally does not reproduce the clustering predicted by the models, typically resulting in an overprediction of the clustering signal. We show how the basic abundance matching scheme can be extended to reproduce the model predictions more faithfully, which has implications for the analysis of galaxy clustering, particularly for low abundance samples.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the dependence of the galaxy luminosity function on geometric environment within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The tidal tensor prescription, based on the Hessian of the pseudo-gravitational potential, is used to classify the cosmic web and define the geometric environments: for a given smoothing scale, we classify every position of the surveyed region, $0.04<{z}<0.26$, as either a void, a sheet, a filament or a knot. We consider how to choose appropriate thresholds in the eigenvalues of the Hessian in order to partition the galaxies approximately evenly between environments. We find a significant variation in the luminosity function of galaxies between different geometric environments; the normalisation, characterised by $\phi^{*}$ in a Schechter function fit, increases by an order of magnitude from voids to knots. The turnover magnitude, characterised by $M^*$, brightens by approximately $0.5$ mag from voids to knots. However, we show that the observed modulation can be entirely attributed to the indirect local-density dependence. We therefore find no evidence of a direct influence of the cosmic web on the galaxy luminosity function.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 448(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv237 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey in the redshift range 0.01<z<0.1 (8399 galaxies in g to Ks bands) to derive the stellar mass − half-light radius relations for various divisions of 'early' and 'late'-type samples. We find the choice of division between early and late (i.e., colour, shape, morphology) is not particularly critical, however, the adopted mass limits and sample selections (i.e., the careful rejection of outliers and use of robust fitting methods) are important. In particular we note that for samples extending to low stellar mass limits (<1010M⊙) the Sérsic index bimodality, evident for high mass systems, becomes less distinct and no-longer acts as a reliable separator of early- and late-type systems. The final set of stellar mass − half-light radius relations are reported for a variety of galaxy population subsets in 10 bands (ugrizZYJHKs) and are intended to provide a comprehensive low-z benchmark for the many ongoing high-z studies. Exploring the variation of the stellar mass − half-light radius relations with wavelength we confirm earlier findings that galaxies appear more compact at longer wavelengths albeit at a smaller level than previously noted: at 1010M⊙ both spiral systems and ellipticals show a decrease in size of 13% from g to Ks (which is near linear in log wavelength). Finally we note that the sizes used in this work are derived from 2D Sérsic light profile fitting (using GALFIT3), i.e., elliptical semi-major half light radii, improving on earlier low-z benchmarks based on circular apertures.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 447(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2467 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present bivariate luminosity and stellar mass functions of H$\alpha$ star forming galaxies drawn from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. While optically deep spectroscopic observations of GAMA over a wide sky area enable the detection of a large number of $0.001<{SFR}_{H\alpha}$ (M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$)$<100$ galaxies, the requirement for an H$\alpha$ detection in targets selected from an $r$-band magnitude limited survey leads to an incompleteness due to missing optically faint star forming galaxies. Using $z<0.1$ bivariate distributions as a reference we model the higher-$z$ distributions, thereby approximating a correction for the missing optically faint star forming galaxies to the local SFR and stellar mass densities. Furthermore, we obtain the $r$-band LFs and stellar mass functions of H$\alpha$ star forming galaxies from the bivariate LFs. As our sample is selected on the basis of detected H$\alpha$ emission, a direct tracer of on-going star formation, this sample represents a true star forming galaxy sample, and is drawn from both photometrically classified blue and red sub-populations, though mostly from the blue population. On average 20-30% of red galaxies at all stellar masses are star forming, implying that these galaxies may be dusty star forming systems.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 447(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2232 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use 80922 galaxies in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) in different environments over the redshift range 0.04<z<0.26. The depth and size of GAMA allows us to define samples split by colour and redshift to measure the dependence of the LF on environment, redshift and colour. We find that the LF varies smoothly with overdensity, consistent with previous results, with little environmental dependent evolution over the last 3 Gyrs. The modified GALFORM model predictions agree remarkably well with our LFs split by environment, particularly in the most overdense environments. The LFs predicted by the model for both blue and red galaxies are consistent with GAMA for the environments and luminosities at which such galaxies dominate. Discrepancies between the model and the data seen in the faint end of the LF suggest too many faint red galaxies are predicted, which is likely to be due to the over-quenching of satellite galaxies. The excess of bright blue galaxies predicted in underdense regions could be due to the implementation of AGN feedback not being sufficiently effective in the lower mass halos.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 445(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1886 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to measure the local Universe mass dependent merger fraction and merger rate using galaxy pairs and the CAS structural method, which identifies highly asymmetric merger candidate galaxies. Our goals are to determine which types of mergers produce highly asymmetrical galaxies, and to provide a new measurement of the local galaxy major merger rate. We examine galaxy pairs at stellar mass limits down to $M_{*} = 10^{8}M_{\odot}$ with mass ratios of $<$100:1 and line of sight velocity differences of $\Delta V<500$ km s$^{-1}$. We find a significant increase in mean asymmetries for projected separations less than the sum of the individual galaxy's Petrosian 90 radii. For systems in major merger pairs with mass ratios of $<$4:1 both galaxies in the pair show a strong increase in asymmetry, while in minor merger systems (with mass ratios of $>$4:1) the lower mass companion becomes highly asymmetric, while the larger galaxy is much less affected. The fraction of highly asymmetric paired galaxies which have a major merger companion is highest for the most massive galaxies and drops progressively with decreasing mass. We calculate that the mass dependent major merger fraction is fairly constant at $\sim1.3-2\%$ between $10^{9.5}<M_{*}<10^{11.5} M_{\odot}$, and increases to $\sim4\%$ at lower masses. When the observability time scales are taken into consideration, the major merger rate is found to approximately triple over the mass range we consider. The total co-moving volume major merger rate over the range $10^{8.0}<M_{*}<10^{11.5} M_{\odot}$ is $(1.2 \pm 0.5) \times 10^{-3}$ $h^{3}_{70}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ Gyr$^{-1}$.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 445(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1799 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z < 0.12 sample of log M* > 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how 'red' and 'blue' galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterise the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are 'red' and 'blue'. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms 'red' and 'blue', which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that: 1.) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of 'blue' galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; 2.) the tight, flat 'dead sequence' does not extend much below log M* ~ 10.5; instead, 3.) the stellar colours of 'red' galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass 'red' galaxies have bluer stellar populations; 4.) below log M* ~ 9.3, the 'red' population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, 5.) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the possibility of an upturn, of the 'red' galaxy mass function below log M* ~ 9. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 446(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1900 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use a highly complete subset of the GAMA-II redshift sample to fully describe the stellar mass dependence of close-pairs and mergers between 10^8 Msun and 10^12 Msun. Using the analytic form of this fit we investigate the total stellar mass accreting onto more massive galaxies across all mass ratios. Depending on how conservatively we select our robust merging systems, the fraction of mass merging onto more massive companions is 2.0%-5.6%. Using the GAMA-II data we see no significant evidence for a change in the close-pair fraction between redshift $z = 0.05-0.2$. However, we find a systematically higher fraction of galaxies in similar mass close-pairs compared to published results over a similar redshift baseline. Using a compendium of data and the function $\gamma_M =A(1+z)m$ to predict the major close-pair fraction, we find fitting parameters of $A = 0.021 \pm 0.001$ and $m = 1.53 \pm 0.08$, which represents a higher low-redshift normalisation and shallower power-law slope than recent literature values. We find that the relative importance of in-situ star-formation versus galaxy merging is inversely correlated, with star-formation dominating the addition of stellar material below Mstar and merger accretion events dominating beyond Mstar. We find mergers have a measurable impact on the whole extent of the GSMF, manifest as a deepening of the dip in the GSMF over the next Gyr and an increase in Mstar by as much as 0.01-0.05 dex.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 444(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1604 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an estimate of the galaxy stellar mass function and its division by morphological type in the local (0.025 < z < 0.06) Universe. Adopting robust morphological classifications as previously presented (Kelvin et al.) for a sample of 3,727 galaxies taken from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, we define a local volume and stellar mass limited sub-sample of 2,711 galaxies to a lower stellar mass limit of M = 10^9.0 M_sun. We confirm that the galaxy stellar mass function is well described by a double Schechter function given by M* = 10^10.64 M_sun, {\alpha}1 = -0.43, {\phi}*1 = 4.18 dex^-1 Mpc^-3, {\alpha}2 = -1.50 and {\phi}*2 = 0.74 dex^-1 Mpc^-3. The constituent morphological-type stellar mass functions are well sampled above our lower stellar mass limit, excepting the faint little blue spheroid population of galaxies. We find approximately 71+3-4% of the stellar mass in the local Universe is found within spheroid dominated galaxies; ellipticals and S0-Sas. The remaining 29+4-3% falls predominantly within late type disk dominated systems, Sab-Scds and Sd-Irrs. Adopting reasonable bulge-to-total ratios implies that approximately half the stellar mass today resides in spheroidal structures, and half in disk structures. Within this local sample, we find approximate stellar mass proportions for E : S0-Sa : Sab-Scd : Sd-Irr of 34 : 37 : 24 : 5.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1507 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Early Data Release of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is an ongoing integral field spectroscopic survey of ~3400 low-redshift (z<0.12) galaxies, covering galaxies in the field and in groups within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey regions, and a sample of galaxies in clusters. In the Early Data Release, we publicly release the fully calibrated datacubes for a representative selection of 107 galaxies drawn from the GAMA regions, along with information about these galaxies from the GAMA catalogues. All datacubes for the Early Data Release galaxies can be downloaded individually or as a set from the SAMI Galaxy Survey website. In this paper we also assess the quality of the pipeline used to reduce the SAMI data, giving metrics that quantify its performance at all stages in processing the raw data into calibrated datacubes. The pipeline gives excellent results throughout, with typical sky subtraction residuals of 0.9-1.2 per cent, a relative flux calibration uncertainty of 4.1 per cent (systematic) plus 4.3 per cent (statistical), and atmospheric dispersion removed with an accuracy of 0."09, less than a fifth of a spaxel.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first cross-correlation measurement between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Type 1 quasars and the cosmic infrared background (CIB) measured by Herschel. The distribution of the quasars at 0.15<z<3.5 covers the redshift range where we expect most of the CIB to originate. We detect the sub-mm emission of the quasars, which dominates on small scales, as well as correlated emission from dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) dominant on larger scales. The mean sub-mm flux densities of the DR7 quasars (median redshift =1.4) is $11.1^{+1.6}_{-1.4}$, $7.1^{+1.6}_{-1.3}$ and $3.6^{+1.4}_{-1.0}$ mJy at 250, 350 and 500 microns, respectively, while the mean sub-mm flux densities of the DR9 quasars ( =2.5) is $5.7^{+0.7}_{-0.6}$, $5.0^{+0.8}_{-0.7}$ and $1.8^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$ mJy. We find that the correlated sub-mm emission includes both the emission from satellite DSFGs in the same halo as the central quasar and the emission from DSFGs in separate halos (correlated with the quasar-hosting halo). The amplitude of the one-halo term is ~10 times smaller than the sub-mm emission of the quasars, implying the the satellites have a lower star-formation rate than the quasars. The satellite fraction for the DR7 quasars is $0.008^{+0.008}_{-0.005}$ and the host halo mass scale for the central and satellite quasars is $10^{12.36\pm0.87}$ M$_{\odot}$ and $10^{13.60\pm0.38}$ M$_{\odot}$, respectively. The satellite fraction of the DR9 quasars is $0.065^{+0.021}_{-0.031}$ and the host halo mass scale for the central and satellite quasars is $10^{12.29\pm0.62}$ M$_{\odot}$ and $10^{12.82\pm0.39}$ M$_{\odot}$, respectively. Thus, the typical halo environment of the SDSS Type 1 quasars is found to be similar to that of DSFGs, which supports the generally accepted view that dusty starburst and quasar activity are evolutionarily linked.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 449(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv559 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MOONS is a new Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph selected by ESO as a third generation instrument for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The grasp of the large collecting area offered by the VLT (8.2m diameter), combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage (optical to near-IR: 0.8μm - 1.8μm) of MOONS will provide the European astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to pioneer a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies and provide crucial follow-up for major facilities such as Gaia, VISTA, Euclid and LSST. MOONS has the observational power needed to unveil galaxy formation and evolution over the entire history of the Universe, from stars in our Milky Way, through the redshift desert, and up to the epoch of very first galaxies and re-ionization of the Universe at redshift z>8-9, just few million years after the Big Bang. On a timescale of 5 years of observations, MOONS will provide high quality spectra for >3M stars in our Galaxy and the local group, and for 1-2M galaxies at z>1 (SDSS-like survey), promising to revolutionise our understanding of the Universe. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.8μm-1.8μm and two resolution modes: medium resolution and high resolution. In the medium resolution mode (R~4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range 0.8μm-1.8μm is observed simultaneously, while the high resolution mode covers simultaneously three selected spectral regions: one around the CaII triplet (at R~8,000) to measure radial velocities, and two regions at R~20,000 one in the J-band and one in the H-band, for detailed measurements of chemical abundances.
    Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V, Montréal, Quebec, Canada; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present a maximum-likelihood weak lensing analysis of the mass distribution in optically selected spectroscopic Galaxy Groups (G3Cv1) in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using background Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric galaxies. The scaling of halo mass, $M_h$, with various group observables is investigated. Our main results are: 1) the measured relations of halo mass with group luminosity, virial volume and central galaxy stellar mass, $M_\star$, agree very well with predictions from mock group catalogues constructed from a GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model implemented in the Millennim $\Lambda$CDM N-body simulation; 2) the measured relations of halo mass with velocity dispersion and projected half-abundance radius show weak tension with mock predictions, hinting at problems in the mock galaxy dynamics and their small scale distribution; 3) the median $M_h|M_\star$ measured from weak lensing depends more sensitively on the dispersion in $M_\star$ at fixed $M_h$ than it does on the median $M_\star|M_h$. Our measurements suggest an intrinsic dispersion of $\sigma_{\log(M_\star)}\sim 0.15$; 4) Comparing our mass estimates with those in the catalogue, we find that the G3Cv1 mass can give biased results when used to select subsets of the group sample. Of the various new halo mass estimators that we calibrate using our weak lensing measurements, group luminosity is the best single-proxy estimator of group mass.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 446(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2178 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
648.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of the Western Cape
      • Department of Physics
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2002–2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of St Andrews
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University of Chicago
      • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2004
    • ETH Zurich
      • Institute for Astronomy
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs
      Duebendorf, Zurich, Switzerland
    • Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany