Joanna D Moody

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C., DC, United States

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Publications (29)79.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Kava (Piper methysticum), a perennial shrub native to the South Pacific islands, has been used to relieve anxiety. Recently, several cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been reported from the consumption of dietary supplements containing kava. It is unclear whether the kava constituents, kavalactones, are responsible for the associated hepatotoxicity. To investigate the key components responsible for the liver toxicity, bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in this study. Kava roots, leaves, and stem peelings were extracted with methanol, and the resulting residues were subjected to partition with a different polarity of solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) for evaluation of their cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme leakage assays. Organic solvent fractions displayed a much stronger cytotoxicity than water fractions for all parts of kava. The hexane fraction of the root exhibited stronger cytotoxic effects than fractions of root extracted with other solvents or extracts from the other parts of kava. Further investigations using bioassay-directed isolation and analysis of the hexane fraction indicated that the compound responsible for the cytotoxicity was flavokavain B. The identity of the compound was confirmed by (1)H and (13) C NMR and MS techniques.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2006; 54(8):3157-62. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii strain PYR-1 grown in mineral salts medium and nutrients in the presence of benz[a]anthracene metabolized 15% of the added benz[a]anthracene after 12 days of incubation. Neutral and acidic ethyl acetate extractable metabolites were isolated and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and uv-visible absorption, gas chromatography/mass (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analysis. Trimethylsilylation of the metabolites followed by GC/MS analysis facilitated identification of metabolites. The characterization of metabolites indicated that M. vanbaalenii initiated attack of benz[a]anthracene at the C-1,2-, C-5,6-, C-7,12- and C-10,11-positions to form dihydroxylated and methoxylated intermediates. The major site of enzymatic attack was in the C-10, C-11 positions. Subsequent ortho- and meta-cleavage of each of the aromatic rings led to the accumulation of novel ring-fission metabolites in the medium. The major metabolites identified were 3-hydrobenzo[f]isobenzofuran-1-one (3.2%), 6-hydrofuran[3,4-g]chromene-2,8-dione (1.3%), benzo[g]chromene-2-one (1.7%), naphtho[2,1-g]chromen-10-one (48.1%), 10-hydroxy-11-methoxybenz[a]anthracene (9.3%), and 10,11-dimethoxybenz[a]anthracene (36.4%). Enzymatic attack at the C-7 and C-12 positions resulted in the formation of benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 1-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-2-naphthoic acid, and 1-benzoyl-2-naphthoic acid. A phenyl-naphthyl metabolite, 3-(2-carboxylphenyl)-2-naphthoic acid, was formed when M. vanbaalenii was incubated with benz[a]anthracene cis-5,6-dihydrodiol, indicating ortho-cleavage of 5,6-dihydroxybenz[a]anthracene. A minor amount of 5,6-dimethoxybenz[a]anthracene was also formed. The data extend and propose novel pathways for the bacterial metabolism of benz[a]anthracene.
    Biodegradation 01/2006; 16(6):513-26. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of Umbelopsis ramanniana (=Mucor ramannianus) were grown in fluid Sabouraud medium for 3 days, dosed with 0.23 mM benzo[f]quinoline, benzo[h]quinoline, or phenanthridine (benzo[c]quinoline), and incubated for another 18 days. Cultures were extracted and metabolites (66-75% of the UV absorbance) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. They were identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Benzo[f]quinoline was metabolized to benzo[f]quinoline trans-7,8-dihydrodiol, benzo[f]quinoline N-oxide, and 7-hydroxybenzo[f]quinoline, benzo[h]quinoline was metabolized to benzo[h]quinoline trans-5,6-dihydrodiol, benzo[h]quinoline trans-7,8-dihydrodiol, and 7-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline, and phenanthridine was metabolized to phenanthridine N-oxide and phenanthridin-6(5H)-one. At least one of the metabolites produced from each compound was mutagenic and could not be considered detoxified.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2005; 67(3):405-11. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of pH on the growth of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 and its degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene were compared at pH 6.5 and pH 7.5. Various degradation pathways were proposed in this study, based on the identification of metabolites from mass and NMR spectral analyses. In tryptic soy broth, M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 grew more rapidly at pH 7.5 (mu'=0.058 h(-1)) than at pH 6.5 (mu'=0.028 h(-1)). However, resting cells suspended in phosphate buffers with the same pH values displayed a shorter lag time for the degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene at pH 6.5 (6 h) than at pH 7.5 (48 h). The one-unit pH drop increased the degradation rates four-fold. Higher levels of both compounds were detected in the cytosol fractions obtained at pH 6.5. An acidic pH seemed to render the mycobacterial cells more permeable to hydrophobic substrates. The major pathways for the metabolism of phenanthrene and pyrene were initiated by oxidation at the K-regions. Phenanthrene-9,10- and pyrene-4,5-dihydrodiols were metabolized via transient catechols to the ring fission products, 2,2'-diphenic acid and 4,5-dicarboxyphenanthrene, respectively. The metabolic pathways converged to form phthalic acid. At pH 6.5, M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 produced higher levels of the O-methylated derivatives of non-K-region phenanthrene- and pyrene-diols. Other non-K-region products, such as cis-4-(1-hydroxynaphth-2-yl)-2-oxobut-3-enoic acid, 1,2-dicarboxynaphthalene and benzocoumarin-like compounds, were also detected in the culture fluids. The non-K-region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation might be a significant burden to the cell due to the accumulation of toxic metabolites.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 05/2005; 67(2):275-85. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quinone reductase (PQR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), from the PAH-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1, were demonstrated to be constitutive enzymes located in the soluble fraction of cell extracts. PQR activities for the reduction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 4,5-pyrene- quinone were 1.40+/-0.13 and 0.12+/-0.01 micromol min(-1) mg-protein(-1), respectively. The exogenous catechols alizarin, anthrarobin, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene and esculetin inhibited PQR activity. Anthrarobin (100 microM) and esculetin (100 microM) inhibited 4,5-pyrenequinone reduction by 64-92%. COMT was involved in the O-methylation of 1,2-dihydroxyphenanthrene to form 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1,2-dimethoxyphenanthrene. Both pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene were metabolized by M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to form 1-methoxypyrene, 1-methoxy-2-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxypyrene and 1,2-dimethoxypyrene. Among the catechols tested, anthrarobin showed the highest COMT activity (1.06+/-0.04 nmol/30 min(-1) mg-protein(-1)). These results suggest that the PQR and COMT activities of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 may play an important role in the detoxification of PAH catechols.
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2005; 31(11):507-16. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene by Cyclothyrium sp. CBS 109850, a coelomycete isolated for the first time in Brazil from industrially polluted estuarine sediment, was studied. The metabolites were extracted and separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by UV spectral analyses and mass, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectrometry. Cyclothyrium sp. transformed biphenyl to 4-hydroxybiphenyl and anthracene to anthracene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol. This isolate metabolized 90% of [9-(14)C]phenanthrene, producing phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol as a major metabolite, phenanthrene trans-3,4-dihydrodiol, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, and a novel metabolite, 2-hydroxy-7-methoxyphenanthrene. Circular dichroism spectra analyses indicated that the major enantiomers of phenanthrene trans-9, 10-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene trans-3,4-dihydrodiol and pyrene trans-4,5-dihydrodiol, a pyrene metabolite produced previously by Cyclothyrium sp. CBS 109850, were predominantly in the (R,R) configuration, revealing a high stereoselectivity for initial monooxygenation and enzymatic hydration of phenanthrene and pyrene by Cyclothyrium sp. CBS109850. The results also show a high regioselectivity since the K-regions of phenanthrene and pyrene were the major sites of metabolism.
    Chemosphere 12/2004; 57(8):943-52. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of a nonpathogenic fungus, Pestalotiopsis guepini, to metabolize fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents during growth on poultry litter materials was investigated. Sterilized rice hulls, ground corncobs, and pine shavings in glass jars covered with foil were moistened with sterile water and inoculated with P. guepini. The litter materials then were dosed with norfloxacin and incubated for 20 d. In rice-hull cultures, P. guepini produced 4 metabolites: 7-amino-1-ethyl- 6-fluoro-4- oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolone-3-carboxylic acid, N-formylnorfloxacin, N- acetylnorfloxacin, and desethylene-N-acetylnorfloxacin. In corncob cultures, the fungus producedN-formylnorfloxacin and N-acetylnorfloxacin. In pine-shavings cultures, there was little growth of the fungus and no metabolism of norfloxacin. The results suggest that fungi that grow on poultry litter may degrade residues of antimicrobial drugs.
    The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 06/2004; 13(2):235-240. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolism of the environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene in the bacterium Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 was examined. This organism initially oxidized benzo[a]pyrene with dioxygenases and monooxygenases at C-4,5, C-9,10, and C-11,12. The metabolites were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by UV-visible, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance, and circular dichroism spectral analyses. The major intermediates of benzo[a]pyrene metabolism that had accumulated in the culture media after 96 h of incubation were cis-4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (benzo[a]pyrene cis-4,5-dihydrodiol), cis-11,12-dihydro-11,12-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (benzo[a]pyrene cis-11,12-dihydrodiol), trans-11,12-dihydro-11,12-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (benzo[a]pyrene trans-11,12-dihydrodiol), 10-oxabenzo[def]chrysen-9-one, and hydroxymethoxy and dimethoxy derivatives of benzo[a]pyrene. The ortho-ring fission products 4-formylchrysene-5-carboxylic acid and 4,5-chrysene-dicarboxylic acid and a monocarboxylated chrysene product were formed when replacement culture experiments were conducted with benzo[a]pyrene cis-4,5-dihydrodiol. Chiral stationary-phase HPLC analysis of the dihydrodiols indicated that benzo[a]pyrene cis-4,5-dihydrodiol had 30% 4S,5R and 70% 4R,5S absolute stereochemistry. Benzo[a]pyrene cis-11,12-dihydrodiol adopted an 11S,12R conformation with 100% optical purity. The enantiomeric composition of benzo[a]pyrene trans-11,12-dihydrodiol was an equal mixture of 11S,12S and 11R,12R molecules. The results of this study, in conjunction with those of previously reported studies, extend the pathways proposed for the bacterial metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene. Our study also provides evidence of the stereo- and regioselectivity of the oxygenases that catalyze the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in M. vanbaalenii PYR-1.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/2004; 70(1):340-5. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The degradation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, by cultures of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 was studied. When M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 was grown in the presence of DMBA for 136 h, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of four ethyl acetate-extractable compounds and unutilized substrate. Characterization of the metabolites by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry indicated initial attack at the C-5 and C-6 positions and on the methyl group attached to C-7 of DMBA. The metabolites were identified as cis-5,6-dihydro-5,6-dihydroxy-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA cis-5,6-dihydrodiol), trans-5,6-dihydro-5,6-dihydroxy-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA trans-5,6-dihydrodiol), and 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene, suggesting dioxygenation and monooxygenation reactions. Chiral stationary-phase HPLC analysis of the dihydrodiols showed that DMBA cis-5,6-dihydrodiol had 95% 5S,6R and 5% 5R,6S absolute stereochemistry. On the other hand, the DMBA trans-5,6-dihydrodiol was a 100% 5S,6S enantiomer. A minor photooxidation product, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, was also formed. The results demonstrate that M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 is highly regio- and stereoselective in the degradation of DMBA.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2003; 69(7):3924-31. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish, undergoes sequential oxidation to produce various N-demethylated derivatives (monodes-, dides(sym)-, dides(unsym)-, trides-, and tetrades-) both before and after reduction to leucomalachite green (LMG). The close structure resemblance of the metabolites with aromatic amine carcinogens implicates a potential genotoxicity from exposure to MG. The availability of the synthetic standards is important for metabolic and DNA adduct studies of MG. This paper describes a simple and versatile method for the synthesis of MG, LMG, and their N-demethylated metabolites. The synthesis involves a coupling of 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone or 4-nitrobenzophenone with the aryllithium reagents derived from appropriately substituted 4-bromoaniline derivatives, followed by treatment with HCl in methanol. The resulting cationic MG and their leuco analogues showed systematic UV/vis spectral and tandem mass fragmentation patterns consistent with sequential N-demethylation. The extensive (1)H and (13)C spectral assignments of the metabolites were aided by the availability of (13)C(7)-labeled MG and LMG. The results indicate the existence of a resonance structure with the cationic charge located in the central methane carbon (C(7)). The synthetic procedure is general in scope so that it can be extended to the preparation of N-demethylated metabolites of other structurally related N-methylated triphenylmethane dyes.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 04/2003; 16(3):285-94. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fungus Cunninghamella elegans was used as a microbial model of mammalian metabolism to biotransform the tetracyclic antidepressant drug mirtazapine, which is manufactured as a racemic mixture of R(-)- and S(+)-enantiomers. In 168 h, C. elegans transformed 91% of the drug into the following seven metabolites: 8-hydroxymirtazapine, N-desmethyl-8-hydroxymirtazapine, N-desmethylmirtazapine, 13-hydroxymirtazapine, mirtazapine N-oxide, 12-hydroxymirtazapine, and N-desmethyl-13-hydroxymirtazapine. Circular dichroism spectral analysis of unused mirtazapine indicated that it was slightly enriched with the R(-)-enantiomer. When the fungus was treated with the optically pure forms of the drug, the S(+)-enantiomer produced all seven metabolites whereas the R(-)-enantiomer produced only 8-hydroxymirtazapine, N-desmethyl-8-hydroxymirtazapine, N-desmethylmirtazapine, and mirtazapine N-oxide. C. elegans produced five mammalian and two novel metabolites and is therefore a suitable microbial model for mirtazapine metabolism.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 12/2002; 30(11):1274-9. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 to transform the antibacterial agent cinoxacin was investigated. Cultures in sucrose-peptone broth were dosed with cinoxacin, grown for 20 days, and then extracted with ethyl acetate. Two metabolites were detected and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major metabolite was identified by mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra as 1-ethyl-1,4-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]cinnolin-4-one and the minor metabolite was identified as 1-ethyl-1,4-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)cinnolin-4-one. B. bassiana also reduced quinoline-3-carboxylic acid to 3-(hydroxymethyl)quinoline.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 09/2002; 214(1):133-6. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The ability of sediment bacteria to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when present as components of mixtures was investigated. One strain, identified as Mycobacterium flavescens, could utilize fluoranthene in the presence of pyrene, although utilization of pyrene was slower in the presence of fluoranthene than in its absence. The second strain, a Rhodococcus species, could utilize fluoranthene in the presence of anthracene, although the presence of fluoranthene slowed the rate of utilization of anthracene. Cometabolism of fluoranthene in these strains was confirmed by the isolation of metabolites of fluoranthene and by kinetic analysis of the rate of utilization of the growth substrate in the presence of fluoranthene. In both strains, metabolism of fluoranthene occurred on the fused ring of the fluoranthene molecule, producing 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid. In the Rhodococcus sp., a second metabolite, a-(carboxymethylene)fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, was identified, indicating that this strain has the capacity to metabolize fluoranthene via ortho as well as meta cleavage. The presence of PAHs in a mixture produces interactive effects which can either increase or decrease the rate of utilization of individual PAHs, results which need to be taken into account when estimating rates of degradation in contaminated environments.
    FEMS Microbiology Ecology 08/2002; 41(1):1-7. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of biphenyl by Mycobacterium sp. PYR-1 was investigated. The Mycobacterium sp. degraded >98% of the biphenyl added within 72 h. Analysis of ethyl acetate extracts of the culture medium by HPLC indicated that benzoic acid was the major metabolite. Other products were 4-hydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 5-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid. The metabolites were characterized by mass and 1H NMR spectrometry. Identification of benzoic acid and 5-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid indicates that biphenyl degradation by Mycobacterium sp. PYR-1 is generally similar to known pathways. A novel alternative metabolic pathway consisted of monooxygenation at C-4 of biphenyl to give 4-hydroxybiphenyl, with subsequent degradation via ring cleavage to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 03/2002; 58(3):364-9. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of conjugates from two antibacterial fluoroquinolone drugs, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, was observed in cultures of Trichoderma viride that had been grown in sucrose-peptone broth and extracted 16 d after dosing with the drugs. Both conjugates were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and found to be optically active. They were identified by mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra as 4-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-vinylcyclopent-1-enyl ciprofloxacin and 4-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-vinylcyclopent-1-enyl norfloxacin. The transformation of veterinary fluoroquinolones in the presence of fungi may have ecological significance.
    Mycologia 01/2002; 94(1):1-5. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. To determine the ability of fungi to metabolize sulphur- and oxygen-containing azaarenes, Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 9245 was grown in 125-ml flasks containing fluid Sabouraud medium. The cultures and controls were incubated at 28 degrees C with shaking and dosed with 16.7 mM phenothiazine or phenoxazine. After incubation for 72h, the mycelia and filtrates were extracted with ethyl acetate and the combined residues analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residual phenothiazine and phenoxazine were 21 and 22%, respectively, of the total UV absorbance at 254 nm. 2. The metabolites were identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fungus oxidized phenothiazine to phenothiazine sulphoxide, 3-hydroxyphenothiazine sulphoxide, phenothiazin-3-one, and 3-hydroxyphenothiazine and oxidized phenoxazine to phenoxazin-3-one. 3. Three of the four compounds produced by C. elegans from phenothiazine were identical to those produced by mammals, supporting the use of the fungus as a microbial model for drug metabolism.
    Xenobiotica 12/2001; 31(11):799-809. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Rhodococcus sp. isolated from contaminated river sediment was investigated to determine if the isolate could degrade high molecular mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The Rhodococcus sp. was able to utilize anthracene (53%), phenanthrene (31%), pyrene (13%), and fluoranthene (5%) as sole source of carbon and energy, but not naphthalene or chrysene. In a study of the degradation of anthracene by a Rhodococcus sp., the identification of ring-fission products indicated at least two ring-cleavage pathways. One results in the production of 6,7-benzocoumarin, previously shown to be produced chemically from the product of meta cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxyanthracene, a pathway which has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria. The second is an ortho cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxyanthracene that produces 3-(2-carboxyvinyl)naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid, a dicarboxylic acid ring-fission product. This represents a novel metabolic pathway only identified in Gram-positive bacteria.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 11/2001; 204(1):205-11. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of the fluoroquinolone drugs ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin by Pestalotiopsis guepini strain P-8 was investigated. Cultures were grown at 28 degrees C in sucrose/peptone broth for 18 days after dosing with ciprofloxacin (300 microM) or norfloxacin (313 microM). Four major metabolites were produced from each drug; and these were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ciprofloxacin metabolites included N-acetylciprofloxacin (52.0%), desethylene-N-acetylciprofloxacin (9.2%), N-formylciprofloxacin (4.2%), and 7-amino-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (2.3%). Norfloxacin metabolites included N-acetylnorfloxacin (55.4%), desethylene-N-acetylnorfloxacin (8.8%), N-formylnorfloxacin (3.6%), and 7-amino-1-ethyl-6-fluoro4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (2.1%). N-Formylciprofloxacin and the four transformation products from norfloxacin are all known to be mammalian metabolites.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2001; 56(3-4):474-7. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cultures of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 were dosed with anthracene or phenanthrene and after 14 days of incubation had degraded 92 and 90% of the added anthracene and phenanthrene, respectively. The metabolites were extracted and identified by UV-visible light absorption, high-pressure liquid chromatography retention times, mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and comparison to authentic compounds and literature data. Neutral-pH ethyl acetate extracts from anthracene-incubated cells showed four metabolites, identified as cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydroanthracene, 6,7-benzocoumarin, 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthracene, and 9,10-anthraquinone. A novel anthracene ring fission product was isolated from acidified culture media and was identified as 3-(2-carboxyvinyl)naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid. 6,7-Benzocoumarin was also found in that extract. When Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 was grown in the presence of phenanthrene, three neutral metabolites were identified as cis- and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene. Phenanthrene ring fission products, isolated from acid extracts, were identified as 2,2'-diphenic acid, 1-hydroxynaphthoic acid, and phthalic acid. The data point to the existence, next to already known routes for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, of alternative pathways that might be due to the presence of different dioxygenases or to a relaxed specificity of the same dioxygenase for initial attack on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/2001; 67(4):1476-83. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the microbial biotransformation of veterinary fluoroquinolones, Mucor ramannianus was grown in sucrose/peptone broth with sarafloxacin for 18 days. Cultures were extracted with ethyl acetate and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography. The two metabolites (26% and 15% of the A280, respectively) were identified by mass and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra as N-acetylsarafloxacin and desethylene-N-acetylsarafloxacin. The biological formation of desethylene-N-acetylsarafloxacin has not been previously observed.
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 04/2001; 26(3):140-4. · 2.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

639 Citations
79.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2006
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • • Division of Microbiology
      • • National Center for Toxicological Research
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2001–2002
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne
      • Department of Biology
      Fort Wayne, IN, United States