Heart (British Cardiac Society) 06/2006; 92(5):657. · 4.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We assessed the effects of estrogen on vascular dilatory and other homeostatic functions potentially affected by nitric oxide (NO)-potentiating properties in type II diabetic postmenopausal women.
There is a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic women than in nondiabetic women. This would suggest that women with diabetes do not have the cardioprotection associated with estrogen.
We administered placebo or conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 mg/day for 8 weeks, to 20 type II diabetic postmenopausal women in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design.
Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 15 +/- 23% (p = 0.007) and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by 8 +/- 16% (p = 0.034). Thus, the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol levels significantly decreased with estrogen, by 20 +/- 24%, as compared with placebo (p = 0.001). Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to increase triglyceride levels by 16 +/- 48% and lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 3 +/- 13% (p = 0.295 and p = 0.199, respectively). However, estrogen did not significantly improve the percent flow-mediated dilatory response to hyperemia (17 +/- 75% vs. placebo; p = 0.501). The statistical power to accept our observation was 81.5%. Compared with placebo, estrogen did not significantly change E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to decrease tissue factor antigen and increase tissue factor activity levels by 7 +/- 46% and 5 +/- 34%, respectively (p = 0.321 and p = 0.117, respectively) and lower plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels by 16 +/- 31% (p = 0.043).
The effects of estrogen on endothelial, vascular dilatory and other homeostatic functions were less apparent in type II diabetic postmenopausal women, despite the beneficial effects of estrogen on lipoprotein levels.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2001; 38(5):1409-15. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Vascular inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on vasomotor function and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 levels, an important serological marker of inflammation.
We administered micronized progesterone (MP) 200 mg for 10 days with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg for 25 days and remaining 5 days off cyclically during 2 months to 20 healthy postmenopausal women (PMW). We measured NO bioactivity and plasma levels of MCP-1 before and after HRT in 20 PMW. And we measured plasma levels of MCP-1 in each 20 subjects of premenopausal women, men <50, and men >50 years, respectively.
MP combined with CEE significantly improved the percent flow-mediated dilator response to hyperemia relative to baseline measurements (P<0.001). PMW receiving HRT had lower levels of MCP-1 than those not receiving HRT (121+/-38 versus 146+/-44 pg/ml, P<0.001). In all comparisons, subjects with high estrogen status had significantly lower MCP-1 levels than subjects with low estrogen status (P<0.001 by ANOVA). Premenopausal women had lower levels of MCP-1 than men of a similar age (106+/-14 versus 164+/-40 pg/ml, P<0.001). PMW not receiving HRT had similar levels of MCP-1 compared with men of a similar age (146+/-44 versus 143+/-29 pg/ml, P=0.816). Premenopausal women had markedly lower levels of MCP-1 than PMW not receiving HRT (106+/-14 versus 146+/-44 pg/ml, P=0.001). PMW receiving HRT had similar levels of MCP-1 compared with premenopausal women (121+/-38 versus 106+/-14 pg/ml, P=0.323).
These findings might provide at least a partial explanation for the protection against cardiovascular disease experienced by premenopausal women, and the loss of that protection following menopause.
International Journal of Cardiology 11/2001; 81(1):43-50. · 7.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Primary stenting has been reported to be superior to balloon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for recurrent ischemia, target lesion revascularization, and restenosis. However, concerns about early reocclusion or thrombosis after stenting in the very thrombotic environment of acute myocardial infarction still remain. Therefore, postprocedural short-term heparin or GpII(b)/III(a) receptor blockades has been used. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and long-term efficacy of heparin-coated stent in the early setting of AMI without postprocedural heparin or GpII(b)/III(a) receptor blockade infusion. We studied 102 consecutive patients presenting to cardiac catheterization laboratory < or = 6 hr from the onset of chest pain. No patients who were implanted with heparin-coated stents received heparin or GpII(b)/III(a) receptor blockade infusion after the procedures, not even patients who showed an angiographically large thrombus burden before stenting. Patients were evaluated for clinical endpoints at 30 days and 6 months. Coronary angiography was required for all patients at 2 weeks and 6 months after the procedure. Angiographic and procedural successes were 100% and 98%, respectively. Two patients (2%) died of heart failure without evidence of reocclusion of stented vessel during the hospitalization and 4 (4%) additional patients died of refractory heart failure within the first 6 months. Major bleeding complication occurred in one patient (1%). Recurrent myocardial infarction developed in one patient at 4 months. Early angiographic follow up at 2 weeks was performed in 88% of all patients, none of whom showed thrombotic stent occlusion. Six-month angiographic follow-up was completed in 71%(64/91) of eligible patients and binary restenosis was present in 17.2% of stented vessels. Eight(8%) patients underwent repeat PTCA. Cardiac event-free survival rate at 6 months was 86.3%. This study demonstrates that heparin-coated stents are safe in the early setting of acute myocardial infarction and no additional heparin infusion after stenting is necessary, which may reduce bleeding complications. Angiographic restenosis rate compares favorably to the binary restenosis rate from other studies with uncoated stents.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 04/2001; 52(3):306-12. · 2.29 Impact Factor