Tianmiao Wang

Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Beihang University), Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (148)50.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a co-evolution framework of configuration and control for swarm self-assembly robots, Sambots, in changing environments. The framework can generate different patterns composed of a set of Sambot robots to adapt to the uncertainties in complex environments. Sambot robots are able to autonomously aggregate and disaggregate into a multi-robot organism. To obtain the optimal pattern for the organism, the configuration and control of locomoting co-evolve by means of genetic programming. To finish self-adaptive tasks, we imply a unified locomotion control model based on Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). In addition, taking modular assembly modes into consideration, a mixed genotype is used, which encodes the configuration and control. Specialized genetic operators are designed to maintain the evolution in the simulation environment. By using an orderly method of evaluation, we can select some resulting patterns of better performance. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed system is effective and robust in simultaneously constructing the adaptive structure and locomotion pattern. The algorithmic research and application analysis bring about deeper insight into swarm intelligence and evolutionary robotics.
    Neurocomputing 01/2015; 148:112–121. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Cai Meng, Jun Zhang, Fugen Zhou, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Image distortion correction and geometric calibration are critical operations for using C-arm DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) images to digitally navigate vascular interventional surgery. In traditional ways, C-arm images are corrected with global or local correction methods where a supposed virtual ideal image is needed, and then the corrected images are utilized to calibrate the C-arm with a pin-hole model. In this paper, we propose a new method to calibrate the C-arm with a nonlinear model and to improve navigation performance. We first calibrate the C-arm with a nonlinear model and then the distortion correction is accomplished without virtual ideal image. In this paper, the nonlinear model of C-arm imaging system is addressed at first, and then the C-arm is calibrated with a two-stage method. In the first stage, the C-arm is calibrated with the markers in image center by RAC (radial alignment constraint) method, and in the second stage the calibration parameters are optimized with Levenberg-Marquadt algorithm by minimizing the sum of the square of difference between all markers' real distorted positions and their theoretical distorted positions in the phantom image. Based on the calibration result, the image distortion can be corrected. To verify our method, experiments were conducted with a conventional DSA C-arm machine in hospital. The errors in distortion correction and 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction were quantitatively compared with the global polynomial correction method and visual model method, and the results showed that the proposed method had better performance in distortion correction and 3D reconstruction.
    Computers in Biology and Medicine 09/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Surgical complications such as healing problems, in fractures treated using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) technique, present functional and economic challenges to patients and treatment dilemmas for surgeons. Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery using minimally invasive techniques focused on biological osteosynthesis is a novel direction for fracture treatment.Method We modified the hexapod computer-assisted fracture reduction system by introducing a new reduction strategy, building a new system configuration and upgrading the corresponding software. We then validated the entire system, using a fracture model of bovine femur.ResultsPrecision tests were performed seven times on a bovine femur with a transverse fracture. Residual deviation was 1.23 ± 0.60 mm in axial deflection, 1.04 ± 0.47 mm in translation, 2.34 ± 1.79° in angulation and 2.83 ± 0.96° in rotation.Conclusion Our new reduction system described here is detachable, flexible and more precise in coordinate transformations. The detachable, modular design will allow for more analogous applications in the future. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 09/2014; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A movement planning method for attitude adjustment of a drilling robot is presented in this paper. The double eccentric discs normal adjustment mechanism is used in the robot to adjust the attitude of the drill axis. To improve the adjustment efficiency, the robot should rotate the eccentric discs to the target point in a most effective way. But there are two available directions and attitudes to rotate, while the anti-trigonometric functions also have two solutions, the key problem of the movement planning is how to choose the optimal solutions from these calculated solutions to rotate the eccentric discs to improve the rotary efficiency. The principle of choosing the solutions is that the eccentric discs should rotate in the minimum absolute angle values to move to the target point. Finally, the movement loci from the initial position and a specific attitude to some different points in different quadrants are simulated in Mat lab to verify the feasibility of the rotary angle calculation method.
    2014 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposed hardware and software structure of the AGV system, localization method and tracking control method. In order to achieve long time and high precision localization of the AGV, this paper proposed a multi-sensor information fusion method for localization. The method was based on the characteristics of the used sensors, and adopted Kalman filter to fuse the heading direction data and position data respectively to obtain the best estimate value of AGV posture information. This paper used the control rule designed by Kanayama and the reference velocities and posture of target which were planned in advance and updated continuously for tracking control. This approach realized the tracking control accuracy and stability of the AGV. Some experiment results verified the correctness of localization method and tracking control method of the AGV system on the basis of the differential AGV.
    2014 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a biomimetic robotic fish that swims using thunniform kinematics for advanced underwater mobility. Propulsion and maneuvering of the robotic fish are achieved with a lunate caudal fin that undergoes combined translational and rotational motion. A parallel four-bar propulsive mechanism attached to the rear of the rigid torpedo-shaped body is used to deliver motor rotation to the caudal fin. Oscillatory control signals for the tail joints are generated with a CPG controller composed of two unidirectionally coupled Hopf oscillators. Coupling terms that allow direct specification of phase relation between oscillators are formulated. The maximum speed of the robotic fish can reach 2.0 m/s and excellent maneuverability has been exhibited. The outstanding swimming performances present exciting possibilities for real-world deployment of the robotic fish.
    Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to present a Rao–Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) approach for the visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Design/methodology/approach ‐ Measurements from inertial measurement unit, barometric altimeter and monocular camera are fused to estimate the state of the vehicle while building a feature map. In this SLAM framework, an extra factorization method is proposed to partition the vehicle model into subspaces as the internal and external states. The internal state is estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF). A particle filter is employed for the external state estimation and parallel EKFs are for the map management. Findings ‐ Simulation results indicate that the proposed approach is more stable and accurate than other existing marginalized particle filter-based SLAM algorithms. Experiments are also carried out to verify the effectiveness of this SLAM method by comparing with a referential global positioning system/inertial navigation system. Originality/value ‐ The main contribution of this paper is the theoretical derivation and experimental application of the Rao–Blackwellized visual SLAM algorithm with vehicle model partition for small UAVs.
    Industrial Robot 05/2014; 41(3). · 0.69 Impact Factor
  • Qi Shen, Kwang J. Kim, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we theoretically model and experimentally investigate the electrode electrical properties and the mechano-electrical properties of the ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) sensor. A physics-based model of the electrode was developed. In addition, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations, the current in the polymer membrane was modeled. By combining the physics of the polymer membrane and the electrode, the model of the surface electrical potential of the IPMC sensor was proposed. Experiments were conducted to test the electrical characteristics of the electrode and validate the model. The results demonstrate that the model can well describe the resistance, capacitance, and surface electrical potential of the IPMC electrode under external oscillation. Based on the model, a parametric study was done to investigate the impact of the parameters on the IPMC electrode properties. The results show that by changing the parameters of the electrode, such as the particle diameter, the electrode thickness, and microstructure, the electrical properties of the electrode can be changed accordingly. The current method of examining the electrode properties may also be applied to the study of electrodes for other smart materials.
    Journal of Applied Physics 03/2014; 115(19):194902-194902-14. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Diansheng Chen, Zhen Li, Tianmiao Wang
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, known as multi-discipline, integration, product and system, mechatronics education has drawn worldwide attention. On the foundation of 7 years’ mechatronics education experience, and taking the characteristics of Chinese undergraduate students into consideration, Beihang University improved the previous teaching mode, and formed a competition based project practice teaching mode. After one year’s exploration and practice, this mode more easily stimulates the enthusiasm and initiative of students, enhances their hands-on ability, innovative thinking and teamwork spirit. The experiment achievements and feedbacks from students prove that this mode largely realized the goal of the course.
    Mechatronics 03/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Robotics and Automation. 01/2014; 29(1).
  • 2013 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference; 08/2013
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate the kinematic mechanism and path planning of a two-caster nonholonomic vehicle (the Essboard) which is a recent variant of skateboards. Different from the most studied Snakeboard, the Essboard consists of a torsion bar and two platforms, each of which contains a pedal and a caster. We study the relationship between the tilt angle of the pedal and the wheel direction of the caster. This relationship clarifies how to control the wheel direction by adjusting the tilt angle. Further-more, the rotational radius of the Essboard is derived for a given pair of tilt angles of both pedals. The rotational radius of the Essboard is much different to that of other skateboards. Two experiments are conducted to verify the results. These results clar-ify the kinematic mechanism and lay a solid foundation for further investigation of the Essboard.
    Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics 08/2013; 5:034503-1-034503-7. · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Ziqiang Ni, Da Liu, Tianmiao Wang, Huaiyong Li
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    ABSTRACT: Telesurgery is an interdisciplinary field of teleoperated robotics and robot assisted minimally invasive surgery, and has great promising future. This paper describes the design and experiment of a tele-neurosurgery system on a hospital ship. A five DOFs robot was designed to perform the surgical procedure. Synchronous communication satellite links were built to perform data transmission, and virtual surgery technology was being used to reduce the affect of time delay in the telesurgery. Experiments show the location error of robot at different sea conditions. It also proves the practicality and reliability of the system.
    2013 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA); 08/2013
  • Tianmiao Wang, Haiyuan Li, Cai Meng
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    ABSTRACT: Modular robot are said to construct a diversity of morphogenesis with self-assembling strategies. They bring about an adaptive entity to deal with complex tasks. By analyzing integration design in module, perception, and control in detail, a swarm modular robot is presented with self-assembly scenario. Then, these active docking robots use the distance measured by infrared sensors between itself and edge of assembled structural entity as input. We design the fuzzy sets and if-then rules according to the human reasoning in following process. Based on Mamdani-type inference, the fuzzy controller can yield two outputs. The outputs are, respectively, used as steering angle speed and linear speed. Due to the diversity of self-assembled structure by the swarm modular robots, we conduct a series of simulated experiments. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller in swarm robots’ edge-following process.
    Advances in Mechanical Engineering 07/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A bionic gannet was developed based on the analysis of the body configuration and skeleton structure and the motion pattern of wings of a gannet in plunge-diving. In the current prototype, adjustable sweptback wings were implemented so as to achieve different body shapes for entering water. The impact acceleration in the longitudinal body axis direction and the axial overload on the body were investigated through the falling-down experiments under different conditions including dropping height, water-entry inclination angle, and wing sweptback angle. It is found that when the above three key parameters are 10 m for dropping height, 0° for wing sweptback angle, and 90° for water-entry inclination angle, the maximum peak impact acceleration and overload are −167.20 m·s−2 and 18.06 respectively. Furthermore, the variation of peak impact acceleration with the three key parameters were also analyzed and discussed.
    Journal of Bionic Engineering 07/2013; 10(3):282–291. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we study the kinematic mechanism and path planning for a two-caster nonholonomic vehicle (the Essboard) which is a recent variant of skateboard. Different from the most studied Snakeboard, the Essboard consists of a torsion bar and two platforms, each of which contains a pedal and a caster. We first investigate the relationship between the tilt angles of the pedals and the wheel directions of the casters. This relationship reveals how to control the wheel directions by adjusting the tilt angles. Next, the rotational radius of the Essboard is derived for a given pair of tilt angles of both pedals. The rotational radius of the Essboard is much different than that of the Snakeboard. Then we develop a path-planning algorithm for the Essboard to move from a start position to the goal, using a series of consecutively connected arcs, which are tangent to each other at the connected points. It is shown from a kinematic point of view that the path planning of the Essboard can be solved by a series of pairs of pedals’ tilt angles. Three experiments are conducted to confirm the correctness of the main results. The results in this paper are a foundation for further study of the Essboard.
    Science China Technological Sciences 06/2013; 56(6). · 1.19 Impact Factor
  • Li Wen, Tianmiao Wang, Guanhao Wu, Jianhong Liang
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    ABSTRACT: The robotic fish that utilize the body/caudal fin undulatory locomotion has long interested both biologists and engineers. Although a variety of free swimming robotic fish prototypes have already been developed, very few studies addressed the methods for determining quantitative thrust efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental method that enables the simultaneous measurement of the power, wake flow field, and self-propulsive speed of a robotic fish, which together facilitate a quantitative measurement of its efficiency. Our results show that the optimal thrust efficiency of the robotic swimmer is within the Strouhal number (St) range of 0.3 ≤ St ≤ 0.325 when single-row reverse Karman vortices are produced. Nevertheless, present robotic fish swam at Strouhal numbers outside the optimal region under self-propulsive condition, and produced another type of wake structure: “double-row vortices.” We also show that robotic fish that utilize a low amplitude with a large flapping frequency produce higher self-propulsive speeds, whereas a larger amplitude paired with lower frequency results in higher efficiency. Additionally, a peak efficiency value of 31.6% is recored for the self-propulsive robotic swimmer. The general applicability of this experimental method indicates that broader issues regarding thrust efficiency for biomimetic underwater propulsive robots can be quanlitantively measured.
    IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 06/2013; 18(3):1027-1038. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Tianmiao Wang, Yonghui Hu, Jianhong Liang
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    ABSTRACT: Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) can generate robust, smooth and coordinated oscillatory signals for locomotion control of robots with multiple degrees of freedom, but the tuning of CPG parameters for a desired locomotor pattern constitutes a tremendously difficult task. This paper addresses this problem for the generation of fish-like swimming gaits with an adaptive CPG network on a multi-joint robotic fish. Our approach converts the related CPG parameters into dynamical systems that evolve as part of the CPG network dynamics. To reproduce the bodily motion of swimming fish, we use the joint angles calculated with the trajectory approximation method as teaching signals for the CPG network, which are modeled as a chain of coupled Hopf oscillators. A novel coupling scheme is proposed to eliminate the influence of afferent signals on the amplitude of the oscillator. The learning rules of intrinsic frequency, coupling weight and amplitude are formulated with phase space representation of the oscillators. The frequency, amplitudes and phase relations of the teaching signals can be encoded by the CPG network with adaptation mechanisms. Since the Hopf oscillator exhibits limit cycle behavior, the learned locomotor pattern is stable against perturbations. Moreover, due to nonlinear characteristics of the CPG model, modification of the target travelling body wave can be carried out in a smooth way. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed learning rules.
    Robotica 05/2013; 31(03). · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapidly increase of robotic products and their applications in industry and human life, a great challenge for universities to teach undergraduate students the basic knowledge of Mechatronics System Engineering (MSE) is appeared. As a required course for students majoring in machinery, MSE has practicalness and comprehensiveness traits. To improve the capacity of oral English and hands-on experiment for undergraduates, Beihang University carries out a teaching reform for MSE and forms a teaching mode based on bilingualism combining with project teaching method. In class, students communicate with teacher in English and after class, a drilling project based on a flex track drilling robot (FTDR) is provided for them to practice the knowledge they learned in class. After years of exploration, several mechatronics projects are presented by some excellent students in this paper, which confirms the bilingual teaching mode is a successful reform and is deserved to extend in other course gradually.
    Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 2013 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: In traditional long bone fracture reduction surgery, there are some drawbacks such as low accuracy, high radiation for surgeons and a risk of infection. To overcome these disadvantages, a removable hybrid robot system is developed, which integrates a removable series-parallel mechanism with a motor-double cylinder (MDC) driven mode. This paper describes the mechanism in detail, analyses the principle and the method of the fracture reduction, presents the surgical procedure, and verifies the reduction accuracy by experiments with bone models. The results are shown as follows. The mean deviations of the axial displacement and lateral displacement are 1.60mm and 1.26mm respectively. The standard deviations are 0.69mm and 0.30mm. The mean deviations of the side angle and turn inward are 2.06° and 2.22° respectively. The standard deviations are 0.50° and 0.99°. This minimally invasive robot features high accuracy and zero radiation for surgeons, and is able to conduct fracture reduction for long bones.
    Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2013; 23:S521-S529. · 1.09 Impact Factor