M. Kuster

Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Publications (120)93.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for $a\to\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the X-ray refractive mass $m_\gamma$ to the axion search mass $m_a$. After the vacuum phase (2003--2004), which is optimal for $m_a\lesssim0.02$ eV, we used $^4$He in 2005--2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02--0.39 eV and $^3$He in 2009--2011 to scan from 0.39--1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to $^4$He in 2012 to investigate a narrow $m_a$ range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39--0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with $^4$He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to $g_{a\gamma}< 1.47\times10^{-10} {\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.
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    ABSTRACT: A new, modular toolkit for creating simulations of 2D X-ray pixel detectors, X-CSIT (X-ray Camera SImulation Toolkit), is being developed. The toolkit uses three sequential simulations of detector processes which model photon interactions, electron charge cloud spreading with a high charge density plasma model and common electronic components used in detector readout. In addition, because of the wide variety in pixel detector design, X-CSIT has been designed as a modular platform so that existing functions can be modified or additional functionality added if the specific design of a detector demands it. X-CSIT will be used to create simulations of the detectors at the European XFEL, including three bespoke 2D detectors: the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and DePFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC). These simulations will be used by the detector group at the European XFEL for detector characterisation and calibration. For this purpose, X-CSIT has been integrated into the European XFEL's software framework, Karabo. This will further make it available to users to aid with the planning of experiments and analysis of data. In addition, X-CSIT will be released as a standalone, open source version for other users, collaborations and groups intending to create simulations of their own detectors.
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    ABSTRACT: This extended abstract briefly summarizes ongoing research activity on the evaluation and experimental validation of physics methods for photon and electron transport. The analysis includes physics models currently implemented in Geant4 as well as modeling methods used in other Monte Carlo codes, or not yet considered in general purpose Monte Carlo simulation systems. The validation of simulation models is performed with the support of rigorous statistical methods, which involve goodness-of-fit tests followed by categorical analysis. All results are quantitative, and are fully documented.
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    ABSTRACT: The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) is an international research facility presently under construction in the area of Hamburg, Germany, which will start its operation at the end of 2016 [1]. The superconducting linear accelerator of the facility will deliver electron bunches with an energy of up to 17.5 GeV, arranged in trains of typically 2700 bunches at a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz. Each train will be followed by a gap of 99.4 ms. Spatially coherent X-rays are generated from the electron bunches in a series of undulators based on the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) process, in three photon beamlines extending over a length of up to 200 m. Each beamline serves two experiments with different scientific goals.
    Synchrotron Radiation News 07/2014; 27(4). DOI:10.1080/08940886.2014.930809
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    ABSTRACT: The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described, the science-driven detector specifications are illustrated and the expected detector performance is shown.
    Journal of Instrumentation 05/2014; 9(05):C05063. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C05063 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2014; 112(9):091302. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several models for the Monte Carlo simulation of Compton scattering on electrons are quantitatively evaluated with respect to a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature. Some of these models are currently implemented in general purpose Monte Carlo systems; some have been implemented and evaluated for possible use in Monte Carlo particle transport for the first time in this study. Here we present first and preliminary results concerning total and differential Compton scattering cross sections.
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    ABSTRACT: A MHz frame rate X-ray area detector (LPD - Large Pixel Detector) is under development by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the European XFEL. The detector will have 1 million pixels and allows analogue storage of 512 images taken at 4.5 MHz in the detector front end. The LPD detector has 500 mm thick silicon sensor tiles that are bump bonded to a readout ASIC. The ASICs preamplifier provides relatively low noise at high speed which results in a high dynamic range of 10^5 photons over an energy range of 5-20 keV. Small scale prototypes of 32x256 pixels (LPD 2-Tile detector) and 256x256 pixels (LPD supermodule detector) are now available for X-ray tests. The performance of prototypes of the detector is reported for first tests under synchrotron radiation (PETRA III at DESY) and Free-Electron-Laser radiation (LCLS at SLAC). The initial performance of the detector in terms of signal range and noise, radiation hardness and spatial and temporal response are reported. The main result is that the 4.5 MHz sampling detection chain is reliably working, including the analogue on-chip memory concept. The detector is at least radiation hard up to 5 MGy at 12 keV. In addition the multiple gain concept has been demonstrated over a dynamic range to 10^4 at 12 keV with a readout noise equivalent to <1 photon rms in its most sensitive mode.
    Journal of Instrumentation 11/2013; 8(11). DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/8/11/C11001 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.
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    ABSTRACT: The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new package, RDM-extended, and that of the existing Geant4 per-decay implementation (original RDM), which has also been refactored, are verified against the ENSDF database. The new verified package is beneficial for a wide range of experimental scenarios, as it enables researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their Geant4-based application.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 07/2013; 60(4). DOI:10.1109/TNS.2013.2270894 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radioactive decays are of concern in a wide variety of applications using Monte-Carlo simulations. In order to properly estimate the quality of such simulations, knowledge of the accuracy of the decay simulation is required. We present a validation of the original Geant4 Radioactive Decay Module, which uses a per-decay sampling approach, and of an extended package for Geant4-based simulation of radioactive decays, which, in addition to being able to use a refactored per-decay sampling, is capable of using a statistical sampling approach. The validation is based on measurements of calibration isotope sources using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector; no calibration of the simulation is performed. For the considered validation experiment equivalent simulation accuracy can be achieved with per-decay and statistical sampling.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 06/2013; 60(4). DOI:10.1109/TNS.2013.2271047 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide as-yet-unrivaled peak brilliance and ultra-short pulses of spatially coherent X-rays with a pulse length of less than 100 fs in the energy range between 0.25 and 25 keV. The high radiation intensity and ultra-short pulse duration will open a window for novel scientific techniques and will allow to explore new phenomena in biology, chemistry, material science, as well as matter at high energy density, atomic, ion and molecular physics. The variety of scientific applications and especially the unique XFEL.EU time structure require adequate instrumentation to be developed in order to exploit the full potential of the light source. To make optimal use of the unprecedented capabilities of the European XFEL and master these vast technological challenges, the European XFEL GmbH has started a detector R&D program. The technology concepts of the detector system presently under development are complementary in their performance and will cover the requirements of a large fraction of the scientific applications envisaged for the XFEL.EU facility. The actual status of the detector development projects which includes ultra-fast 2D imaging detectors, low repetition rate 2D detectors as well as strip detectors for e.g. spectroscopy applications and the infrastructure for the detectors' calibration and tests will be presented. Furthermore, an overview of the forthcoming implementation phase of the European XFEL in terms of detector R&D will be given.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 04/2013; DOI:10.1117/12.2020773 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A functional prototype two-plane Compton camera array for localization and identification of remote radiation sources, consisting of four PVT and four NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors with PMT readout, is presented. The large-volume, 76x76x76 mm scintillators provide a broad field of view for scattered photons and facilitate maximum efficiency at moderate cost. Each detector is equipped with a voxelSPEC, a compact electronic module that provides high voltage for the PMT, signal processing, detector stabilization, and an Ethernet communication interface. The voxelSPEC delivers list-mode event data with nanosecond precision timing over non-proprietary Ethernet and makes a system extension very easy. A software package has been developed for real-time data processing and image reconstruction. Advantages in hard- and software allow stable, unattended operation of the camera array for many days, and provide easy-to-read information on the radiation source in real time. Measurements with the prototype array have been performed for a few standard scenarios and geometries to verify the model predications obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations. Simulations have been further performed to explore larger camera arrays with 2x4x4, 2x8x8, 2x10x10, 2x13x13 and 2x16x16 detectors.
    IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 04/2013; 60(2):1066-1071. DOI:10.1109/TNS.2012.2222665 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axio-recombination, the "BCA processes." Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling g_ae and axion-photon interaction strength g_ag using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For m_a < 10 meV/c2 we find g_ag x g_ae< 8.1 x 10^-23 GeV^-1 at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellar energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 02/2013; 1305(010). DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2013/05/010 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variety of applications and especially the unique European XFEL time structure will require adequate instrumentation to be developed to exploit the full potential of the light source. Two-dimensional integrating X-ray detectors with ultra-fast read out up to 4.5 MHz for 1024 x 1024 pixel images are under development for a variety of imaging applications. The actual status of the European XFEL detector development projects is presented. Furthermore, an outlook will be given with respect to detector research and development, performance optimization, integration, and commissioning.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 10/2012; 425(6). DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/425/6/062013
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    ABSTRACT: The status of the solar axion search with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) will be presented. Recent results obtained by the use of $^3$He as a buffer gas has allowed us to extend our sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with $^4$He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV$ \le m_{a} \le $ 0.64 eV. From the absence of an excess of x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g$_{a\gamma} \le 2.3\times 10^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. CAST published results represent the best experimental limit on the photon couplings to axions and other similar exotic particles dubbed WISPs (Weakly Interacting Slim Particles) in the considered mass range and for the first time the limit enters the region favored by QCD axion models. Preliminary sensitivities for axion masses up to 1.16 eV will also be shown reaching mean upper limits on the axion-photon coupling of g$_{a\gamma} \le 3.5\times 10^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% C.L. Expected sensibilities for the extension of the CAST program up to 2014 will be presented. Moreover long term options for a new helioscope experiment will be evoked.
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    ABSTRACT: Ongoing investigations for the improvement of Geant4 accuracy and computational performance resulting by refactoring and reengineering parts of the code are discussed. Issues in refactoring that are specific to the domain of physics simulation are identified and their impact is elucidated. Preliminary quantitative results are reported.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 09/2012; 396(2). DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/396/2/022038
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    ABSTRACT: Recent efforts for the improvement of the accuracy of physics data libraries used in particle transport are summarized. Results are reported about a large scale validation analysis of atomic parameters used by major Monte Carlo systems (Geant4, EGS, MCNP, Penelope etc.); their contribution to the accuracy of simulation observables is documented. The results of this study motivated the development of a new atomic data management software package, which optimizes the provision of state-of-the-art atomic parameters to physics models. The effect of atomic parameters on the simulation of radioactive decay is illustrated. Ideas and methods to deal with physics models applicable to different energy ranges in the production of data libraries, rather than at runtime, are discussed.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 09/2012; 396(2). DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/396/2/022039
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    ABSTRACT: The astroparticle physics experiment CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) aims to detect hypothetical axions or axion-like particles produced in the Sun by the Primakoff process. A Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype superconducting dipole magnet provides a 9 T transverse magnetic field for the conversion of axions into detectable X-ray photons. These photons are detected with an X-ray telescope and a novel type of frame-store CCD detector built from radio-pure materials, installed in the optics focal plane. A novel type of cooling system has been designed and built based on krypton-filled cryogenic heat pipes, made out of oxygen-free radiopure copper, and a Stirling cryocooler as cold source. The heat pipes provide an efficient thermal coupling between the cryocooler and the CCD which is kept at stable temperatures between 150 and 230 K within an accuracy of 0.1 K. A graded-Z radiation shield, also serving as a gas cold-trap operated at 120 K, is implemented to reduce the surface contamination of the CCD window and suppress background radiation.
    06/2012; DOI:10.1063/1.4707041

Publication Stats

2k Citations
93.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Center for Free-Electron Laser Science
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2012–2014
    • European XFEL
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2006–2013
    • Technical University Darmstadt
      • Institute of Nuclear Physics
      Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2011
    • Dogus Universitesi
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2004–2011
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003–2010
    • CERN
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • Ruđer Bošković Institute
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
    • Centre D'Etudes Spatiales De La Biosphere
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 1997–2000
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany