S. Lucatello

University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States

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Publications (175)481.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present new, accurate predictions for rotational line positions, excitation energies, and transition probabilities of the 12C13C isotopologue Swan d3Π-a3Π system 0-0, 0–1, 0–2, 1–0, 1–1, 1–2, 2–0, 2–1, and 2–2 vibrational bands. The line positions and energy levels were predicted through new analyses of published laboratory data for the 12C13C lines. Transition probabilities were derived from recent computations of transition dipole moments and related quantities. The 12C13C line data were combined with similar data for 12C2, reported in a companion paper, and applied to produce synthetic spectra of carbon-rich metal-poor stars that have strong C2 Swan bands. The matches between synthesized and observed spectra were used to estimate band head positions for a few of the 12C13C vibrational bands and to verify that the new computed line data match observed spectra. The much weaker C2 lines of the bright red giant Arcturus were also synthesized in the band head regions.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 02/2014; 211(1):5. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our FLAMES survey of Na-O anticorrelation in globular clusters (GCs) is extended to NGC 4833, a metal-poor GC with a long blue tail on the horizontal branch (HB). We present the abundance analysis for a large sample of 78 red giants based on UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired at the ESO-VLT. We derived abundances of Na, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba, La, Nd. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high resolution spectroscopy. On the scale of our survey, the metallicity of NGC 4833 is [Fe/H]=-2.015+/-0.004+/-0.084 dex (rms=0.014 dex) from 12 stars observed with UVES, where the first error is from statistics and the second one refers to the systematic effects. The iron abundance in NGC 4833 is homogeneous at better than 6%. On the other hand, the light elements involved in proton-capture reactions at high temperature show the large star-to-star variations observed in almost all GCs studied so far. The Na-O anticorrelation in NGC 4833 is quite extended, as expected from the high temperatures reached by stars on the HB, and NGC 4833 contains a conspicuous fraction of stars with extreme [O/Na] ratios. More striking is the finding that large star-to-star variations are seen also for Mg, which spans a range of more than 0.5 dex in this GC. Depletions in Mg are correlated to the abundances of O and anti-correlated with Na, Al, and Si abundances. This pattern suggests the action of nuclear processing at unusually high temperatures, producing the extreme chemistry observed in the stellar generations of NGC 4833. This extreme changes are also seen in giants of the much more massive GCs M 54 and omega Cen, and our conclusion is that NGC 4833 has probably lost a conpicuous fraction of its original mass due to bulge shocking, as also indicated by its orbit.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the abundances of N in a sample of 62 stars on the red giant branch (RGB) in the peculiar globular cluster NGC 1851. The values of [N/Fe] ratio were obtained by comparing the flux measured in the observed spectra with that from synthetic spectra for up to about 15 features of CN. This is the first time that N abundances are obtained for such a large sample of RGB stars from medium-resolution spectroscopy in this cluster. With these abundances we provide a chemical tagging of the split red giant branch found from several studies in NGC 1851. The secondary, reddest sequence on the RGB is populated almost exclusively by N-rich stars, confirming our previous suggestion based on Stromgren magnitudes and colours. These giants are also, on average, enriched in s-process elements such as Ba, and are likely the results of pollution from low mass stars that experienced episodes of third dredge-up in the asymptotic giant branch phase.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Massive globular clusters (GCs) contain at least two generations of stars with slightly different ages and clearly distinct light elements abundances. The Na-O anticorrelation is the best studied chemical signature of multiple stellar generations. Low-mass clusters appear instead to be usually chemically homogeneous. We are investigating low-mass GCs to understand what is the lower mass limit where multiple populations can form, mainly using the Na and O abundance distribution. We used VLT/FLAMES spectra of giants in the low-mass, metal-poor GC Terzan 8, belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, to determine abundances of Fe, O, Na, alpha-, Fe-peak, and neutron-capture elements in six stars observed with UVES and 14 observed with GIRAFFE. The average metallicity is [Fe/H]=-2.27+/-0.03 (rms=0.08), based on the six high-resolution UVES spectra. Only one star, observed with GIRAFFE, shows an enhanced abundance of Na and we tentatively assign it to the second generation. In this cluster, at variance with what happens in more massive GCs, the second generation seems to represent at most a small minority fraction. We discuss the implications of our findings, comparing Terzan 8 with the other Sgr dSph GCs, to GCs and field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Fornax, and in other dwarfs galaxies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of deep high resolution imaging performed with ACS/HRC@HST in the most active region of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4214. We resolved the stellar populations of five Young Massive Clusters and their surrounding galactic field. The star formation history of this region is characterized by two main bursts occurred within the last 500 Myr, with the oldest episode spread out across an area larger than that covered by the most recent one. The ages derived for the analysed clusters cover a wide range between 6.4<log(t/yr)<8.1 in agreement with those predicted by recent analyses based on integrated photometry. The comparison between the mass of the young associations and that of the surrounding field population with similar ages indicates a high cluster formation efficiency (Gamma~33%) which decreases when old populations are considered. The mass function of the major assembly has been found to be slightly flatter than the Salpeter (1955) law with a hint of mass segregation. We found no clear signatures of multiple stellar populations in the two young (log(t/yr)<6.8) associations where we were able to resolve their innermost region. The masses and sizes of three clusters indicate that at least one of them could evolve toward a globular cluster-like structure.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 433(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the SDSS and SEGUE. By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N > 15 to a precision better than 0.35 dex. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] < -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] < -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] < -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.5), but rather, decreases, due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] < -3.0. [abridged]
    The Astronomical Journal 10/2013; 146(5). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comparison of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) giant and main-sequence turnoff stars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, with predictions from asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) mass-transfer models. We consider two initial mass functions (IMFs)-a Salpeter IMF, and a mass function with a characteristic mass of 10 solar mass. These comparisons indicate good agreement between the observed CEMP frequencies for stars with [Fe/H] > -1.5 and a Salpeter IMF, but not with an IMF having a higher characteristic mass. Thus, while the adopted AGB model works well for low-mass progenitor stars, it does not do so for high-mass progenitors. Our results imply that the IMF shifted from high- to low-mass dominated in the early history of the Milky Way, which appears to have occurred at a "chemical time" between [Fe/H] = -2.5 and [Fe/H] = -1.5. The corrected CEMP frequency for the turnoff stars with [Fe/H] < -3.0 is much higher than the AGB model prediction from the high-mass IMF, supporting the previous assertion that one or more additional mechanisms, not associated with AGB stars, are required for the production of carbon-rich material below [Fe/H] = -3.0. [abridged]
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Rotationally resolved lines within the A2{Pi}-X2{ transition of the 25MgH and 26MgH isotopologues were measured from spectra recorded by J. Black, P. F. Bernath, C. R. Brazier, and R. Hubbard in 1984 (National Solar Observatory (NSO) archive reference 1984/03/13/#2) with the 1m Fourier transform spectrometer associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope of the NSO at Kitt Peak. (6 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Large star-to-star variations of the abundances of proton-capture elements, such as Na and O, in globular clusters (GCs) are interpreted as the effect of internal pollution resulting from the presence of multiple stellar populations. To better constrain this scenario we investigate the abundance distribution of the heavy element rubidium (Rb) in NGC 6752, NGC 1904, and NGC 104 (47 Tuc). Combining the results from our sample with those in the literature, we found that Rb exhibits no star-to-star variations, regardless the cluster metallicity, with the possible intriguing, though very uncertain, exception of the metal-rich bulge cluster NGC 6388. If no star-to-star variations will be confirmed for all GCs, it implies that the stellar source of the proton-capture element variations must not have produced significant amounts of Rb. This element is observed to be enhanced at extremely high levels in intermediate-mass AGB (IM-AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds (i.e., at a metallicity similar to 47 Tuc and NGC 6388). This may present a challenge to this popular candidate polluter, unless the mass range of the observed IM-AGB stars does not participate in the formation of the second-generation stars in GCs. A number of possible solutions are available to resolve this conundrum, also given that the Magellanic Clouds observations are very uncertain and may need to be revised. The fast rotating massive stars scenario would not face this potential problem as the slow mechanical winds of these stars during their main-sequence phase do not carry any Rb enhancements; however, these candidates face even bigger issues such as the production of Li and the close over-imposition with core-collapse supernova timescales. Observations of Sr, Rb, and Zr in metal-rich clusters such as NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 are sorely needed to clarify the situation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 776(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Results of the abundance analysis are given in several separate tables, for GIRAFFE and UVES targets. (7 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the tenth public data release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R~22,500 300-fiber spectrograph covering 1.514--1.696 microns. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included.DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the ninth data release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra, comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra; 182,009 quasar spectra; and 159,327 stellar spectra, selected over 6373.2 square degrees.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Using laboratory hollow cathode spectra we have identified lines of the less common magnesium isotopologues of MgH, 25MgH and 26MgH, in the A 2Π-X 2Σ+ system. Based on the previous analysis of 24MgH, molecular lines have been measured and molecular constants derived for 25MgH and 26MgH. Term values and linelists, in both wavenumber and wavelength units, are presented. The A 2Π-X 2Σ+ system of MgH is important for measuring the magnesium isotope ratios in stars. Examples of analysis using the new linelists to derive the Mg isotope ratio in a metal poor dwarf and giant are shown.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 07/2013; 207(2):26. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained FLAMES GIRAFFE+UVES spectra for both first and second-generation red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 362 and used them to derive abundances of 21 atomic species for a sample of 92 stars. The surveyed elements include proton-capture (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si), alpha-capture (Ca, Ti), Fe-peak (Sc, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Dy). The analysis is fully consistent with that presented for twenty GCs in previous papers of this series. Stars in NGC 362 seem to be clustered into two discrete groups along the Na-O anti-correlation, with a gap at [O/Na] 0 dex. Na-rich, second generation stars show a trend to be more centrally concentrated, although the level of confidence is not very high. When compared to the classical second-parameter twin NGC 288, with similar metallicity, but different horizontal branch type and much lower total mass, the proton-capture processing in stars of NGC 362 seems to be more extreme, confirming previous analysis. We discovered the presence of a secondary RGB sequence, redder than the bulk of the RGB: a preliminary estimate shows that this sequence comprises about 6% of RGB stars. Our spectroscopic data and literature photometry indicate that this sequence is populated almost exclusively by giants rich in Ba, and probably rich in all s-process elements, as found in other clusters. In this regards, NGC 362 joins previously studied GCs like NGC 1851, NGC 6656 (M 22), and NGC 7089 (M 2).
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two independent studies recently uncovered two distinct populations among giants in the distant, massive globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419. One of these populations has normal magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) abundances for halo stars: enhanced Mg and roughly solar K. The other population has extremely depleted Mg and very enhanced K. To better anchor the peculiar NGC 2419 chemical composition, we have investigated the behavior of K in a few red giant branch stars in NGC 6752, NGC 6121, NGC 1904, and ω Cen. To verify that the high K abundances are intrinsic and not due to some atmospheric features in giants, we also derived K abundances in less evolved turn-off and subgiant stars of clusters 47 Tuc, NGC 6752, NGC 6397, and NGC 7099. We normalized the K abundance as a function of the cluster metallicity using 21 field stars analyzed in a homogeneous manner. For all GCs of our sample, the stars lie in the K-Mg abundance plane on the same locus occupied by the Mg-normal population in NGC 2419 and by field stars. This holds for both giants and less-evolved stars. At present, NGC 2419 seems unique among GCs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(1):40. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present work is based on two exposures, the first of 2700s at airmass 1.487 (seeing=1.23") acquired on 2010, July 30 for 47 Tuc and the second of 1600s at airmass 1.240 (seeing=1.79") taken on 2010, April 14 with FLAMES@VLT-UT2 and the high-resolution grating HR21. The resolution is 17300 at the center of the spectra, and the spectral range goes from about 8484 to about 9001Å, including the AlI doublet at 8772-73Å, which is the main feature we were interested in. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained six exposures of Be 39 with the multi-object spectrograph VLT/FLAMES, as in our previous studies on the Na-O anti-correlations in clusters. High resolution UVES and GIRAFFE spectra have been acquired with FLAMES@VLT. We measured elemental abundances and present here the EWs, separately for the UVES and GIRAFFE stars. Based on observations obtained under ESO Programme 386.B-0009. (5 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: It is now commonly accepted that globular clusters (GCs) have undergone a complex formation and that they host at least two stellar generations. This is a recent paradigm and is founded on both photometric and spectroscopic evidence. We concentrate on results based on high-resolution spectroscopy and on how we moved from single to multiple stellar populations concept for GCs. We underline that the peculiar chemical composition of GC stars is fundamental in establishing the multiple populations scenario and briefly outline what can be learned from observations. Finally, recent observational results on large samples of stars in different evolutionary phases are discussed.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: It is now commonly accepted that globular clusters (GCs) have undergone a complex formation and that they host at least two stellar generations. This is a recent paradigm and is founded on both photometric and spectroscopic evidence. We concentrate on results based on high-resolution spectroscopy and on how we moved from single to multiple stellar populations concept for GCs. We underline that the peculiar chemical composition of GC stars is fundamental in establishing the multiple populations scenario and briefly outline what can be learned from observations. Finally, recent observational results on large samples of stars in different evolutionary phases are discussed.
    Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The abundance ratios of the magnesium isotopes are a clue to the neutron source responsible for the s-process. Detailed analysis of the MgH A2Π - X2Σ+ transition is necessary to extend existing knowledge of the 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg isotopic ratios. However, the required laboratory spectroscopy of the 25MgH and 26MgH isotopologues is sparse. We have analyzed existing laboratory hollow cathode spectra from the archives of the McMath-Pierce FTS. Lines from 24MgH, 25MgH and 26MgH were identified and the frequencies measured. Hamiltonians were fit to the 25MgH and 26MgH line frequencies. Results for the more abundant 24MgH variant have been taken from the literature. A line list for the three isotopologues has been produced.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The light-element variations among globular cluster (GC) stars are nowadays accepted as the signature of self-enrichment from previous generations of stars. It is expected that these extinct progenitors experienced hot H-burning and, as fluorine is involved in the complete CNO cycle, the F abundance in GCs can provide new clues about the previous generation(s). Along with Na-O and Mg-Al anti-correlations, theory predicts an anti-correlation between F and Na and a positive correlation between F and O. Moreover, relatively low-mass AGB stars are F producers (and are also responsible for C+N+O and s-process element variations). We present our results on F abundances in four GCs (NGC 6656, NGC 6752, 47 Tucanae and omega Centauri), which exhibit notably different s-process and/or C+N+O abundance patterns.
    Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana. 01/2013;

Publication Stats

782 Citations
688 Downloads
481.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2001–2014
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2012
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Monash Centre for Astrophysics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2006
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2005
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy "Galileo Galilei"
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      East Lansing, MI, United States