Publications (332)705.73 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitationalwave observatories and the partially completed IceCube highenergy neutrino detector, including periods of joint operation between 20072010. These include parts of the 20052007 run and the 20092010 run for LIGOVirgo, and IceCube's observation periods with 22, 59 and 79 strings. We find no significant coincident events, and use the search results to derive upper limits on the rate of joint sources for a range of source emission parameters. For the optimistic assumption of gravitationalwave emission energy of $10^{2}$ M$_\odot$c$^2$ at $\sim 150$ Hz with $\sim 60$ ms duration, and highenergy neutrino emission of $10^{51}$ erg comparable to the isotropic gammaray energy of gammaray bursts, we limit the source rate below $1.6 \times 10^{2}$ Mpc$^{3}$yr$^{1}$. We also examine how combining information from gravitational waves and neutrinos will aid discovery in the advanced gravitationalwave detector era.Physical Review D 11/2014; 90:102002. · 4.69 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of a coherent narrowband search for continuous gravitationalwave signals from the Crab and Vela pulsars conducted on Virgo VSR4 data. In order to take into account a possible small mismatch between the gravitational wave frequency and two times the star rotation frequency, inferred from measurement of the electromagnetic pulse rate, a range of 0.02 Hz around two times the star rotational frequency has been searched for both the pulsars. No evidence for a signal has been found and 95$\%$ confidence level upper limits have been computed both assuming polarization parameters are completely unknown and that they are known with some uncertainty, as derived from Xray observations of the pulsar wind torii. For Vela the upper limits are comparable to the spindown limit, computed assuming that all the observed spindown is due to the emission of gravitational waves. For Crab the upper limits are about a factor of two below the spindown limit, and represent a significant improvement with respect to past analysis. This is the first time the spindown limit is significantly overcome in a narrowband search.10/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gravitationalwave astronomy will soon become a new tool for observing the Universe. Detecting and interpreting gravitational waves will require deep theoretical insights into astronomical sources. The past three decades have seen remarkable progress in analytical and numerical computations of the source dynamics, development of search algorithms and analysis of data from detectors with unprecedented sensitivity. This Chapter is devoted to examine the advances and future challenges in understanding the dynamics of binary and isolated compactobject systems, expected cosmological sources, their amplitudes and rates, and highlights of results from gravitationalwave observations. All of this is a testament to the readiness of the community to open a new window for observing the cosmos, a century after gravitational waves were first predicted by Albert Einstein.10/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In 20092010, the Laser Interferometer Gravitationalwave Observa tory (LIGO) operated together with international partners Virgo and GEO600 as a network to search for gravitational waves of astrophysical origin. The sensitiv ity of these detectors was limited by a combination of noise sources inherent to the instrumental design and its environment, often localized in time or frequency, that couple into the gravitationalwave readout. Here we review the performance of the LIGO instruments during this epoch, the work done to characterize the de tectors and their data, and the effect that transient and continuous noise artefacts have on the sensitivity of LIGO to a variety of astrophysical sources.10/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Searches for a stochastic gravitationalwave background (SGWB) using terrestrial detectors typically involve crosscorrelating data from pairs of detectors. The sensitivity of such crosscorrelation analyses depends, among other things, on the separation between the two detectors: the smaller the separation, the better the sensitivity. Hence, a colocated detector pair is more sensitive to a gravitationalwave background than a noncolocated detector pair. However, colocated detectors are also expected to suffer from correlated noise from instrumental and environmental effects that could contaminate the measurement of the background. Hence, methods to identify and mitigate the effects of correlated noise are necessary to achieve the potential increase in sensitivity of colocated detectors. Here we report on the first SGWB analysis using the two LIGO Hanford detectors and address the complications arising from correlated environmental noise. We apply correlated noise identification and mitigation techniques to data taken by the two LIGO Hanford detectors, H1 and H2, during LIGO's fifth science run. At low frequencies, 40  460 Hz, we are unable to sufficiently mitigate the correlated noise to a level where we may confidently measure or bound the stochastic gravitationalwave signal. However, at high frequencies, 4601000 Hz, these techniques are sufficient to set a $95\%$ confidence level (C.L.) upper limit on the gravitationalwave energy density of \Omega(f)<7.7 x 10^{4} (f/ 900 Hz)^3, which improves on the previous upper limit by a factor of $\sim 180$. In doing so, we demonstrate techniques that will be useful for future searches using advanced detectors, where correlated noise (e.g., from global magnetic fields) may affect even widely separated detectors.10/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We calculate quasiequilibrium sequences of equalmass, irrotational binary neutron stars (BNSs) in a scalartensor (ST) theory of gravity that admits dynamical scalarization. We model neutron stars with realistic equations of state (notably through piecewise polytropic equations of state). Using these quasiequilibrium sequences we compute the binary's scalar charge and binding energy versus orbital angular frequency. We find that the absolute value of the binding energy is smaller than in general relativity (GR), differing at most by ~14% at high frequencies for the cases considered. We use the newly computed binding energy and the balance equation to estimate the number of gravitationalwave (GW) cycles during the adiabatic, quasicircular inspiral stage up to the end of the sequence, which is the last stable orbit or the mass shedding point, depending on which comes first. We find that, depending on the ST parameters, the number of GW cycles can be substantially smaller than in GR. In particular, we obtain that when dynamical scalarization sets in around a GW frequency of ~130 Hz, the sole inclusion of the ST binding energy causes a reduction of GW cycles from ~120 Hz up to the end of the sequence (~1200 Hz) of ~11% with respect to the GR case. We estimate that when the ST energy flux is also included the reduction in GW cycles becomes of ~24%. Quite interestingly, dynamical scalarization can produce a difference in the number of GW cycles with respect to the GR pointparticle case that is much larger than the effect due to tidal interactions, which is on the order of only a few GW cycles. These results further clarify and confirm recent studies that have evolved BNSs either in full numerical relativity or in postNewtonian theory, and point out the importance of developing accurate STtheory waveforms for systems composed of strongly selfgravitating objects, such as BNSs.10/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 223 gammaray bursts (GRBs) detected by the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) in 20052010 during LIGO's fifth and sixth science runs and Virgo's first, second and third science runs. The IPN satellites provide accurate times of the bursts and sky localizations that vary significantly from degree scale to hundreds of square degrees. We search for both a wellmodeled binary coalescence signal, the favored progenitor model for short GRBs, and for generic, unmodeled gravitational wave bursts. Both searches use the event time and sky localization to improve the gravitationalwave search sensitivity as compared to corresponding alltime, allsky searches. We find no evidence of a gravitationalwave signal associated with any of the IPN GRBs in the sample, nor do we find evidence for a population of weak gravitationalwave signals associated with the GRBs. For all IPNdetected GRBs, for which a sufficient duration of quality gravitationalwave data is available, we place lower bounds on the distance to the source in accordance with an optimistic assumption of gravitationalwave emission energy of $10^{2}M_{\odot}c^2$ at 150 Hz, and find a median of 13 Mpc. For the 27 shorthard GRBs we place 90% confidence exclusion distances to two source models: a binary neutron star coalescence, with a median distance of 12Mpc, or the coalescence of a neutron star and black hole, with a median distance of 22 Mpc. Finally, we combine this search with previously published results to provide a population statement for GRB searches in firstgeneration LIGO and Virgo gravitationalwave detectors, and a resulting examination of prospects for the advanced gravitationalwave detectors.Physical Review Letters 06/2014; 113(1):011102. · 7.73 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from LIGO and Virgo. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitationalwave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitationalwave signal. Assuming a gravitationalwave spectrum of Omega_GW(f)=Omega_alpha*(f/f_ref)^alpha, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.51726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5169.25 Hz for a spectral index of alpha=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Omega_GW(f)<5.6x10^6. For the 6001000 Hz band, Omega_GW(f)<0.14*(f/900 Hz)^3, a factor of 2.5 lower than the best previously reported upper limits. We find Omega_GW(f)<1.8x10^4 using a spectral index of zero for 170600 Hz and Omega_GW(f)<1.0*(f/1300 Hz)^3 for 10001726 Hz, bands in which no previous direct limits have been placed. The limits in these four bands are the lowest direct measurements to date on the stochastic background. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the recent claim by the BICEP2 experiment of the detection of inflationary gravitational waves.06/2014; 
Article: First allsky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems
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ABSTRACT: We present the first results of an allsky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency and perioddependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semimajor axes of the orbit from ~0.6e3 ls to ~6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3e24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for circular binary orbits, the upper limits obtained remain valid for orbital eccentricities as large as 0.9. In addition, upper limits are placed on continuous gravitational wave emission from the lowmass xray binary Scorpius X1 between 20 Hz and 57.25 Hz.05/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper we report on a search for shortduration gravitational wave bursts in the frequency range 64 Hz1792 Hz associated with gammaray bursts (GRBs), using data from GEO600 and one of the LIGO or Virgo detectors. We introduce the method of a linear search grid to analyse GRB events with large sky localisation uncertainties such as the localisations provided by the Fermi Gammaray Burst Monitor (GBM). Coherent searches for gravitational waves (GWs) can be computationally intensive when the GRB sky position is not welllocalised, due to the corrections required for the difference in arrival time between detectors. Using a linear search grid we are able to reduce the computational cost of the analysis by a factor of O(10) for GBM events. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our analysis pipeline can improve upon the sky localisation of GRBs detected by the GBM, if a highfrequency GW signal is observed in coincidence. We use the linear search grid method in a search for GWs associated with 129 GRBs observed satellitebased gammaray experiments between 2006 and 2011. The GRBs in our sample had not been previously analysed for GW counterparts. A fraction of our GRB events are analysed using data from GEO600 while the detector was using squeezedlight states to improve its sensitivity; this is the first search for GWs using data from a squeezedlight interferometric observatory. We find no evidence for GW signals, either with any individual GRB in this sample or with the population as a whole. For each GRB we place lower bounds on the distance to the progenitor, assuming a fixed GW emission energy of $10^{2} M_{\odot}c^{2}$, with a median exclusion distance of 0.8 Mpc for emission at 500 Hz and 0.3 Mpc at 1 kHz. The reduced computational cost associated with a linear search grid will enable rapid searches for GWs associated with Fermi GBM events in the Advanced detector era.05/2014; 

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ABSTRACT: This paper reports on an unmodeled, allsky search for gravitational waves from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHB). The search was performed on data from the second joint science run of the LIGO and Virgo detectors (July 2009  October 2010) and was sensitive to IMBHBs with a range up to $\sim 200$ Mpc, averaged over the possible sky positions and inclinations of the binaries with respect to the line of sight. No significant candidate was found. Upper limits on the coalescencerate density of nonspinning IMBHBs with total masses between 100 and $450 \ \mbox{M}_{\odot}$ and mass ratios between $0.25$ and $1\,$ were placed by combining this analysis with an analogous search performed on data from the first LIGOVirgo joint science run (November 2005  October 2007). The most stringent limit was set for systems consisting of two $88 \ \mbox{M}_{\odot}$ black holes and is equal to $0.12 \ \mbox{Mpc}^{3} \ \mbox{Myr}^{1}$ at the $90\%$ confidence level. This paper also presents the first estimate, for the case of an unmodeled analysis, of the impact on the search range of IMBHB spin configurations: the visible volume for IMBHBs with nonspinning components is roughly doubled for a population of IMBHBs with spins aligned with the binary's orbital angular momentum and uniformly distributed in the dimensionless spin parameter up to 0.8, whereas an analogous population with antialigned spins decreases the visible volume by $\sim 20\%\,$.04/2014; 
Article: Small mass plunging into a Kerr black hole: Anatomy of the inspiralmergerringdown waveforms
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ABSTRACT: We numerically solve the Teukolsky equation in the time domain to obtain the gravitationalwave emission of a small mass inspiraling and plunging into the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We account for the dissipation of orbital energy using the Teukolsky frequencydomain gravitationalwave fluxes for circular, equatorial orbits, down to the lightring. We consider Kerr spins $0.99 \leq q \leq 0.99$, and compute the inspiralmergerringdown (2,2), (2,1), (3,3), (3,2), (4,4), and (5,5) modes. We study the largespin regime, and find a great simplicity in the merger waveforms, thanks to the extremely circular character of the plunging orbits. We also quantitatively examine the mixing of quasinormal modes during the ringdown, which induces complicated amplitude and frequency modulations in the waveforms. Finally, we explain how the study of small massratio blackhole binaries helps extending effectiveonebody models for comparablemass, spinning blackhole binaries to any mass ratio and spin magnitude.04/2014; 
Dataset: 84 local APF20 617

Dataset: 13119

Dataset: 122
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ABSTRACT: We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\le f_{0}/\mathrm{Hz} \le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\lesssim \tau/\mathrm{s} \lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass $50 \le M/\mathrm{M}_\odot \le 450$ and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass $100 \le M/\mathrm{M}_\odot \le 150$, we report a 90%confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with nonspinning and equal mass components of $6.9\times10^{8}\,$Mpc$^{3}$yr$^{1}$. We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, $\ell=m=2$, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.03/2014;  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: If binaries consisting of two 100 Msun black holes exist they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitationalwave sources, detectable to redshifts of z=2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo groundbased detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several stars with mass greater than 150 Msun in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting blackholeblackhole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce within a Hubble time. If this assessment is correct, isolated very massive binaries do not evolve to be gravitationalwave sources. However, other formation channels exist. For example, the high multiplicity of massive stars, and their common formation in relatively dense stellar associations, opens up dynamical channels for massive black hole mergers (e.g., via Kozai cycles or repeated binarysingle interactions). We identify key physical factors that shape the population of very massive blackholeblackhole binaries. Advanced gravitationalwave detectors will provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of very massive stars.The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 789(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present an implementation of the $\mathcal{F}$statistic to carry out the first search in data from the Virgo laser interferometric gravitational wave detector for periodic gravitational waves from a priori unknown, isolated rotating neutron stars. We searched a frequency $f_0$ range from 100 Hz to 1 kHz and the frequency dependent spindown $f_1$ range from $1.6\,(f_0/100\,{\rm Hz}) \times 10^{9}\,$ Hz/s to zero. A large part of this frequency  spindown space was unexplored by any of the allsky searches published so far. Our method consisted of a coherent search over twoday periods using the $\mathcal{F}$statistic, followed by a search for coincidences among the candidates from the twoday segments. We have introduced a number of novel techniques and algorithms that allow the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm in the coherent part of the search resulting in a fiftyfold speedup in computation of the $\mathcal{F}$statistic with respect to the algorithm used in the other pipelines. No significant gravitational wave signal was found. The sensitivity of the search was estimated by injecting signals into the data. In the most sensitive parts of the detector band more than 90% of signals would have been detected with dimensionless gravitationalwave amplitude greater than $5 \times 10^{24}$.Classical and Quantum Gravity 02/2014; 31(16). · 3.56 Impact Factor
Publication Stats
4k  Citations  
705.73  Total Impact Points  
Top Journals
Institutions

2014

University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College
Brownsville, Texas, United States


2006–2014

Loyola University Maryland
 Department of Physics
Baltimore, Maryland, United States


1970–2014

University of Maryland, College Park
 Department of Physics
Maryland, United States


2013

Canadian Institute For Advanced Research
Toronto, Ontario, Canada


2011–2013

The Space Science Institute
Boulder, Colorado, United States


2000–2013

California Institute of Technology
 • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
Pasadena, California, United States


2011–2012

Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States


2010

Princeton University
 Department of Physics
Princeton, NJ, United States


2009

Stanford University
Palo Alto, California, United States


2008

French National Centre for Scientific Research
 Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
Paris, IledeFrance, France 
Pierre and Marie Curie University  Paris 6
Lutetia Parisorum, ÎledeFrance, France


2003–2004

Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
Lutetia Parisorum, ÎledeFrance, France


1998

Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques
BuresOrsay, ÎledeFrance, France


1997–1998

CERN
Genève, Geneva, Switzerland


1995–1997

Università di Pisa
Pisa, Tuscany, Italy


1995–1996

INFN  Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
Frascati, Latium, Italy
