Tianmiao Wang

Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Beihang University), Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (141)45.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a co-evolution framework of configuration and control for swarm self-assembly robots, Sambots, in changing environments. The framework can generate different patterns composed of a set of Sambot robots to adapt to the uncertainties in complex environments. Sambot robots are able to autonomously aggregate and disaggregate into a multi-robot organism. To obtain the optimal pattern for the organism, the configuration and control of locomoting co-evolve by means of genetic programming. To finish self-adaptive tasks, we imply a unified locomotion control model based on Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). In addition, taking modular assembly modes into consideration, a mixed genotype is used, which encodes the configuration and control. Specialized genetic operators are designed to maintain the evolution in the simulation environment. By using an orderly method of evaluation, we can select some resulting patterns of better performance. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed system is effective and robust in simultaneously constructing the adaptive structure and locomotion pattern. The algorithmic research and application analysis bring about deeper insight into swarm intelligence and evolutionary robotics.
    Neurocomputing 01/2015; 148:112–121. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Surgical complications such as healing problems, in fractures treated using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) technique, present functional and economic challenges to patients and treatment dilemmas for surgeons. Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery using minimally invasive techniques focused on biological osteosynthesis is a novel direction for fracture treatment.Method We modified the hexapod computer-assisted fracture reduction system by introducing a new reduction strategy, building a new system configuration and upgrading the corresponding software. We then validated the entire system, using a fracture model of bovine femur.ResultsPrecision tests were performed seven times on a bovine femur with a transverse fracture. Residual deviation was 1.23 ± 0.60 mm in axial deflection, 1.04 ± 0.47 mm in translation, 2.34 ± 1.79° in angulation and 2.83 ± 0.96° in rotation.Conclusion Our new reduction system described here is detachable, flexible and more precise in coordinate transformations. The detachable, modular design will allow for more analogous applications in the future. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 09/2014; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a biomimetic robotic fish that swims using thunniform kinematics for advanced underwater mobility. Propulsion and maneuvering of the robotic fish are achieved with a lunate caudal fin that undergoes combined translational and rotational motion. A parallel four-bar propulsive mechanism attached to the rear of the rigid torpedo-shaped body is used to deliver motor rotation to the caudal fin. Oscillatory control signals for the tail joints are generated with a CPG controller composed of two unidirectionally coupled Hopf oscillators. Coupling terms that allow direct specification of phase relation between oscillators are formulated. The maximum speed of the robotic fish can reach 2.0 m/s and excellent maneuverability has been exhibited. The outstanding swimming performances present exciting possibilities for real-world deployment of the robotic fish.
    Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to present a Rao–Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) approach for the visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Design/methodology/approach ‐ Measurements from inertial measurement unit, barometric altimeter and monocular camera are fused to estimate the state of the vehicle while building a feature map. In this SLAM framework, an extra factorization method is proposed to partition the vehicle model into subspaces as the internal and external states. The internal state is estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF). A particle filter is employed for the external state estimation and parallel EKFs are for the map management. Findings ‐ Simulation results indicate that the proposed approach is more stable and accurate than other existing marginalized particle filter-based SLAM algorithms. Experiments are also carried out to verify the effectiveness of this SLAM method by comparing with a referential global positioning system/inertial navigation system. Originality/value ‐ The main contribution of this paper is the theoretical derivation and experimental application of the Rao–Blackwellized visual SLAM algorithm with vehicle model partition for small UAVs.
    Industrial Robot 01/2014; 41(3). · 0.69 Impact Factor
  • Diansheng Chen, Zhen Li, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, known as multi-discipline, integration, product and system, mechatronics education has drawn worldwide attention. On the foundation of 7 years’ mechatronics education experience, and taking the characteristics of Chinese undergraduate students into consideration, Beihang University improved the previous teaching mode, and formed a competition based project practice teaching mode. After one year’s exploration and practice, this mode more easily stimulates the enthusiasm and initiative of students, enhances their hands-on ability, innovative thinking and teamwork spirit. The experiment achievements and feedbacks from students prove that this mode largely realized the goal of the course.
    Mechatronics. 01/2014;
  • Qi Shen, Kwang J. Kim, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we theoretically model and experimentally investigate the electrode electrical properties and the mechano-electrical properties of the ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) sensor. A physics-based model of the electrode was developed. In addition, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations, the current in the polymer membrane was modeled. By combining the physics of the polymer membrane and the electrode, the model of the surface electrical potential of the IPMC sensor was proposed. Experiments were conducted to test the electrical characteristics of the electrode and validate the model. The results demonstrate that the model can well describe the resistance, capacitance, and surface electrical potential of the IPMC electrode under external oscillation. Based on the model, a parametric study was done to investigate the impact of the parameters on the IPMC electrode properties. The results show that by changing the parameters of the electrode, such as the particle diameter, the electrode thickness, and microstructure, the electrical properties of the electrode can be changed accordingly. The current method of examining the electrode properties may also be applied to the study of electrodes for other smart materials.
    Journal of Applied Physics 01/2014; 115(19):194902-194902-14. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Cai Meng, Jun Zhang, Fugen Zhou, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Image distortion correction and geometric calibration are critical operations for using C-arm DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) images to digitally navigate vascular interventional surgery. In traditional ways, C-arm images are corrected with global or local correction methods where a supposed virtual ideal image is needed, and then the corrected images are utilized to calibrate the C-arm with a pin-hole model. In this paper, we propose a new method to calibrate the C-arm with a nonlinear model and to improve navigation performance. We first calibrate the C-arm with a nonlinear model and then the distortion correction is accomplished without virtual ideal image. In this paper, the nonlinear model of C-arm imaging system is addressed at first, and then the C-arm is calibrated with a two-stage method. In the first stage, the C-arm is calibrated with the markers in image center by RAC (radial alignment constraint) method, and in the second stage the calibration parameters are optimized with Levenberg-Marquadt algorithm by minimizing the sum of the square of difference between all markers' real distorted positions and their theoretical distorted positions in the phantom image. Based on the calibration result, the image distortion can be corrected. To verify our method, experiments were conducted with a conventional DSA C-arm machine in hospital. The errors in distortion correction and 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction were quantitatively compared with the global polynomial correction method and visual model method, and the results showed that the proposed method had better performance in distortion correction and 3D reconstruction.
    Computers in Biology and Medicine. 01/2014;
  • Tianmiao Wang, Haiyuan Li, Cai Meng
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    ABSTRACT: Modular robot are said to construct a diversity of morphogenesis with self-assembling strategies. They bring about an adaptive entity to deal with complex tasks. By analyzing integration design in module, perception, and control in detail, a swarm modular robot is presented with self-assembly scenario. Then, these active docking robots use the distance measured by infrared sensors between itself and edge of assembled structural entity as input. We design the fuzzy sets and if-then rules according to the human reasoning in following process. Based on Mamdani-type inference, the fuzzy controller can yield two outputs. The outputs are, respectively, used as steering angle speed and linear speed. Due to the diversity of self-assembled structure by the swarm modular robots, we conduct a series of simulated experiments. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller in swarm robots’ edge-following process.
    Advances in Mechanical Engineering 07/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A bionic gannet was developed based on the analysis of the body configuration and skeleton structure and the motion pattern of wings of a gannet in plunge-diving. In the current prototype, adjustable sweptback wings were implemented so as to achieve different body shapes for entering water. The impact acceleration in the longitudinal body axis direction and the axial overload on the body were investigated through the falling-down experiments under different conditions including dropping height, water-entry inclination angle, and wing sweptback angle. It is found that when the above three key parameters are 10 m for dropping height, 0° for wing sweptback angle, and 90° for water-entry inclination angle, the maximum peak impact acceleration and overload are −167.20 m·s−2 and 18.06 respectively. Furthermore, the variation of peak impact acceleration with the three key parameters were also analyzed and discussed.
    Journal of Bionic Engineering 07/2013; 10(3):282–291. · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Tianmiao Wang, Yonghui Hu, Jianhong Liang
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    ABSTRACT: Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) can generate robust, smooth and coordinated oscillatory signals for locomotion control of robots with multiple degrees of freedom, but the tuning of CPG parameters for a desired locomotor pattern constitutes a tremendously difficult task. This paper addresses this problem for the generation of fish-like swimming gaits with an adaptive CPG network on a multi-joint robotic fish. Our approach converts the related CPG parameters into dynamical systems that evolve as part of the CPG network dynamics. To reproduce the bodily motion of swimming fish, we use the joint angles calculated with the trajectory approximation method as teaching signals for the CPG network, which are modeled as a chain of coupled Hopf oscillators. A novel coupling scheme is proposed to eliminate the influence of afferent signals on the amplitude of the oscillator. The learning rules of intrinsic frequency, coupling weight and amplitude are formulated with phase space representation of the oscillators. The frequency, amplitudes and phase relations of the teaching signals can be encoded by the CPG network with adaptation mechanisms. Since the Hopf oscillator exhibits limit cycle behavior, the learned locomotor pattern is stable against perturbations. Moreover, due to nonlinear characteristics of the CPG model, modification of the target travelling body wave can be carried out in a smooth way. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed learning rules.
    Robotica 05/2013; 31(03). · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapidly increase of robotic products and their applications in industry and human life, a great challenge for universities to teach undergraduate students the basic knowledge of Mechatronics System Engineering (MSE) is appeared. As a required course for students majoring in machinery, MSE has practicalness and comprehensiveness traits. To improve the capacity of oral English and hands-on experiment for undergraduates, Beihang University carries out a teaching reform for MSE and forms a teaching mode based on bilingualism combining with project teaching method. In class, students communicate with teacher in English and after class, a drilling project based on a flex track drilling robot (FTDR) is provided for them to practice the knowledge they learned in class. After years of exploration, several mechatronics projects are presented by some excellent students in this paper, which confirms the bilingual teaching mode is a successful reform and is deserved to extend in other course gradually.
    Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 2013 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2013
  • Li Wen, Tianmiao Wang, Guanhao Wu, Jianhong Liang
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    ABSTRACT: The robotic fish that utilize the body/caudal fin undulatory locomotion has long interested both biologists and engineers. Although a variety of free swimming robotic fish prototypes have already been developed, very few studies addressed the methods for determining quantitative thrust efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental method that enables the simultaneous measurement of the power, wake flow field, and self-propulsive speed of a robotic fish, which together facilitate a quantitative measurement of its efficiency. Our results show that the optimal thrust efficiency of the robotic swimmer is within the Strouhal number (St) range of 0.3 ≤ St ≤ 0.325 when single-row reverse Karman vortices are produced. Nevertheless, present robotic fish swam at Strouhal numbers outside the optimal region under self-propulsive condition, and produced another type of wake structure: “double-row vortices.” We also show that robotic fish that utilize a low amplitude with a large flapping frequency produce higher self-propulsive speeds, whereas a larger amplitude paired with lower frequency results in higher efficiency. Additionally, a peak efficiency value of 31.6% is recored for the self-propulsive robotic swimmer. The general applicability of this experimental method indicates that broader issues regarding thrust efficiency for biomimetic underwater propulsive robots can be quanlitantively measured.
    IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 01/2013; 18(3):1027-1038. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In traditional long bone fracture reduction surgery, there are some drawbacks such as low accuracy, high radiation for surgeons and a risk of infection. To overcome these disadvantages, a removable hybrid robot system is developed, which integrates a removable series-parallel mechanism with a motor-double cylinder (MDC) driven mode. This paper describes the mechanism in detail, analyses the principle and the method of the fracture reduction, presents the surgical procedure, and verifies the reduction accuracy by experiments with bone models. The results are shown as follows. The mean deviations of the axial displacement and lateral displacement are 1.60mm and 1.26mm respectively. The standard deviations are 0.69mm and 0.30mm. The mean deviations of the side angle and turn inward are 2.06° and 2.22° respectively. The standard deviations are 0.50° and 0.99°. This minimally invasive robot features high accuracy and zero radiation for surgeons, and is able to conduct fracture reduction for long bones.
    Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2013; 23:S521-S529. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • Han Gao, Tianmiao Wang, Jianhong Liang, Yi Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: To let a robot learns to create behaviors without recourse to a certain model, or an action which is designed manually is always a problem. This paper proposes a novel method of autonomous locomotion scheme for legged robot. This method using biological evolutionary algorithm makes robots more robust for their walking. The evolutionary algorithm and a simulation environment is applied to find some actions, with which the robot could walk on. Moreover, the robot knows nothing about how to walk at the beginning and its model can change. Simulation and physical experiments are conducted based on the multi-legs robot platform. Finally the robot learnt to walk and the experimental result validates the algorithm.
    Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2013 8th IEEE Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ This paper aims to present a technique for optimal trajectory planning of industrial robots that applies a new harmony search (HS) algorithm. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The new HS optimization algorithm adds one more operation to the original HS algorithm. The objective function to be minimized is the trajectory execution time subject to kinematical and mechanical constraints. The trajectory is built by quintic B-spline curves and cubic B-spline curves. Findings ‐ Simulation experiments have been undertaken using a 6-DOF robot QH165. The results show that the proposed technique is valid and that the trajectory obtained using quintic B-spline curves is smoother than the trajectory using cubic B-spline curves. Originality/value ‐ The proposed new HS algorithm is more efficient than the sequential quadratic programming method (SQP) and the original HS method. The proposed technique is applicable to any industrial robot and yields smooth and time-optimal trajectories.
    Industrial Robot 01/2013; 40(5). · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numbers of indoor navigation systems have been proposed by using different sensing technologies. However, there is still lack of research on blind people focused indoor navigation system. This study aims to develop a high accurate indoor navigation system for blind people to meet this demand. The proposed system is based on inertial measurement unit, which is infrastructurefree and robust. The kinematic characteristics of walking have been investigated. The step frequency detection algorithm and the step length estimation method are developed. Moreover, an effective positioning correction algorithm has been proposed to improve locating accuracy. The experiments showed that this indoor navigation system have a high positioning accuracy, and capable to provide navigation service for blind people in indoor environment.
    Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications - Volume Part III; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents numerical and analytical methods for synthesis of a CPG network to acquire desired locomotor patterns. The CPG network is modeled as a chain of coupled Hopf oscillators with a coupling scheme that eliminates the influence of afferent signals on amplitude of the oscillator. The numerical method converts the related CPG parameters into dynamical systems that evolve as part of the CPG network dynamics. The frequency, amplitude and phase relations of teaching signals can be encoded by the CPG network with the proposed learning rules. For direct specification of the phase relations, the expression that defines the dependence of phase difference on coupling weights is analytically derived. The ability of the numerical methods to learn instructed locomotor pattern is proved with simulations. The effectiveness of the analytical method is also validated by the numerical results.
    Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications - Volume Part III; 10/2012
  • Diansheng Chen, Xiyu Li, Zhen Li, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the synergistic nature of mechanical engineering, electronic control and systematical thinking [1], the mechatronics education is regarded as a complicated and more demanding course characterized by the need of highly integrated ability with theoretical knowledge and hands-on experiment to solve proposed problems, and thus has drawn great attention worldwide. As one of the typical and innovative teaching modes in mechatronics in China, mechatronics teaching in Beihang University has formed a “One main line, Two links, Three practical points” mode and methodology, which emphasizes on the links and mapping relationships between theoretical teaching and practical teaching. After 6-year practicing and exploring, the course has made fundamental and systematic innovation achievements in the field with respect to class materials, teaching mode, teaching system. Several typical mechatronics projects proposed and achieved by students have verified the effect and innovation of the project based teaching mode and methodology.
    Mechatronics. 09/2012; 22(6):881–889.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Image guided navigation systems (IGNS) have been implemented successfully in orthopaedic trauma surgery procedures because of their ability to help surgeons position and orient hand-held drills at optimal entry points. However, current IGNS cannot prevent drilling tools or instruments from slipping or deviating from the planned trajectory during the drilling process. A method is therefore needed to overcome such problems. METHODS: A novel passive/active hybrid robot (the HybriDot) for positioning and supporting surgical tools and instruments while drilling and/or cutting in orthopaedic trauma surgery is presented in this paper. This new robot, consisting of a circular prismatic joint and five passive/active back-drivable joints, is designed to fulfill clinical needs. In this paper, a system configuration and three operational modes are introduced and analyzed. Workspace and layout in the operating theatre (OT) are also analyzed in order to validate the structure design. Finally, experiments to evaluate the feasibility of the robot system are described. RESULTS: Analysis, simulation, and experimental results show that the novel structure of the robot can provide an appropriate workspace without risk of collision within OT environments during operation. The back-drivable joint mechanism can provide surgeons with more safety and flexibility in operational modes. The mean square value of the positional accuracy of this robot is 0.811 mm, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.361 mm; the orientation is accurate to within 2.186º, with a SD of 0.932º. Trials on actual patients undergoing surgery for distal locking of intramedullary nails were successfully conducted in one pass using the robot. CONCLUSION: This robot has the advantages of having an appropriate workspace, being well designed for human-robot cooperation, and having high accuracy, sufficient rigidity, and easy deployability within the OT for use in common orthopaedic trauma surgery tasks such as screw fixation and drilling assistance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 07/2012; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Milling operations in spinal surgery demand much experience and skill for the surgeon to perform the procedure safely. A 3D navigation method is introduced aiming at providing a monitoring system with enhanced safety and minimal intraoperative interaction. An automatic registration method is presented to establish the 3D-3D transformation between the preoperative CT images and a common reference system in the surgical space, and an intensity-based similarity metric adapted for the multi-planar configuration is introduced in the registration procedure. A critical region is defined for real-time monitoring in order to prevent penetration of the lamina and avoid violation of nerve structures. The contour of the spinal canal is reconstructed as the critical region, and different levels of warning limits are defined. During the milling procedure, the position of the surgical instrument relative to the critical region is provided with augmented display and audio warnings. Timely alarm is provided for surgeons to prevent surgical failure when the mill approaches the critical region. Our validation experiment shows that real-time 3D navigation and monitoring is advantageous for improving the safety of the milling operation.
    Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 04/2012; 108(1):151-7. · 1.56 Impact Factor