[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an ontological model that is a flexible framework to create learning scenarios blending didactic and collaborative
learning. This model enables us to describe the design rationale of such learning scenarios and to organize theoretical knowledge
for designing such scenarios in the same manner.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computer-supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is an interdisciplinary research field that gathers researchers from different backgrounds around one common goal: to facilitate the design, deployment, and analysis of collaborative learning activities whose participants (primarily, students and instructors) are supported by information and communication technologies. CSCL researchers at tempt to understand how learning emerges in group settings, and how to create effective scenarios that enable learning through interaction, exploration, negotiation, discussion, and collaborative knowledge construction. Thus, CSCL has contributed to the development of the Learning Sciences by bringing into focus the need to understand the nature, theory, and practice of how we learn in collaborative settings supported by advanced technologies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses an ontological approach to tutoring actions design as a special case of target-world modeling. Although
a lot of research on the learner model has been done to improve the adaptivity of intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), the
modeling of tutoring actions has not been sufficiently investigated. The authors have been performing ontological modeling
of learning/instructional theories to remedy this situation. Intelligent tutoring systems must have a good number of primitive
actions to generate intelligent actions. Paying close attention to the importance of modeling tutoring actions, we have developed
an ontology of learning/instructional theories, named OMNIBUS, in the ITS domain. Drawing on our long experience in ontological
engineering research, this chapter discusses the modeling of tutoring actions as well as target-world modeling per se, using
an example of learning/instructional actions from the OMNIBUS/SMARTIES project.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter addresses the challenge of building or authoring an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), along with the problems
that have arisen and been dealt with, and the solutions that have been tested. We begin by clarifying what building an ITS
entails, and then position today’s systems in the overall historical context of ITS research. The chapter concludes with a
series of open questions and an introduction to the other chapters in this part of the book.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter introduces Part II on modeling tutoring knowledge in ITS research. Starting with its origin and with a characterization
of tutoring, it proposes a general definition of tutoring, and a description of tutoring functions, variables, and interactions.
The Interaction Hypothesis is presented and discussed, followed by the development of the tutorial component of ITSs, and
their evaluation. New challenges are described, such as integrating the emotional states of the learner. Perspectives of opening
the Tutoring Model and of equipping it with social intelligence are also presented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the achievements of an innovative eight-year research program first introduced in Mizoguchi and Bourdeau (2000), which was aimed at building a theory-aware authoring system by using ontological engineering. To date, we have proposed OMNIBUS, an ontology that comprehensively covers different learning/instructional theories and paradigms, and SMARTIES, a theory-aware and standards-compliant authoring system to create learning/instructional scenarios based on OMNIBUS. This approach was intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice in scientific and technological development, including learning/instruction support. The goals of this study included the following: that computers would (a) understand a variety of learning/instructional theories based on their organization, (b) utilize such understanding to help authors build learning/instructional scenarios, and (c) make such theoretically sound scenarios interoperable within the framework of technology standards. This paper suggests an ontological engineering solution to achieve these three goals and describes the implementation and feasibility demonstrations of the basic functions of SMARTIES, a solution that supports the design of learning/instructional scenarios based on multiple theories. Although the evaluation is far from complete in terms of practical use, we believe that the results of this study speak to high-level technical challenges of ITS authoring systems and the other areas of AIED, and therefore constitute a substantial contribution.
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 01/2009; 19:211-252.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study, through the ontological engineering approach, aims at building a conceptual basis that encourages instructional designers in better understanding of learning/instructional theories, which mean that instructional designers can select and integrate appropriate strategies from theories within an instructional context. This paper proposes a methodology of structuring the theories in terms of strategies included in them, in which strategies can be structured independent of paradigms and theories.
Artificial Intelligence in Education: Building Learning Systems that Care: From Knowledge Representation to Affective Modelling, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2009, July 6-10, 2009, Brighton, UK; 01/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many instructional design models have been proposed and their benefits are evident. However, there is lack of a common and formal notation to describe the product of the design. This causes difficulty in evaluating the product (the course) in the development. To eliminate the difficulty, we need a formal framework which has enough semantics for keeping the consistency of the product. Thus, this work aims at proposing a unified modeling framework for learning and instruction based on ontologies that has the potential to support some phases of instructional design. Furthermore, we give an example of how one-to-one instruction and collaborative learning are modeled on the proposed framework.
Education and Technology for a Better World, 9th IFIP TC 3 World Conference on Computers in Education, WCCE 2009, Bento Gonçalves, Brazil, July 27-31, 2009. Proceedings; 01/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of the fact that the relation between theory and practice is a foundation of scientific and technological development, the trend of increasing the gap between theory and practice accelerates in these years. The gap embraces a risk of distrust of science and technology. Ontological engineering as the content-oriented research is expected to contribute to the resolution of the gap. This paper presents the feasibility of organization of theoretical knowledge on ontological engineering and new-generation intelligent systems based on it through an application of ontological engineering in the area of learning/instruction support. This area also has the problem of the gap between theory and practice, and its resolution is strongly required. So far we proposed OMNIBUS ontology, which is a comprehensive ontology that covers different learning/instructional theories and paradigms, and SMARTIES, which is a theory-aware and standard-compliant authoring system for making learning/instructional scenarios based on OMNIBUS ontology. We believe the theory-awareness and standard-compliance bridge the gap between theory and practice because it links theories to practical use of standard technologies and enables practitioners to easily enjoy theoretical support while using standard technologies in practice. The following goals are set in order to achieve it; computers (1) understand a variety of learning/instructional theories based on the organization of them, (2) utilize the understanding for helping authors' learning/instructional scenario making and (3) make such theoretically sound scenarios interoperable within the framework of standard technologies. This paper suggests an ontological engineering solution to the achievement of these three goals. Although the evaluation is far from complete in terms of practical use, we believe that the results of this study address high-level technical challenges from the viewpoint of the current state of the art in the research area of artificial intelligence not only in education but also in general, and therefore we hope that constitute a substantial contribution for organization of theoretical knowledge in many other areas.
Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 01/2009; 24:351-375.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structuring learning/instructional theories suffers from the issue of "paradigms", which makes it even more challenging. This paper discusses the conceptualization of theories/models and proposes a mechanism to provide perspectives for understanding and utilizing them. Two types of conceptualization proposed in this paper reveal their characteristics from a variety of viewpoints.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, there are little guidelines on building quality standard-compliant learning courses. Although educational theories
can be guidelines, there are difficulties in the practical use. An approach to the problem is to build a theory-aware and
standard-compliant authoring system based on an ontology that establishes a multi-paradigm conceptual basis for learning/instructional
theories. This paper discusses the feasibility of building such an ontology, as well as the functionality of a theory-aware
authoring tool based on it.
Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 9th International Conference, ITS 2008, Montreal, Canada, June 23-27, 2008, Proceedings; 01/2008
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates the application of cognitive informatics in the domains of education and culture. It focuses more particularly on cultural diversity in computer-assisted distance learning environments. The goal of this investigation is to allow for significant and more authentic learning by way of an instructional scenario method that integrates the processing of cultural variables through the use of a knowledge base called "Cultural Diversity". The hypotheses are as follows: 1) to create an instructional design method that makes it possible for designers to consider and process cultural variables, while exploiting the novel technical possibilities offered by the semantic Web, will facilitate authentic learning, promote equitable access to education and improve scenario efficiency, 2) to systematize support for designers by means of knowledge-based tools that will allow them to consider and process cultural variables and become creative mediators, rather than consumers. This study will model, implement and test a) a ''cultural diversity'' knowledge base that is exploitable by a system designed to help instructional designers in their design tasks and b) a method to process cultural variables that can be implemented into an instructional design process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a reflection-based approach for open learner modeling (OLM). Tutoring dialogues are used by learners to explicitly reveal their own knowledge state to themselves. Dewey’s theory of reflective thinking is used to create tutorial strategies which govern these dialogues. Drake’s specification of critical thinking, associated to a defined set of skills, is used to define tutoring tactics implementing these strategies. The main contribution of this approach to OLM is that it provides a set of principled and reusable tutorial strategies and tactics to promote reflection, as they are based on domain independent theories. Furthermore, an evaluation of such a principled approach to OLM is straightforward in certain cases, as it refers to theories which already provide evaluation criteria. The approach is integrated in Prolog-Tutor, an existing intelligent tutoring system for Logic Programming. This paper presents a qualitative study of the resulting system, based on think-aloud protocols. A result analysis reveals that explicitly fostering reflection supports reflection based OLM and provides landmarks to explain its manifestations. However, the results also suggest that this openness may be less helpful when used by learners who have already honed a high level of proficiency in logic programming.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays standard technologies play important roles in enhancing sharability, reusability and interoperability of learning contents. However, there is a lack of pedagogical justification of the contents implemented with the standards. This paper discusses the standard-compliance of our ontology-based modeling framework and how the framework gives theoretical justification to standard-compliant learning/instructional scenarios in a theory-aware authoring tool.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a modeling framework for learning and instructional design from the viewpoint of ontological engineering. One of the characteristics of this framework is a theory/paradigm-independent ontology for modeling learning/instruction. This paper discusses how our modeling framework with the theory/paradigm-independent ontology contributes to modeling learning and instruction from a comprehensive viewpoint of various educational theories.