P De Rai

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (30)74.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In Italy, no long-term studies regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis have been carried out. To report the results of a follow-up on a large series of patients hospitalised for pancreatitis. Data of 631 patients admitted to 35 Italian hospitals were retrospectively evaluated 51.7±8.4 months after discharge. The average recovery time after mild or severe pancreatitis was 28.2 and 53.4 days respectively. Fourteen sequelae were not resolved and 9 cases required late surgical intervention. Eighty patients (12.7%) had a second hospital admission. Of the patients with mild biliary pancreatitis, 67.9% underwent a cholecystectomy. The overall incidence of relapse was 12.7%. Mortality was 9.8% and no death was related to pancreatitis. Three patients died from carcinoma of the pancreas. Reported recovery time after an attack of pancreatitis was longer than expected in the mild forms. The treatment of sequelae was delayed beyond one year after discharge. The incidence of relapse of biliary pancreatitis in patients not undergoing a cholecystectomy was low, due to endoscopic treatment. Mortality from pancreatic-related causes is low, but there is an association with malignant pancreatic or ampullary tumours not diagnosed during the acute phase of the illness.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 07/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In Italy, no long-term studies regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis have been carried out. Aim: To report the results of a follow-up on a large series of patients hospitalised for pancreatitis. Methods: Data of 631 patients admitted to 35 Italian hospitals were retrospectively evaluated 51.7 (plus or minus) 8.4 months after discharge. Results: The average recovery time after mild or severe pancreatitis was 28.2 and 53.4 days respectively. Fourteen sequelae were not resolved and 9 cases required late surgical intervention. Eighty patients (12.7%) had a second hospital admission. Of the patients with mild biliary pancreatitis, 67.9% underwent a cholecystectomy. The overall incidence of relapse was 12.7%. Mortality was 9.8% and no death was related to pancreatitis. Three patients died from carcinoma of the pancreas. Conclusion: Reported recovery time after an attack of pancreatitis was longer than expected in the mild forms. The treatment of sequelae was delayed beyond one year
    Digestive and Liver Disease. 01/2013; 45(10):827-832.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In Italy, no long-term studies regarding the natural history of acute pancreatitis have been carried out. Aim: To report the results of a follow-up on a large series of patients hospitalised for pancreatitis. Methods: Data of 631 patients admitted to 35 Italian hospitals were retrospectively evaluated 51.7 (plus or minus) 8.4 months after discharge. Results: The average recovery time after mild or severe pancreatitis was 28.2 and 53.4 days respectively. Fourteen sequelae were not resolved and 9 cases required late surgical intervention. Eighty patients (12.7%) had a second hospital admission. Of the patients with mild biliary pancreatitis, 67.9% underwent a cholecystectomy. The overall incidence of relapse was 12.7%. Mortality was 9.8% and no death was related to pancreatitis. Three patients died from carcinoma of the pancreas. Conclusion: Reported recovery time after an attack of pancreatitis was longer than expected in the mild forms. The treatment of sequelae was delayed beyond one year
    Digestive and Liver Disease. 01/2013; 45(10):827-832.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy and to assess compliance with international guidelines. A series of 1173 patients in 56 hospitals were prospectively enrolled and their data analysed. Twenty-nine patients with severe pancreatitis underwent surgical intervention. Necrosectomy was performed in 26 patients, associated with postoperative lavage in 70% of cases. A feeding jejunostomy was added in 37% of cases. Mortality was 21%. Of the patients with mild pancreatitis, 714 patients with a biliary aetiology were evaluated. Prophylactic treatment of relapses was carried out in 212 patients (36%) by cholecystectomy and in 161 using a laparoscopic approach. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was associated with cholecystectomy in 83 patients (39%). Forty-seven patients (22%) were treated at a second admission, with a median delay of 31 days from the onset of pancreatitis. Eighteen patients with severe pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy 37.9 days after the first admission. There were no deaths. The results indicate poor compliance with published guidelines. In severe pancreatitis, early surgical intervention is frequently performed and enteral feeding is seldom used. Only a small number of patients with mild biliary pancreatitis undergo definitive treatment (i.e. cholecystectomy) within 4 weeks of the onset of pancreatitis.
    HPB 11/2010; 12(9):597-604. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the data from a survey carried out in Italy regarding the endoscopic approach to acute pancreatitis in order to obtain a picture of what takes place after the release of an educational project on acute pancreatitis sponsored by the Italian Association for the Study of the Pancreas. Of the 1 173 patients enrolled in our survey, the most frequent etiological category was biliary forms (69.3%) and most patients had mild pancreatitis (85.8%). 344/1 173 (29.3%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The mean interval between the onset of symptoms and ERCP was 6.7 ± 5.0 d; only 89 examinations (25.9%) were performed within 72 h from the onset of symptoms. The main indications for ERCP were suspicion of common bile duct stones (90.3%), jaundice (44.5%), clinical worsening of acute pancreatitis (14.2%) and cholangitis (6.1%). Biliary and pancreatic ducts were visualized in 305 patients (88.7%) and in 93 patients (27.0%) respectively. The success rate in obtaining a cholangiogram was statistically higher (P = 0.003) in patients with mild acute pancreatitis (90.6%) than in patients with severe disease (72.2%). Biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed in 295 of the 305 patients (96.7%) with no difference between mild and severe disease (P = 0.985). ERCP morbidity was 6.1% and mortality was 1.7%; the mortality was due to the complications of acute pancreatitis and not the endoscopic procedure. The results of this survey, as with those carried out in other countries, indicate a lack of compliance with the guidelines for the indications for interventional endoscopy.
    World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy. 09/2010; 2(9):308-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare condition, which is characterized by the dilation of small bowel lymphatics and presents with signs and symptoms of protein-losing enteropathy. Some patients have complained of occlusive symptoms attributable to the mechanical obstruction caused by the considerable mucosal edema associated with the lymphatic dilation. On the basis of the hypothesis that alterations in the neuromuscular structures controlling clearance function or gut tone may play a role in ileal dilation, we examined the resected ileum of a 48-year-old male patient with segmental lymphangiectasia histologically, immunohistochemically (for S100 protein, PGP 9.5, Bcl-2, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and CD117/C-kit), and by means of electron microscopy. Histology showed pseudocystic dilation of the mucosal, submucosal, and muscular lymphatics with fragmentation of the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Hardly any neural expression of synaptophysin was observed, but the neural structures were otherwise morphologically normal and reacted normally to the other neural markers. This case shows that neuromuscular alterations can be found in the dilated ileum of patients with segmental lymphangiectasia.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 10/2008; 20(9):935-8. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This medical position statement has been developed by the board of ProInf AISP (Computerized Project on Acute Pancreatitis) Study Group. The evidence and key recommendations were discussed at a dedicated meeting held in Milan on September 2007 and during this meeting the main clinical and therapeutic medical topics were extensively discussed. Each of the proposed recommendations was discussed and an initial consensus was reached. Acute pancreatitis in Italy is a disease of increasing annual incidence. The diagnosis of the disease should be established within 48hours of admission. Early identification of patients at risk of developing a severe attack of acute pancreatitis is of great importance because rapid therapeutic interventions improve outcome. The endoscopic approach seems to be most beneficial measure in patients with acute pancreatitis with jaundice and in those with cholangitis. The development of infected necrosis should be assessed using fine-needle aspiration and the sample should be cultured for germ isolation and characterization. The role of early ERCP in all patients with severe acute pancreatitis of biliary origin is still controversial. The data supporting the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infection of necrosis are conflicting. The refeeding is a crucial topic in patients who have recovered from an acute episode of mild acute pancreatitis, but there are very few studies on this issue.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 05/2008; 40(10):803-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Up till now, only one study providing practically complete information on acute pancreatitis in Italy has been published. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, in terms of diagnostic assessment and outcome, of a large series of patients affected by acute pancreatitis in Italy. The study involved 56 Italian centres, homogeneously distributed throughout the entire national territory. Each participating centre was furnished with an ad hoc software including 530 items along with subsequent collection, tabulation and quality control of the data. One thousand five hundred and forty case report forms of patients affected by acute pancreatitis were collected but 367 of them (24%) were subsequently eliminated from the final analysis. Therefore, 1173 patients (581 females and 592 males) were recruited. Mean age of patients was 62.0+/-18.2 years (95% confidence interval, 60.9-63.0). On the basis of Atlanta classification, 1006 patients (85.8%) were defined as mild and 167 (14.2%) as severe pancreatitis. Biliary forms represented the most frequent aetiological category (813 cases, 69.3%) while alcoholic forms only 6.6% (77 cases); the remaining aetiologies accounted for 7.1% (83 cases) while 200 cases (17.1%) remained without a definite aetiological factor. Complete recovery was achieved in 1016 patients (86.6%) whereas morphological sequelae were found in 121 patients (10.3%) and mortality in 36 patients (3.1%; 0.4% in mild and 19.2% in severe acute pancreatitis). Ultrasonography was largely utilised as a first line diagnostic tool in all patients, with valuable visualisation of the pancreas in 85% of patients. Computer tomography scan was also widely used, with 66.7% of exams in mild and 33.3% in severe pancreatitis. Patients affected by biliary pancreatitis presented more severe (p=0.004) and necrotizing forms (p=0.021). Mortality was significantly related (p<0.001) with the extension of pancreatic necrosis and with an age of over 70 years. Body mass index presented significantly greater values in severe than in mild forms (p<0.001). Association of creatinine serum level over 2mg/dl with an abnormal chest X-ray showed a high significant correlation with a more severe outcome in terms of morphological sequelae and mortality (p=0.0001). Acute pancreatitis in Italy more commonly presents biliary aetiology and favourable outcome with low rate of complications and mortality. From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, diagnostic approach to this disease needs to be better standardised.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 10/2007; 39(9):829-37. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Italian Association for the Study of the Pancreas released a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for acute pancreatitis in 1999. This study focused on the analysis of the therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy. One thousand, one hundred and seventy-three patients were recruited: 1006 patients (85.8%) had mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and 167 (14.2%) had the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); 161 patients showed pancreatic necrosis at computed tomography; 121 patients (10.3%) had sequelae and 36 (3.1%) died. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tramadol were used more frequently in patients with the MAP whereas opioids and the association schedules were used more frequently in patients with the SAP (P<0.001). Gabexate mesilate was utilised in 831 out of 1173 patients (70.8%); in particular, gabexate mesilate was used in 70.6% patients with MAP and in 73.1% of those with SAP (P=0.521). The duration of the drug administration was significantly shorter in those having MAP than in those having the SAP (P<0.001). The antibiotics most frequently used for the prophylaxis against infection from pancreatic necrosis (43.1%) were carbapenems. Only a small number of patients received enteral nutrition (4.7%). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was carried out in 344 of the 1173 patients (29.3%). Surgery was performed in 48 with SAP (19 had elective biliary surgery and 29 had pancreatic surgery). The results of this survey indicate a lack of compliance with the guidelines which regard the indications mainly for interventional endoscopy and surgery.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 09/2007; 39(9):838-46. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aimUp till now, only one study providing practically complete information on acute pancreatitis in Italy has been published. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, in terms of diagnostic assessment and outcome, of a large series of patients affected by acute pancreatitis in Italy.
    Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2007; 39(9):829-837.
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    ABSTRACT: Till now, no Italian studies providing information on acute pancreatitis have been published. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of acute pancreatitis in Italy. The study involved 37 Italian centres distributed homogeneously throughout the entire national territory and prospectively collected epidemiological, anamnestic, laboratory, radiological, therapeutic (pharmacological, endoscopic and surgical) data, relevant to each individual case of acute pancreatitis consecutively observed during the period from September 1996 to June 2000. One thousand two hundred and six case report forms were collected, but 201 patients (16.6%) were subsequently eliminated from the final analysis. We therefore studied 1005 patients, 533 (53%) males and 472 (47%) females, mean age 59.6 +/- 20 years. On the basis of the Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis, 753 patients of the 1005 cases analysed (75%) were mild and 252 patients (25%) severe. The aetiology was biliary in 60% of the patients, related to alcohol abuse in 8.5%, while in 21% of the cases it could not be identified. Over 80% of the patients (83%) were admitted to hospital within 24 h from the onset of clinical symptoms, while only 6% were admitted after 48 h. In particular, 65% of the patients were admitted to hospital within the first 12 h. Antibiotics were used in 85% of the severe and 75% of mild forms. Endoscopic therapy was carried out in 65% of the severe cases, but only in 40% it was carried out prior to 72 h. Eighty-five patients (8.5% of the total, 34% of the severe forms) underwent surgical intervention: 20% on the first day, 38.5% within the fourth day, and the remaining (41.5% of the cases) later on for infected necrosis. The mean duration of hospitalisation for patients with mild pancreatitis was 13 +/- 8 days, while for the severe disease it was of 30 +/- 14 days. The overall mortality rate was 5%, 17% in severe and 1.5% in mild pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis in Italy is more commonly a mild disease with a biliary aetiology. The treatment of the disease is not optimal and, on the basis of these data, needs to be standardised. Despite this, the overall mortality rate is low (5%).
    Digestive and Liver Disease 04/2004; 36(3):205-11. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of malakoplakia involving the pancreas in a 74-year-old man with associated regional lymphoadenopathy. Histological examination of both pancreas and lymph nodes revealed a diffuse histiocytic infiltrate containing numerous Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of malakoplakia and showed bacterial-like structures. Differential diagnosis includes myofibroblastic inflammatory tumor and histiocytic neoplasms. Lymph-node involvement during malakoplakia is extremely rare and it has never been documented microscopically. Lymphohematogenous spread of bacteria may be the cause of the nodal involvement, which, however, does not appear to influence the clinical course of the disease.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 02/2003; 442(1):82-5. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gangliocytic paragangliomas (GPs) are exceedingly rare tumors that arise in close proximity of the papilla of Vater. Nevertheless, jaundice is an uncommon presenting symptom, reported in only 3 of 125 cases described in the literature to date, with gastrointestinal bleeding being more common. Association between GPs and neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1), described in two patients, may be more than casual, being the frequency in normal population 1:3,000. We report an additional case of this association, presenting for the first time with simultaneous obstruction of the common biliary duct, and of the main pancreatic duct. Previous cases of GPs with jaundice and/or NF-1 are reviewed, and updating of the histogenesis presented.
    International journal of pancreatology: official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology 02/2001; 29(2):93-7.
  • Gastroenterology 11/2000; 118(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • P De Rai, L Castoldi, G Tiberio
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    ABSTRACT: Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum is a rare congenital anomaly. First described by Boyd in 1845, no more than 100 cases have been reported up to now: only 17 are associated with acute pancreatitis. A new case of intraluminal duodenal diverticulum with acute pancreatitis is reported and the literature about this association reviewed. The diagnosis was made by helical CT scan. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis was possibly due to a pure duodenal content reflux through the papilla of Vater. The patient was successfully treated by surgery. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum is a rare but curable cause of pancreatitis, usually affecting young people. We describe, for the first time, its unusual helical CT imaging with two-dimensional reformations.
    Digestive Surgery 02/2000; 17(3):288-92. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 11/1996; 28(5):2662-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in the luminal microflora and increased intestinal translocation have been reported to occur following experimental and clinical small bowel transplantation (SBT). Selective intestinal decontamination (SID) has been used to prevent luminal overgrowth and bacterial translocation. Despite the wide use of SID in clinical SBT, there are no data supporting its usefulness in this situation. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) and SID upon bacterial overgrowth and translocation in a swine model of SBT. Nineteen Large White female pigs weighing 30 +/- 2 kg underwent a total orthotopic SBT and were randomly allocated to one of the following experimental groups as follows: Group 1 (No. 8) CSA 25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day administered subcutaneously and Cefazolin 2 g/day im. Group 2 (No. 6) received the identical immunosuppression but the Cefazolin 2 g/day im was discontinued on the 5th Postoperative Day (pod) and switched to a SID regimen consisting of Vancomycin, 1 g, Nystatin, 500,000 IU, Colistin, 1,500,000 IU, and Tobramycin, 100 mg, given through a gastrostomy tube. Group 3 (No. 5) received no immunosuppression but antibiotic consisting of Cefazolin 2 g im/day. Group 4 (No. 7) underwent a small bowel autotransplantation. Group 4 received SID as in group 2 but no immunosuppression was given. Finally, 17 normal animals were sham-operated and were used as normal controls (N group). The animals in groups 1, 2, and 4 were sacrificed on the 29th pod. Those in group 3 were sacrificed on the 7th pod.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/1995; 58(4):391-4. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of two immunosuppressant regimens on composition of the bowel flora and rate of translocation after transplantation of the small bowel in pigs. Randomised controlled study. University hospital, Italy. 35 female Large White pigs. 9 Animals were not operated on (normal controls). 19 Animals underwent total orthotopic small bowel allotransplantation and were then randomised to receive: group A (n = 8) cyclosporin A 25 mg/kg subcutaneously and cephazolin 2 g intramuscularly daily; group B (n = 6) 15-deoxyspergualin (15-dos) 3 mg/kg for 7 days then 1.5 mg/kg, cephazolin 2 g intramuscularly daily for 4 days then selective intestinal decontamination with colistin 1.5 million U, tobramycin 100 mg, vancomycin 1 g, and nystatin 500,000 U daily; and group C (n = 5) cephazolin 2 g intramuscularly daily for 8 days. A further group (D, n = 7) underwent orthotopic autotransplantation and received the same antibiotic and selective decontamination regimens as group B. Animals in group C were killed on day 8, and the rest on day 29. Signs of rejection, graft versus host disease, luminal overgrowth, and evidence of translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes. All animals in group C, and 2 in group B, showed signs of acute rejection. There was a significant overgrowth of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in all 3 groups after allotransplantation compared with normal controls. Bacterial translocation was similar in autografted and allotransplanted animals. Mesenteric lymph nodes were colonised in 4/9 controls, 7/8 in group A, 4/4 in group B, 5/5 in group C, and 7/7 in group D. Neither cyclosporin A nor 15-dos prevented luminal overgrowth or bacterial translocation to mesenteric nodes up to one month after operation. The rate of translocation was similar in autotransplantation and allotransplantation, suggesting that non-immunological factors (for example, denervation and interruption of lymphatics) may have a role in these alterations.
    The European Journal of Surgery 03/1995; 161(2):93-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Technical procedures normally used for open packing in our Institute (ICU) are described. Results of this procedure, utilized in thirteen patients suffering from infected pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ failure are reported. The grade of pancreatitis severity has been studied in detail. At admission patients presented a mean Ranson score of 6 and the morphological alteration sec. Balthazar was D in six patients and E in seven. At least two organs were insufficient at the beginning of our observation and the mean number of insufficient organs was 4. The mean APACHE II score was 20. Necrosis was documented in all patients. They were all admitted to ICU and the mean time of treatment was 50 days. Daily debridement was performed and continuous lavage was later added to daily open review. Three patients died, one from local bleeding and two from respiratory insufficiency. No patient died of sepsis and no mortality was observed in the last six cases. According to the severity of Ranson score, APACHE II, the number of insufficient organs and TAC morphological alteration predicted mortality rate should have been 70-80%; on the contrary, it was 25%. In conclusion open packing seems to be the correct treatment for infected pancreatic necrosis, particularly when it is complicated by multiple organ dysfunction.
    Chirurgia italiana 02/1995; 47(2):35-42.
  • Transplantation Proceedings 07/1994; 26(3):1590-1. · 0.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

176 Citations
74.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico
      • General and Emergency Surgery
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2007–2008
    • Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Cardarelli Hospital
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1995–2004
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Health Science - DISS
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1988
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy