Tianmiao Wang

Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Beihang University), Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (160)70.2 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a co-evolution framework of configuration and control for swarm self-assembly robots, Sambots, in changing environments. The framework can generate different patterns composed of a set of Sambot robots to adapt to the uncertainties in complex environments. Sambot robots are able to autonomously aggregate and disaggregate into a multi-robot organism. To obtain the optimal pattern for the organism, the configuration and control of locomoting co-evolve by means of genetic programming. To finish self-adaptive tasks, we imply a unified locomotion control model based on Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). In addition, taking modular assembly modes into consideration, a mixed genotype is used, which encodes the configuration and control. Specialized genetic operators are designed to maintain the evolution in the simulation environment. By using an orderly method of evaluation, we can select some resulting patterns of better performance. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed system is effective and robust in simultaneously constructing the adaptive structure and locomotion pattern. The algorithmic research and application analysis bring about deeper insight into swarm intelligence and evolutionary robotics.
    Neurocomputing 01/2015; 148:112–121. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic–aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air–water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.
    Progress in Aerospace Sciences 12/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Yonghui Hu, Jianhong Liang, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a numerical method for parameter synthesis of a central pattern generator (CPG) network to acquire desired locomotor patterns. The CPG network is modeled as a chain of unidirectionally or bidirectionally coupled Hopf oscillators with a novel coupling scheme that eliminates the influence of afferent signals on amplitude of the oscillator. The method converts the related CPG parameters into dynamic systems that evolve as part of the CPG network dynamics. The frequency, amplitude, and phase relations of teaching signals can be encoded by the CPG network with the proposed learning rules. The ability of the method to learn instructed locomotor pattern is proven with simulations. Application of the proposed method to online gait synthesis of a robotic fish is also presented.
    IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 11/2014; 61(11):6183-6191. · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Cai Meng, Jun Zhang, Fugen Zhou, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Image distortion correction and geometric calibration are critical operations for using C-arm DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) images to digitally navigate vascular interventional surgery. In traditional ways, C-arm images are corrected with global or local correction methods where a supposed virtual ideal image is needed, and then the corrected images are utilized to calibrate the C-arm with a pin-hole model. In this paper, we propose a new method to calibrate the C-arm with a nonlinear model and to improve navigation performance. We first calibrate the C-arm with a nonlinear model and then the distortion correction is accomplished without virtual ideal image. In this paper, the nonlinear model of C-arm imaging system is addressed at first, and then the C-arm is calibrated with a two-stage method. In the first stage, the C-arm is calibrated with the markers in image center by RAC (radial alignment constraint) method, and in the second stage the calibration parameters are optimized with Levenberg-Marquadt algorithm by minimizing the sum of the square of difference between all markers' real distorted positions and their theoretical distorted positions in the phantom image. Based on the calibration result, the image distortion can be corrected. To verify our method, experiments were conducted with a conventional DSA C-arm machine in hospital. The errors in distortion correction and 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction were quantitatively compared with the global polynomial correction method and visual model method, and the results showed that the proposed method had better performance in distortion correction and 3D reconstruction.
    Computers in Biology and Medicine 09/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Surgical complications such as healing problems, in fractures treated using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) technique, present functional and economic challenges to patients and treatment dilemmas for surgeons. Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery using minimally invasive techniques focused on biological osteosynthesis is a novel direction for fracture treatment.Method We modified the hexapod computer-assisted fracture reduction system by introducing a new reduction strategy, building a new system configuration and upgrading the corresponding software. We then validated the entire system, using a fracture model of bovine femur.ResultsPrecision tests were performed seven times on a bovine femur with a transverse fracture. Residual deviation was 1.23 ± 0.60 mm in axial deflection, 1.04 ± 0.47 mm in translation, 2.34 ± 1.79° in angulation and 2.83 ± 0.96° in rotation.Conclusion Our new reduction system described here is detachable, flexible and more precise in coordinate transformations. The detachable, modular design will allow for more analogous applications in the future. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 09/2014; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A movement planning method for attitude adjustment of a drilling robot is presented in this paper. The double eccentric discs normal adjustment mechanism is used in the robot to adjust the attitude of the drill axis. To improve the adjustment efficiency, the robot should rotate the eccentric discs to the target point in a most effective way. But there are two available directions and attitudes to rotate, while the anti-trigonometric functions also have two solutions, the key problem of the movement planning is how to choose the optimal solutions from these calculated solutions to rotate the eccentric discs to improve the rotary efficiency. The principle of choosing the solutions is that the eccentric discs should rotate in the minimum absolute angle values to move to the target point. Finally, the movement loci from the initial position and a specific attitude to some different points in different quadrants are simulated in Mat lab to verify the feasibility of the rotary angle calculation method.
    2014 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposed hardware and software structure of the AGV system, localization method and tracking control method. In order to achieve long time and high precision localization of the AGV, this paper proposed a multi-sensor information fusion method for localization. The method was based on the characteristics of the used sensors, and adopted Kalman filter to fuse the heading direction data and position data respectively to obtain the best estimate value of AGV posture information. This paper used the control rule designed by Kanayama and the reference velocities and posture of target which were planned in advance and updated continuously for tracking control. This approach realized the tracking control accuracy and stability of the AGV. Some experiment results verified the correctness of localization method and tracking control method of the AGV system on the basis of the differential AGV.
    2014 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a biomimetic robotic fish that swims using thunniform kinematics for advanced underwater mobility. Propulsion and maneuvering of the robotic fish are achieved with a lunate caudal fin that undergoes combined translational and rotational motion. A parallel four-bar propulsive mechanism attached to the rear of the rigid torpedo-shaped body is used to deliver motor rotation to the caudal fin. Oscillatory control signals for the tail joints are generated with a CPG controller composed of two unidirectionally coupled Hopf oscillators. Coupling terms that allow direct specification of phase relation between oscillators are formulated. The maximum speed of the robotic fish can reach 2.0 m/s and excellent maneuverability has been exhibited. The outstanding swimming performances present exciting possibilities for real-world deployment of the robotic fish.
    Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to present a Rao–Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) approach for the visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Design/methodology/approach ‐ Measurements from inertial measurement unit, barometric altimeter and monocular camera are fused to estimate the state of the vehicle while building a feature map. In this SLAM framework, an extra factorization method is proposed to partition the vehicle model into subspaces as the internal and external states. The internal state is estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF). A particle filter is employed for the external state estimation and parallel EKFs are for the map management. Findings ‐ Simulation results indicate that the proposed approach is more stable and accurate than other existing marginalized particle filter-based SLAM algorithms. Experiments are also carried out to verify the effectiveness of this SLAM method by comparing with a referential global positioning system/inertial navigation system. Originality/value ‐ The main contribution of this paper is the theoretical derivation and experimental application of the Rao–Blackwellized visual SLAM algorithm with vehicle model partition for small UAVs.
    Industrial Robot 05/2014; 41(3). · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • Qi Shen, Kwang J. Kim, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we theoretically model and experimentally investigate the electrode electrical properties and the mechano-electrical properties of the ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) sensor. A physics-based model of the electrode was developed. In addition, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations, the current in the polymer membrane was modeled. By combining the physics of the polymer membrane and the electrode, the model of the surface electrical potential of the IPMC sensor was proposed. Experiments were conducted to test the electrical characteristics of the electrode and validate the model. The results demonstrate that the model can well describe the resistance, capacitance, and surface electrical potential of the IPMC electrode under external oscillation. Based on the model, a parametric study was done to investigate the impact of the parameters on the IPMC electrode properties. The results show that by changing the parameters of the electrode, such as the particle diameter, the electrode thickness, and microstructure, the electrical properties of the electrode can be changed accordingly. The current method of examining the electrode properties may also be applied to the study of electrodes for other smart materials.
    Journal of Applied Physics 03/2014; 115(19):194902-194902-14. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Diansheng Chen, Zhen Li, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, known as multi-discipline, integration, product and system, mechatronics education has drawn worldwide attention. On the foundation of 7 years’ mechatronics education experience, and taking the characteristics of Chinese undergraduate students into consideration, Beihang University improved the previous teaching mode, and formed a competition based project practice teaching mode. After one year’s exploration and practice, this mode more easily stimulates the enthusiasm and initiative of students, enhances their hands-on ability, innovative thinking and teamwork spirit. The experiment achievements and feedbacks from students prove that this mode largely realized the goal of the course.
    Mechatronics 03/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we studied the wing root pivot joint’s radial load of a submersible airplane which imitates the locomotion of gannet’s Morus plunge-diving, by implementing a test device name Mimic-Gannet. The housing of the device was designed by mimicking the morphology of a living gannet, and the folding wings were realized by the mechanism of variable swept back wing. Then, the radial loads of the wing root were obtained under the conditions of different dropping heights, different sweptback angles and different water-entry inclination angles (i.e., the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the water surface), and the relationships between the peak radial load and the above three parameters were analyzed and discussed respectively. In the studied areas, the minimum peak radial load of the pivot joint is 50.93 N, while the maximum reaches up to 1135.00 N. The largest peak load would be generated for the situation of vertical water entry and zero wing sweptback angle. And it is of great significance to choose the three parameters properly to reduce the pivot joint’s radial load, i.e., larger wing sweptback angle, smaller dropping height and water-entry inclination angle. It is also concluded that the peak radial load on the wing root is closely linear with the water-entry dropping height and the wing sweptback angle with a significant correlation. Eventually, the relationship between the wing load and the dropping height, water-entry inclination angle or wing sweptback angle, could be used to calculate the wing load about plunge-diving of a submersible aircraft, and the conclusions reveal the wing load characteristic of the gannet’s plunge process for the biologists.
    Science China Technological Sciences 02/2014; 57(2):390-402. · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Robotics and Automation. 01/2014; 29(1).
  • Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering 01/2014; 27(1):138-145. · 0.45 Impact Factor
  • Baiquan Su, Tianmiao Wang, Rui Wu, Junchen Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we address the shortest path problem of point-to-point maneuver for a new nonholonomic wheeled vehicle. The vehicle performs forward-only motion which is adopted by Dubins car, while the curvature radius of its path is restricted to a finitely bounded interval which is different from that of Dubins car with a lower-bounded curvature radius. We first provide the infimum of the path length of the vehicle of point-to-point maneuver without a start or final orientation constraint. Then we study the infimum of the path length of the vehicle for point-to-point maneuver with a start and final orientation constraints. Next, we derive the explicit expressions for the candidate infimums. The infimum of the length path is the minimum of the candidates. Moreover, several examples are provided to verify the main results. The results in this paper extend the results on the existence of the shortest path of Dubins car to the new type of nonholonomic vehicles.
    Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems 01/2014; · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skid-steering mobile robots, both wheels and tracked vehicles, are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robust. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematics constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop a kinematics modeling estimation scheme to analyze the skid-steering wheeled mobile robot based on the boundedness of the Instantaneous Centers of Rotation (ICRs) of treads on the 2D motion plane, and the parameters of this model are determined based on experimental analysis. We study the relationship between the ICRs of the robot treads and two physical factors, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed. Moreover, an ICRs coefficient and a nondimensional variable are introduced. An approximating function is used to describe the relationship. To validate the obtained results, the proposed model has been applied to a popular research robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. It is empirically demonstrated that the developed model improves dead-reckoning performance of this skid-steering robot.
    2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO); 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the construction and control of a turtle-like underwater vehicle, which uses four single axis oscillation flippers for swimming and attitude control. The maneuvers are realized by the composition of appropriate angular offset, vibration amplitude and vibration frequency of the flippers. After analyzing the actuated flippers' motion and the swimming gait, a CPG-based (central pattern generator) control architecture is introduced. Such a CPG model has several nice properties, i.e. limit cycle behavior, closed form solution, no discontinuities nor jerks performance. To estimate the utility and stability of the vehicle, experiments were also carried out in the Mochou Lake of Antarctic Zhongshan Station following the Chinese 29th Antarctic expedition. The experimental result proves that the vehicle is applicable to the underwater detection.
    2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO); 12/2013
  • Taoyi Zhang, Tianmiao Wang, Qiteng Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: After the Fukushima nuclear crisis, robots were used to detect irradiation dose rate and sample contaminated water inside the reactor. The necessity of robots in nuclear crisis and daily maintenance have been proved in past 40 years since the Three-mile island crisis. The key issue for a nuclear robot was irradiation hardness of all components, especially the electrical components. We conducted γ ray irradiation test for the minimize motion control system using Co-60 at the dose rate of 50Gy/h(Si). The results showed the irradiation hardness of typical components in mobile robots. The design goal of control system was to tolerated total dose of 100Gy, the original system has tolerated less dose. We used tungsten plate for shielding in the second test, the system survived under the ambient dose over 100Gy. Base on the results, we designed a minimum system which was a joint of robotic arm, it could tolerated 100Gy total dose.
    2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO); 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: A submersible unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed firstly, which is capable of operating in both air and water. One of the outstanding characteristics of the UAV is that the air-water transition imitates that of a gannet, i.e., plunge-diving. In this paper, the plunge-diving process of this UAV is simplified as a water-entry problem with a certain initial velocity, and the impact force is calculated by the method of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Volume of Fluid is coupled with the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations to establish the model of the flow field, and the equations are solved in Fluent 6.3. The phase distribution and the pressure distribution during water-entry are presented and analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of the dropping height and the wing's sweptback angle on the impact force are investigated and discussed.
    2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO); 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a novel method was presented to investigate the hydrodynamics of a robotic fish at different Reynolds number. The ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) was used as the soft actuator for biomimetic underwater propulsion. A hydrodynamic model based on the elongated body theory was developed. Based on image analysis, the kinematic parameters of the robotic fish were identified. To obtain the hydrodynamic thrust performance of the robotic fish, we implemented a novel experimental apparatus. Systematic tests were conducted in the servo towing system to measure the self-propelled speed and thrust efficiency at viscous and inertial flow. The robotic fish's thrust efficiency was compared at different body and caudal fin (BCF) swimming modes, i.e. anguilliform, carangiform and thunniform. The thrust performance of the robotic fish is determined by the kinematics and Reynolds number. We show that at high Reynolds number, thunniform kinematics is the most efficient, while anguilliform kinematics produces relatively poor thrust efficiency. At low Reynolds number, the fish has the highest thrust efficiency with the anguilliform type. It is less efficient with the thunniform type.
    2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO); 12/2013