A. Boselli

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (428)1438.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 μm) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. We use RADEX and a Bayesian Likelihood Analysis to simultaneously model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of both the cool and warm components of molecular gas traced by the entire CO ladder up to J=13-12. The high-J lines observed by SPIRE trace much warmer gas (~500 K) than those observable from the ground. The addition of 13CO (and [C I]) is new and indicates that [C I] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen; we conclude with a discussion on the possible excitation processes in this warm component. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require significantly higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2015; 10(H16):618. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314012472
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    ABSTRACT: Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through the transformation in molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Halpha is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Halpha3 (acronym for Halpha-alpha-alpha), an extensive Halpha+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir observatory (Mexico). In only four years since 2011 we were able to complete in 48 nights the Halpha imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10^h < R.A. <16^h; 24^o < Dec. <28^o and 3900<cz<9000 kms^{-1}. Of these, 603 are selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) and constitute a 97% complete sample. They provide for the first time a complete census of the massive star formation properties of local gas-rich galaxies belonging to different environments (cluster vs filaments), morphological type (spirals vs dwarf Irr), over a wide range of stellar mass (10^{8}-10^{11.5} Modot) in the Coma Supercluster. The present Paper V provides the Halpha data and the derived star formation rates for the observed galaxies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425349 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fraction of the early-type galaxy population hosts a prominent dust lane. Methods to quantify the dust content of these systems based on optical imaging data usually yield dust masses which are an order of magnitude lower than dust masses derived from the observed FIR emission. High-quality optical data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) and FIR/submm observations from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) allow us to revisit previous methods to determine the dust content in galaxies and explore new ones. We aim to derive the dust mass in NGC 4370 from both optical and FIR data, and investigate the need to invoke a putative diffuse dust component. We create color and attenuation maps, which are converted to approximate dust mass maps based on simple dust geometries. Dust masses are also derived from SED fits to FIR/submm observations. Finally, inverse radiative transfer fitting is performed to investigate more complex dust geometries. The empirical methods applied to the optical data yield lower limits of 3.4e5 solar masses, an order of magnitude below the total dust masses derived from SED fitting. In contrast, radiative transfer models yield dust masses which are slightly lower, but fully consistent with the FIR-derived mass. Dust is more likely to be distributed in a ring around the centre of NGC 4370 as opposed to an exponential disc or a simple foreground screen. Moreover, using inverse radiative transfer fitting, we are able to constrain most of the parameters describing these geometries. The resulting dust masses are high enough to account for the dust observed at FIR/submm wavelengths, so that no diffuse dust component needs to be invoked. We furthermore caution for the interpretation of dust masses and optical depths based on optical data alone, using overly simplistic star-dust geometries and the neglect of scattering effects. [ABRIDGED]
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in the recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX bears interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. AIMS: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. METHODS: We construct mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 hours, DEC 0 to 20 degrees) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We test for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B-V) tracer. RESULTS: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details in their geometry. Despite a large dispersion, the FUV diffuse light correlates roughly with other Galactic dust tracers (coming from IRAS, Herschel, Planck), offering an opportunity to use the FUV emission to locate them in future studies with a better resolution (about 5 arcsec native resolution, 20 arcsec pixels maps presented in this paper) than several usual tracers. Estimating the Galactic dust extinction on the basis of this emission allows us to find a smaller dispersion in the NUV-i colour of background galaxies at a given E(B-V)than with other tracers. The diffuse light mosaics obtained in this work are made publicly available.
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Halpha+[NII] imaging data of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey aimed at studying the star formation properties of a K-band-selected, volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies. The Halpha+[NII] data are corrected for [NII] contamination and dust attenuation using different recipes based on the Balmer decrement and the 24mic luminosities. We show that the L(Halpha) derived with different corrections give consistent results only whenever the uncertainty on the estimate of the Balmer decrement is <=0.1. We use these data to derive the SFR of the late-type galaxies of the sample, and compare these estimates to those determined using independent monochromatic tracers (FUV, radio) or the output of SED fitting codes. This comparison suggests that the 24mic based dust extinction correction for Halpha might be non universal, and that it should be used with caution in all objects with a SFA, where dust heating can be dominated by the old stellar population. Furthermore, because of the sudden truncation of the SFA of cluster galaxies occurring after their interaction with the surrounding environment, the stationarity conditions required to transform monochromatic fluxes into SFR might not always be satisfied in tracers other than L(Halpha). In a similar way, the parametrisation of the SFH generally used in SED fitting codes might not be adequate for these recently interacting systems. We then study the SFR luminosity distribution and the typical scaling relations of late-type galaxies. We observe a systematic decrease of the SSFR with increasing stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and metallicity. We also observe an increase of the asymmetry and smoothness parameters measured in the Halpha-band with increasing SSFR, probably induced by an increase of the contribution of giant HII regions to the Halpha luminosity function in SF low-luminosity galaxies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201525712 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy (NGC6503-d1) during the Subaru extended ultraviolet (XUV) disk survey. It is a likely companion of the spiral galaxy NGC6503. The resolved images, in B, V, R, i, and Halpha, show an irregular appearance due to bright stars with underlying, smooth and unresolved stellar emission. It is classified as the transition type (dIrr/dSph). Its structural properties are similar to those of the dwarfs in the Local Group, with a V absolute magnitude ~ -10.5, half-light radius ~400 pc, and central surface brightness ~25.2. Despite the low stellar surface brightness environment, one HII region was detected, though its Halpha luminosity is low, indicating an absence of any appreciable O-stars at the current epoch. The presence of multiple stellar populations is indicated by the color-magnitude diagram of ~300 bright resolved stars and the total colors of the dwarf, with the majority of its total stellar mass ~4x10^6 Msun in an old stellar population.
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    ABSTRACT: The far-infrared (FIR) lines are key tracers of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) and are becoming workhorse diagnostics for galaxies throughout the universe. Our goal is to explain the differences and trends observed in the FIR line emission of dwarf galaxies compared to more metal-rich galaxies. We present Herschel PACS spectroscopic observations of the CII157um, OI63 and 145um, OIII88um, NII122 and 205um, and NIII57um fine-structure cooling lines in a sample of 48 low-metallicity star-forming galaxies of the guaranteed time key program Dwarf Galaxy Survey. We correlate PACS line ratios and line-to-LTIR ratios with LTIR, LTIR/LB, metallicity, and FIR color, and interpret the observed trends in terms of ISM conditions and phase filling factors with Cloudy radiative transfer models. We find that the FIR lines together account for up to 3 percent of LTIR and that star-forming regions dominate the overall emission in dwarf galaxies. Compared to metal-rich galaxies, the ratios of OIII/NII122 and NIII/NII122 are high, indicative of hard radiation fields. In the photodissociation region (PDR), the CII/OI63 ratio is slightly higher than in metal-rich galaxies, with a small increase with metallicity, and the OI145/OI63 ratio is generally lower than 0.1, demonstrating that optical depth effects should be small on the scales probed. The OIII/OI63 ratio can be used as an indicator of the ionized gas/PDR filling factor, and is found ~4 times higher in the dwarfs than in metal-rich galaxies. The high CII/LTIR, OI/LTIR, and OIII/LTIR ratios, which decrease with increasing LTIR and LTIR/LB, are interpreted as a combination of moderate FUV fields and low PDR covering factor. Harboring compact phases of low filling factor and a large volume filling factor of diffuse gas, the ISM of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies has a more porous structure than that in metal-rich galaxies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425207 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Measuring star formation at a local scale is important to constrain star formation laws. Yet, it is not clear whether and how the measure of star formation is affected by the spatial scale at which a galaxy is observed. Aims. We want to understand the impact of the resolution on the determination of the spatially resolved star formation rate (SFR) and other directly associated physical parameters such as the attenuation. Methods. We have carried out a multi-scale, pixel-by-pixel study of the nearby galaxy M33. Assembling FUV, Halpha, 8, 24, 70, and 100 micron maps, we have systematically compared the emission in individual bands with various SFR estimators from a resolution of 33 pc to 2084 pc. Results. We have found that there are strong, scale-dependent, discrepancies up to a factor 3 between monochromatic SFR estimators and Halpha+24 micron. The scaling factors between individual IR bands and the SFR show a strong dependence on the spatial scale and on the intensity of star formation. Finally, strong variations of the differential reddening between the nebular emission and the stellar continuum are seen, depending on the specific SFR (sSFR) and on the resolution. At the finest spatial scales, there is little differential reddening at high sSFR. The differential reddening increases with decreasing sSFR. At the coarsest spatial scales the differential reddening is compatible with the canonical value found for starburst galaxies. Conclusions. Our results confirm that monochromatic estimators of the SFR are unreliable at scales smaller than 1 kpc. Furthermore, the extension of local calibrations to high redshift galaxies presents non-trivial challenges as the properties of these systems may be poorly known.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423518 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λRe and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between λRe and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2015; 799(2):172. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/172 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs)--objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies--has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme GCs, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs (rh >~10 pc) and 911 GCs associated with central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M_star > ~2X10^6 M_sun and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the sample of previous confirmed Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying the global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of the blue GCs in the inner ~ 70 kpc and as steep as that of the red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than the GCs, and the blue GCs seem to have a velocity field that is more consistent with that of the surrounding dwarf ellipticals than with that of UCDs; (3) UCDs have a radially increasing orbital anisotropy profile, and are tangentially-biased at radii < ~ 40 kpc and radially-biased further out. In contrast, the blue GCs become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc; (4) GCs with M_star > 2X10^6 M_sun have rotational properties indistinguishable from the less massive ones, suggesting that it is the size, instead of mass, that differentiates UCDs from GCs as kinematically distinct populations. We conclude that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the "tidally threshed dwarf galaxy" scenario.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 802(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/30 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the relation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 8 microns and far-infrared emission from hot dust grains at 24 microns and from large dust grains at 160 and 250 microns in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 2403 and M83 using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We find that the PAH emission in NGC 2403 is better correlated with emission at 250 microns from dust heated by the diffuse interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and that the 8/250 micron surface brightness ratio is well-correlated with the stellar surface brightness as measured at 3.6 microns. This implies that the PAHs in NGC 2403 are intermixed with cold large dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and that the PAHs are excited by the diffuse ISRF. In M83, the PAH emission appears more strongly correlated with 160 micron emission originating from large dust grains heated by star forming regions. However, the PAH emission in M83 is low where the 24 micron emission peaks within star forming regions, and enhancements in the 8/160 micron surface brightness ratios appear offset relative to the dust and the star forming regions within the spiral arms. This suggests that the PAHs observed in the 8 micron band are not excited locally within star forming regions but either by light escaping non-axisymmetrically from star forming regions or locally by young, non-photoionising stars that have migrated downstream from the spiral density waves. The results from just these two galaxies show that PAHs may be excited by different stellar populations in different spiral galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 448(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2715 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Alessandro Boselli, Giuseppe Gavazzi
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    ABSTRACT: With the advent of the next generation wide-field cameras it became possible to survey in an unbiased mode galaxies spanning a variety of local densities, from the core of rich clusters, to compact and loose groups, down to filaments and voids. The sensitivity reached by these instruments allowed to extend the observation to dwarf galaxies, the most "fragile" objects in the universe. At the same time models and simulations have been tailored to quantify the different effects of the environment on the evolution of galaxies. Simulations, models, and observations consistently indicate that star-forming dwarf galaxies entering high-density environments for the first time can be rapidly stripped from their interstellar medium. The lack of gas quenches the activity of star formation, producing on timescales of ${\sim}$1~Gyr quiescent galaxies with spectro-photometric, chemical, structural, and kinematical properties similar to those observed in dwarf early-type galaxies inhabiting rich clusters and loose groups. Simulations and observations consistently identify ram pressure stripping as the major effect responsible for the quenching of the star-formation activity in rich clusters. Gravitational interactions (galaxy harassment) can also be important in groups or in clusters whenever galaxies have been members since early epochs. The observation of clusters at different redshifts combined with the present high infalling rate of galaxies onto clusters indicate that the quenching of the star-formation activity in dwarf systems and the formation of the faint end of the red sequence is a very recent phenomenon.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics Review 11/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1007/s00159-014-0074-y · 13.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of the cluster environment on the different components of the interstellar medium, we analyse the FIR-submm properties of a sample of star-forming dwarf (SFD) galaxies detected by the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We determine dust masses and dust temperatures by fitting a modified black body (MBB) function to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Stellar and gas masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and metallicities are obtained from the analysis of a set of ancillary data. Dust is detected in 49 out of 140 optically identified dwarfs covered by the HeViCS field; considering only dwarfs brighter than $m_B$ = 18 mag, this gives a detection rate of 43%. After evaluating different emissivity indices, we find that the FIR-submm SEDs are best-fit by $\beta$=1.5, with a median dust temperature $T_d$ = 22.4 K. Assuming $\beta$=1.5, 67% of the 23 galaxies detected in all five Herschel bands show emission at 500 $\mu$m in excess of the MBB model. The excess is inversely correlated with SFR and stellar masses. To study the variations in the global properties of our sample due to environmental effects, we compare the Virgo SFDs to other Herschel surveys, such as KINGFISH, the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), and the HeViCS bright galaxy catalogue (BGC). We explore the relations between stellar mass and HI fraction, specific SFR, dust fraction, gas-to-dust ratio over a wide range of stellar masses. Highly HI-deficient Virgo dwarf galaxies are mostly characterised by quenched star formation activity and lower dust fractions giving hints for dust stripping in cluster dwarfs. However, we find that the fraction of dust removed has to be less than that of the HI component. Since the Virgo SFDs are likely to be crossing the cluster for the first time, a longer timescale might be necessary to strip the more centrally concentrated dust distribution.
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 891: [CII] 158 $\mu$m, [NII] 122, 205 $\mu$m, [OI] 63, 145 $\mu$m, and [OIII] 88 $\mu$m. We find that the photoelectric heating efficiency of the gas, traced via the ([CII]+[OII]63)/$F_{\mathrm{TIR}}$ ratio, varies from a mean of 3.5$\times$10$^{-3}$ in the centre up to 8$\times$10$^{-3}$ at increasing radial and vertical distances in the disc. A decrease in ([CII]+[OII]63)/$F_{\mathrm{TIR}}$ but constant ([CII]+[OI]63)/$F_{\mathrm{PAH}}$ with increasing FIR colour suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may become important for gas heating in the central regions. We compare the observed flux of the FIR cooling lines and total IR emission with the predicted flux from a PDR model to determine the gas density, surface temperature and the strength of the incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, $G_{0}$. Resolving details on physical scales of ~0.6 kpc, a pixel-by-pixel analysis reveals that the majority of the PDRs in NGC 891's disc have hydrogen densities of 1 < log ($n$/cm$^{-3}$) < 3.5 experiencing an incident FUV radiation field with strengths of 1.7 < log $G_0$ < 3. Although these values we derive for most of the disc are consistent with the gas properties found in PDRs in the spiral arms and inter-arm regions of M51, observed radial trends in $n$ and $G_0$ are shown to be sensitive to varying optical thickness in the lines, demonstrating the importance of accurately accounting for optical depth effects when interpreting observations of high inclination systems. With an empirical relationship between the MIPS 24 $\mu$m and [NII] 205 $\mu$m emission, we estimate an enhancement of the FUV radiation field strength in the far north-eastern side of the disc.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2014; 575. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424732 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the newly available SPIRE images at 250 and 500 micron from Herschel Space Observatory, we study quantitative correlations over a sub-kpc scale among three distinct emission components in the interstellar medium of the nearby spiral galaxy M 81 (NGC 3031): (a) $I_{8}$ or $I_{24}$, the surface brightness of the mid-infrared emission observed in the Spitzer IRAC 8 or MIPS 24 micron band, with $I_8$ and $I_{24}$ being dominated by the emissions from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs) of dust, respectively; (b) $I_{500}$, that of the cold dust continuum emission in the Herschel SPIRE 500 micron band, dominated by the emission from large dust grains heated by evolved stars, and (c) $I_{{\rm H}\alpha}$, a nominal surface brightness of the H$\alpha$ line emission, from gas ionized by newly formed massive stars. The results from our correlation study, free from any assumption on or modeling of dust emissivity law or dust temperatures, present solid evidence for significant heating of PAHs and VSGs by evolved stars. In the case of M 81, about 67% (48%) of the 8 micron (24 micron) emission derives its heating from evolved stars, with the remainder attributed to radiation heating associated with ionizing stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 797(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/129 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg^2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz-bands and one third in the r-band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point spread function-homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior which extends to iAB = 12.5 mag. When using the u*griz-bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 \le i \lesssim 23 mag or zphot \lesssim 1 galaxies have a bias |\Delta z| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, and a scatter \sigma_{outl.rej.} and an individual error on zphot that increase with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz-bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r-band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 \lesssim zphot \lesssim 0.8 range (-0.05 < \Delta z < -0.02, \sigma_{outl.rej} ~ 0.06, 10-15% outliers, and zphot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(\theta) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 797(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/102 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present three independent catalogs of point-sources extracted from SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 micron as a part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). The source positions are determined by estimating the likelihood to be a real source for each peak on the maps and the flux densities are estimated using the sourceExtractorTimeline, a timeline-based point source fitter. Afterwards, each source is subtracted from the maps, removing a Gaussian function in every position with the full width half maximum equal to that estimated in sourceExtractorTimeline. This procedure improves the robustness of our algorithm in terms of source identification. The HeViCS catalogs contain about 52000, 42200, and 18700 sources selected at 250, 350, and 500 micron above 3sigma and are ~ 75%, 62%, and 50% complete at flux densities of 20 mJy at 250, 350, 500 micron, respectively. We then measured source number counts at 250, 350, and 500 micron and we also cross-correlated the catalogs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the redshift distribution of the nearby sources. From this cross-correlation, we select ~2000 sources with reliable fluxes and a high signal-to-noise ratio, finding an average redshift z~0.3+/-0.22. The number counts at 250, 350, and 500 micron show an increase in the slope below 200 mJy, indicating a strong evolution in number of density for galaxies at these fluxes. In general, models tend to overpredict the counts at brighter flux densities, underlying the importance of studying the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the spectral energy distribution to refine the theoretical recipes of the models. Our iterative method for source identification allowed the detection of a family of 500 micron sources that are not foreground objects belonging to Virgo and not found in other catalogs.
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 < M_r < -16.0. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). We find that 62 +/- 8 % (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive and metallicity-sensitive Lick spectral indices and find a wide range of ages and metallicities. We also find that 4 dEs have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs. They have a median total mass and dark matter fraction within the Re of log Me = 9.1 +/- 0.2 and f_DM = 46 +/- 18 %. We plot several scaling relations and show that dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type and dwarf spheroidal galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 10/2014; 215(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/215/2/17 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum lambda_e and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3 degrees (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disky structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between lambda_e and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star-formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Dust reprocesses about half of the stellar radiation in galaxies. The thermal re-emission by dust of absorbed energy is considered driven merely by young stars and, consequently, often applied to trace the star formation rate in galaxies. Recent studies have argued that the old stellar population might anticipate a non-negligible fraction of the radiative dust heating. Aims: In this work, we aim to analyze the contribution of young (< 100 Myr) and old (~ 10 Gyr) stellar populations to radiative dust heating processes in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 using radiative transfer modeling. High-resolution 3D radiative transfer (RT) models are required to describe the complex morphologies of asymmetric spiral arms and clumpy star-forming regions and model the propagation of light through a dusty medium. Methods: In this paper, we present a new technique developed to model the radiative transfer effects in nearby face-on galaxies. We construct a high-resolution 3D radiative transfer model with the Monte-Carlo code SKIRT accounting for the absorption, scattering and non-local thermal equilibrium (NLTE) emission of dust in M51. The 3D distribution of stars is derived from the 2D morphology observed in the IRAC 3.6 {\mu}m, GALEX FUV, H{\alpha} and MIPS 24 {\mu}m wavebands, assuming an exponential vertical distribution with an appropriate scale height. The dust geometry is constrained through the far-ultraviolet (FUV) attenuation, which is derived from the observed total-infrared-to-far-ultraviolet luminosity ratio. The stellar luminosity, star formation rate and dust mass have been scaled to reproduce the observed stellar spectral energy distribution (SED), FUV attenuation and infrared SED. (abridged)

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,438.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2015
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille (UMR 7326 LAM)
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2001–2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2013
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Toledo
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 2008
    • Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale de Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Nagoya University
      • Institute for Advanced Research (IAR)
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • Observatoire Astrophysique de Marseille Provence
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1990–2004
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Physics
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1998
    • Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE)
      Cholula de Riva dabia, Puebla, Mexico
  • 1994
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France