Holden H Wu

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (9)42.76 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To implement a nonrigid autofocus motion correction technique to improve respiratory motion correction of free-breathing whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography acquisitions using an image-navigated 3D cones sequence. 2D image navigators acquired every heartbeat are used to measure superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left translation of the heart during a free-breathing coronary magnetic resonance angiography scan using a 3D cones readout trajectory. Various tidal respiratory motion patterns are modeled by independently scaling the three measured displacement trajectories. These scaled motion trajectories are used for 3D translational compensation of the acquired data, and a bank of motion-compensated images is reconstructed. From this bank, a gradient entropy focusing metric is used to generate a nonrigid motion-corrected image on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The performance of the autofocus motion correction technique is compared with rigid-body translational correction and no correction in phantom, volunteer, and patient studies. Nonrigid autofocus motion correction yields improved image quality compared to rigid-body-corrected images and uncorrected images. Quantitative vessel sharpness measurements indicate superiority of the proposed technique in 14 out of 15 coronary segments from three patient and two volunteer studies. The proposed technique corrects nonrigid motion artifacts in free-breathing 3D cones acquisitions, improving image quality compared to rigid-body motion correction. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 09/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop new magnetization-prepared imaging schemes based on a three-dimensional (3D) concentric cylinders trajectory. The 3D concentric cylinders trajectory, which is robust to off-resonance effects and timing delays while requiring fewer excitations than a comparable 3D Cartesian (3DFT) sequence, is used as the readout for magnetization-prepared sequences exploiting its inherently centric-ordered structure. Two applications: (i) T1 -weighted brain imaging with an inversion-recovery-prepared radiofrequency-spoiled gradient-echo (IR-SPGR) sequence, (ii) non-contrast-enhanced (NCE) peripheral angiography with a magnetization-prepared balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. For peripheral angiography, the scan efficiency is further improved by interleaving different preparations at different rates and by carefully designing the sampling geometry for an efficient parallel imaging method. In vivo brain scans with an IR-SPGR sequence and lower extremity scans with a magnetization-prepared bSSFP sequence for NCE peripheral angiography both demonstrate that the proposed sequences with concentric cylinders effectively capture the transient magnetization-prepared contrast with faster scan times than a corresponding 3DFT sequence. The application of peripheral angiography also shows the feasibility of the proposed interleaving schemes and parallel imaging method. The 3D concentric cylinders trajectory is a robust and efficient readout that is well-suited for magnetization-prepared imaging. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 07/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Michael V McConnell, Holden H Wu
    JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 06/2013; · 14.29 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2013; 15(1). · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession avoid external contrast agents, take advantage of high inherent blood signal from the $T_2/T_1$ contrast mechanism, and have short steady-state free precession acquisition times. However, background suppression is limited; inflow times are inflexible; labeling region is difficult to define when tagging arterial flow; and scan times are long. To overcome these limitations, we propose the use of multiple inversion recovery preparatory pulses combined with alternating pulse repetition time balanced steady-state free precession to produce renal angiograms. Multiple inversion recovery uses selective spatial saturation followed by four nonselective inversion recovery pulses to concurrently null a wide range of background $T_1$ species while allowing for adjustable inflow times; alternating pulse repetition time steady-state free precession maintains vessel contrast and provides added fat suppression. The high level of suppression enables imaging in three-dimensional as well as projective two-dimensional formats, the latter of which has a scan time as short as one heartbeat. In vivo studies at 1.5 T demonstrate the superior vessel contrast of this technique. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 11/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive visualization of the coronary arteries in vivo is one of the most important goals in cardiovascular imaging. Compared to other paradigms for coronary MR angiography, a free-breathing three-dimensional whole-heart iso-resolution approach simplifies prescription effort, requires less patient cooperation, reduces overall exam time, and supports retrospective reformats at arbitrary planes. However, this approach requires a long continuous acquisition and must account for respiratory and cardiac motion throughout the scan. In this work, a new free-breathing coronary MR angiography technique that reduces scan time and improves robustness to motion is developed. Data acquisition is accomplished using a three-dimensional cones non-Cartesian trajectory, which can reduce the number of readouts 3-fold or more compared to conventional three-dimensional Cartesian encoding and provides greater robustness to motion/flow effects. To further enhance robustness to motion, two-dimensional navigator images are acquired to directly track respiration-induced displacement of the heart and enable retrospective compensation of all acquired data (none discarded) for image reconstruction. In addition, multiple cardiac phases are imaged to support retrospective selection of the best phase(s) for visualizing each coronary segment. Experimental results demonstrate that whole-heart coronary angiograms can be obtained rapidly and robustly with this proposed technique. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 05/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2012; 14 Suppl 1:P237. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fast imaging trajectories are used in MRI to speed up the acquisition process, but imperfections in the gradient system create artifacts in the reconstructed images. Artifacts result from the deviation between k-space trajectories achieved on the scanner and their original prescription. Measuring or approximating actual k-space trajectories with predetermined gradient timing delays reduces the artifacts, but are generally based on a specific trajectory and scan orientation. A single linear time-invariant characterization of the gradient system provides a method to predict k-space trajectories scanned in arbitrary orientations through convolution. This is done efficiently, by comparing the Fourier transforms of the input and measured waveforms of a single high-bandwidth test gradient waveform. This new method is tested for spiral, interleaved echo-planar, and three-dimensional cones imaging, demonstrating its ability to reduce reconstructed image artifacts for various k-space trajectories.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 12/2011; 68(1):120-9. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    Holden H Wu, Dwight G Nishimura
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient acquisition strategies for magnetization-prepared imaging based on the three-dimensional (3D) stack-of-rings k-space trajectory are presented in this work. The 3D stack-of-rings can be acquired with centric ordering in all three dimensions for greater efficiency in capturing the desired contrast. In addition, the 3D stack-of-rings naturally supports spherical coverage in k-space for shorter scan times while achieving isotropic spatial resolution. While non-Cartesian trajectories generally suffer from greater sensitivity to system imperfections, the 3D stack-of-rings can enhance magnetization-prepared imaging with a high degree of robustness to timing delays and off-resonance effects. As demonstrated with phantom scans, timing errors and gradient delays only cause a bulk rotation of the 3D stack-of-rings reconstruction. Furthermore, each ring can be acquired with a time-efficient retracing design to resolve field inhomogeneities and enable fat/water separation. To demonstrate its effectiveness, the 3D stack-of-rings are considered for the case of inversion-recovery-prepared structural brain imaging. Experimental results show that the 3D stack-of-rings can achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher contrast-to-noise ratio within a shorter scan time when compared to the standard inversion-recovery-prepared sequence based on 3D Cartesian encoding. The design principles used for this specific case of inversion-recovery-prepared brain imaging can be applied to other magnetization-prepared imaging applications.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 05/2010; 63(5):1210-8. · 3.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7 Citations
42.76 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2013
    • Stanford University
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Magnetic Resonance Systems Research Laboratory
      Palo Alto, California, United States