[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results from observing bursts of high-energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space, caused by local disturbances of the radiation belt and particles precipitating from it, in the ARINA (on board the RESURS-DKI satellite since 2006) and VSPLESK (on board the International Space Station since 2008) satellite experiments are presented. New features were revealed in the geographic distribution of particle bursts, indicating that most high-energy electron bursts are interrelated with thunderstorm and seismic activities, at that some bursts are observed in regions of tectonic faults. Results from observing high-energy electron precipitation from the radiation belt over Japan during the powerful seismic event that began on March 11, 2011, are analyzed.
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences Physics 02/2013; 77(5).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We discuss the results of comparison and optimization of (ΔE − E) methods for identifying nuclei with the aid of a multilayer Si detector that will be used in the MONICA satellite-based
experiment aimed at studying the nuclear component of cosmic rays from hydrogen to nickel in the energy range of 10–300 MeV/nucleon.
The residual-range and Bethe-Bloch curve approximation methods are considered. Using the GEANT4 simulation, it is shown that
the Bethe-Bloch curve approximation method not only ensures a better mass resolution (which is particularly important for
identification of heavy nuclei), but also provides a means for identifying “drift” nuclei with satisfactory charge (
Instruments and Experimental Techniques 01/2010; 53(4):490-499. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New results are presented on the observations of bursts and variations in high-energy charged-particle fluxes in the near-Earth
space by the ARINA instrument operated onboard the Resurs-DK1 satellite since 2006.
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences Physics 01/2009; 73(3):361-363.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NINA apparatus, on board the Russian satellite Resurs-01 No. 4, has been in polar orbit since 1998 July 10, at an altitude of 840 km. Its main scientific task is to study the Galactic, solar, and anomalous components of cosmic rays in the energy interval 10-200 MeV nucleon-1. In this paper we present a description of the instrument and its basic operating modes. Measurements of Galactic cosmic-ray spectra will also be shown.
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 132(2):365. · 16.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reports nine solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected by the New Instrument for Nuclear Analysis (NINA) between 1998 October and 1999 April. NINA is a silicon-based particle detector mounted on board the Russian satellite Resurs-01-4, which has flown at an altitude of about 800 km in polar inclination since 1998 July. For every solar event, the power-law 4He spectrum across the energy interval 10-50 MeV nucleon-1 was reconstructed and spectral indexes, γ, from 1.8 to 6.8 extracted. Data of 3He and 4He were used to determine the 3He/4He ratio, which for some SEP events indicated an enrichment in 3He. For the 1998 November 7 event, the ratio reached a maximum value of 0.33 ± 0.06, with spectral indexes of γ = 2.5 ± 0.6 and γ = 3.7 ± 0.3 for 3He and 4He, respectively. The 3He/4He ratio averaged over the remaining events was 0.011 ± 0.004. For all events, a deuterium-to-proton ratio was estimated. An upper limit on the average value over all events was 2H/1H < 4 × 10-5 across the energy interval 9-12 MeV nucleon-1. Upper limits on the 3H/1H counting ratio for all events were determined. For the 1998 November 14 SEP event, the high flux of heavy particles detected made it possible to reconstruct the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen flux.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 577(1):513. · 6.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main goals of the experiment are of a research character and are related to detection of bursts of highenergy protons and electrons in the near-Earth space environment and measurements of their spatial, time, and energy characteristics. Accumulation of the statistical data would make it possible to determine the efficiency (probability) of the appearance of the particle bursts, earthquake precursors, to study a possibility of identification of the seismic bursts of particles and particle bursts having different physical nature (solar‐ magnetospheric or thunderstorm), and to reveal the relationship between the earthquake magnitude and particle burst characteristics. It is planned also to perform experimental testing of the methods (proposed in [8, 9]) of determination of the epicenter coordinates of the coming earthquake on the basis of the results of measurements of spatial, time, and energy characteristics of particle bursts.
Cosmic Research 10/2007; 45(5):445-448. · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pamela apparatus will allow precise measurements of cosmic rays in Low Earth Orbit, mainly focusing on the antiparticles component. The apparatus is now ready for flight, and the launch is foreseen during June 2006. The paper briefly reports the status of the experiment, and the performances of the various components as measured before the launch. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 03/2007; 572(1):471-473. · 1.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluate radiation damages on space-borne instruments and on space mission crews. In spite of that, sources of data on the flux of energetic ions at LEO are roughly limited to the AP-8 model, CREME/CREME96 codes and the SAMPEX, NOAA/TIROS satellites. The existing and operational European SAC-C/ICARE and PROBA-1/SREM instruments could also be potential sources for proton data at LEO. Although AP-8 and SAMPEX/PSB97 may be publicly accessed through the SPENVIS, they exhibit an order of magnitude difference in low altitude proton fluxes and they do not contain helium fluxes. Therefore, improved light ion radiation models are still needed.
In this paper we present a procedure to identify and measure the energy of ions that are not stopped in the NINA-2 instrument. Moreover, problems related to particles that cross the instrument in the opposite direction are addressed and shown to be a possible cause of particle misidentification. Measuring fluxes of low abundance elements like energetic helium ions requires a good characterisation of all possible sources of backgrounds in the detector. Hints to determine the several contributions to the background are presented herein and may be applied to extract an order of magnitude of energetic ions fluxes from existing data sets, while waiting for dedicated high performance instruments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment which will measure the antiparticle component of cosmic rays over an extended energy range and with unprecedented accuracy. The apparatus consists of a permanent magnetic spectrometer equipped with a double-sided silicon microstrip tracking system and surrounded by a scintillator anticoincidence system. A silicon–tungsten imaging calorimeter, complemented by a scintillator shower tail catcher, and a transition radiation detector perform the particle identification task. Fast scintillators are used for Time-of-Flight measurements and to provide the primary trigger. A neutron detector is finally provided to extend the range of particle measurements to the TeV region.PAMELA will fly on-board of the Resurs-DK1 satellite, which will be put into a semi-polar orbit in 2005 by a Soyuz rocket. We give a brief review of the scientific issues of the mission and report about the status of the experiment few months before the launch.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NINA detector on board the Resurs-01 No. 4 satellite (835 km, 98° inclination) is equipped with particle trackers based on silicon strip detectors. From the energy deposited in each of its silicon layers the mass, the momentum direction and energy of incident particles have been determined. The resolutions in mass and energy allow identification of H and He isotopes over the 10-50 MeV/n energy range. The angular resolution is about 2.5°. We present the direct measurements of proton and helium isotopes pitch angle distributions derived from Resurs-01 No.4/NINA observations and their variations as functions of (B, L) coordinates and energy. The measurements of trapped helium isotopes spectrum are also presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results of calibration of the PAMELA instrument at the CERN facilities are discussed. In September, 2003, the calibration of the Neutron Detector together with the Calorimeter was performed with the CERN beams of electrons and protons with energies of 20 - 180 GeV. The implementation of the Neutron Detector increases a rejection factor of hadrons from electrons about ten times. The results of calibration are in agreement with calculations.
International Journal of Modern Physics A 01/2005; 20(29). · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment that will study the antiproton and positron fluxes in cosmic rays in a wide range of energy (from 80 MeV up to 190 GeV for antiprotons and from 50 MeV up to 270 GeV for positrons) and with high statistics, and that will measure the antihelium/helium ratio with a sensitivity of the order of 10<sup>-8</sup>. The detector will fly on-board a polar orbiting Resurs DK1 satellite, which will be launched into space by a Soyuz rocket in 2004 from Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, for a 3-year-long mission. Particle identification and energy measurements are performed in the PAMELA apparatus using the following subdetectors: a magnetic spectrometer made up of a permanent magnet equipped with double-sided microstrip silicon detectors, an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter composed of layers of tungsten absorber and silicon detectors planes, a transition radiation detector made of straw tubes interleaved with carbon fiber radiators, a plastic scintillator time-of-flight and trigger system, a set of anticounter plastic scintillator detectors, and a neutron detector. The features of the detectors and the main results obtained in beam test sessions are presented.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 07/2004; · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present in this paper a status report of the space experiment PAMELA. PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment which primarily aims to measure the antiproton and positron spectra in the cosmic radiation over a large energy range (from 80 MeV up to 190 GeV for antiprotons and from 50 MeV up to 270 GeV for positrons) and to search for antinuclei with a sensitivity of the order of 10(-8) in the antihelium/ helium ratio. In addition, it will measure the light nucleax component of cosmic rays and investigate phenomena connected with Solar and Earth physics. The apparatus will be installed onboard the polar orbiting Resurs DK1 satellite, which will be launched into space by a Soyuz TM2 rocket in 2004 from Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, for a 3 year long mission. PAMELA consists of: a time of flight system, a transition radiation detector, a magnetic spectrometer, an anticoincidence detector, an electromagnetic imaging calorimeter, a shower tail catcher scintillator and a neutron detector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The satellite MITA, carrying on board the scientific payload NINA-2, was launched on July the 15th, 2000 from the cosmodrome of Plesetsk (Russia) with a Cosmos-3M rocket. The satellite and the payload are currently operating within nominal parameters. NINA-2 is the first scientific payload for the technological flight of the Italian small satellite MITA. The detector used in this mission is identical to the one already flying on the Russian satellite Resurs-O1 n.4 in a 840-km sun-synchronous orbit, but makes use of the extensive computer and telemetry capabilities of MITA bus to improve the active data acquisition time. NINA physics objectives are to study cosmic nuclei from hydrogen to iron in the energy range between 10 MeV/n and 1 GeV/n during the years 2000–2003, that is the solar maximum period. The device is capable of charge identification up to iron with isotope sensitivity up to oxigen. The 87.3 degrees, 460 km altitude polar orbit allows investigations of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin, so to study long and short term solar transient phenomena, and the study of the trapped radiation at higher geomagnetic cutoff.
Small Satellites for Astrophysical Research, the Copernican Principle and Homogeneity of the Universe, Edited by A. Gimenez, N. Lund, M. Demianski, 01/2003: pages 351-356;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we report on the energy spectra and abundance ratios of hydrogen and helium isotopes of albedo origin, measured by the instruments NINA and NINA-2 in near-equatorial regions. The instrument NINA flew on board the satellite Resurs-01-N4 between 1998 and 1999, at a 830 km average altitude. The NINA-2 apparatus, on board the satellite MITA, was put into orbit in July 2000 at an altitude of about 450 km. NINA and NINA-2 measurements revealed that H-2, H-3, He-3, and He-4 are a significant portion of the secondary flux above the atmosphere. The energy spectra of hydrogen isotopes are practically flat across the energy range of 10-40 MeV/n, while the spectra of helium isotopes can be fitted by a power law of spectral indexes gamma=0.8 and gamma=1.5 for He-3 and He-4, respectively.
Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics. 01/2003; 108(A5).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method for simulating the propagation processes for ions of the anomalous component of cosmic rays in the Earth's magnetic field is described with allowance made for a step-by-step stripping of the ions in the residual atmosphere and their trapping by the geomagnetic field. Numerical results are presented for the geomagnetic trapping of high-energy singly charged oxygen ions penetrating into the stripping region from interplanetary space.
Cosmic Research 10/2002; 40(6):529-533. · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reports nine solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected by the New Instrument for Nuclear Analysis (NINA) between 1998 October and 1999 April. NINA is a silicon-based particle detector mounted on board the Russian satellite Resurs-01-4, which has flown at an altitude of about 800 km in polar inclina-tion since 1998 July. For every solar event, the power-law 4 He spectrum across the energy interval 10–50 MeV nucleon À1 was reconstructed and spectral indexes, , from 1.8 to 6.8 extracted. Data of 3 He and 4 He were used to determine the 3 He/ 4 He ratio, which for some SEP events indicated an enrichment in 3 He. For the 1998 November 7 event, the ratio reached a maximum value of 0:33 AE 0:06, with spectral indexes of ¼ 2:5 AE 0:6 and ¼ 3:7 AE 0:3 for 3 He and 4 He, respectively. The 3 He/ 4 He ratio averaged over the remain-ing events was 0:011 AE 0:004. For all events, a deuterium-to-proton ratio was estimated. An upper limit on the average value over all events was 2 H/ 1 H < 4 Â 10 À5 across the energy interval 9–12 MeV nucleon À1 . Upper limits on the 3 H/ 1 H counting ratio for all events were determined. For the 1998 November 14 SEP event, the high flux of heavy particles detected made it possible to reconstruct the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen flux.