T. J. W. Lazio

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (263)731.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present high-precision timing observations spanning up to nine years for 37 millisecond pulsars monitored with the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We describe the observational and instrumental setups used to collect the data, and methodology applied for calculating pulse times of arrival; these include novel methods for measuring instrumental offsets and characterizing low signal-to-noise ratio timing results. The time of arrival data are fit to a physical timing model for each source, including terms that characterize time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-dependent pulse shape evolution. In conjunction with the timing model fit, we have performed a Bayesian analysis of a parameterized timing noise model for each source, and detect evidence for time-correlated "red" signals in 10 of the pulsars. Subsequent papers in this series will present further analysis of this data set aimed at detecting or limiting the presence of nanohertz-frequency gravitational wave signals.
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    ABSTRACT: The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory was a software infrastructure and development project designed both to begin the establishment of an operational Virtual Observatory (VO) and to provide the U.S. coordination with the international VO effort. The concept of the VO is to provide the means by which an astronomer is able to discover, access, and process data seamlessly, regardless of its physical location. This paper describes the origins of the VAO, including the predecessor efforts within the U.S. National Virtual Observatory, and summarizes its main accomplishments. These accomplishments include the development of both scripting toolkits that allow scientists to incorporate VO data directly into their reduction and analysis environments and high-level science applications for data discovery, integration, analysis, and catalog cross-comparison. Working with the international community, and based on the experience from the software development, the VAO was a major contributor to international standards within the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The VAO also demonstrated how an operational virtual observatory could be deployed, providing a robust operational environment in which VO services worldwide were routinely checked for aliveness and compliance with international standards. Finally, the VAO engaged in community outreach, developing a comprehensive web site with on-line tutorials, announcements, links to both U.S. and internationally developed tools and services, and exhibits and hands-on training .... All digital products of the VAO Project, including software, documentation, and tutorials, are stored in a repository for community access. The enduring legacy of the VAO is an increasing expectation that new telescopes and facilities incorporate VO capabilities during the design of their data management systems.
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    ABSTRACT: The US Virtual Astronomical Observatory was a software infrastructure and development project designed both to begin the establishment of an operational Virtual Observatory (VO) and to provide the US coordination with the international VO effort. The concept of the VO is to provide the means by which an astronomer is able to discover, access, and process data seamlessly, regardless of its physical location. This paper describes the origins of the VAO, including the predecessor efforts within the US National Virtual Observatory, and summarizes its main accomplishments. These accomplishments include the development of both scripting toolkits that allow scientists to incorporate VO data directly into their reduction and analysis environments and high-level science applications for data discovery, integration, analysis, and catalog cross-comparison. Working with the international community, and based on the experience from the software development, the VAO was a major contributor to international standards within the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The VAO also demonstrated how an operational virtual observatory could be deployed, providing a robust operational environment in which VO services worldwide were routinely checked for aliveness and compliance with international standards. Finally, the VAO engaged in community outreach, developing a comprehensive web site with on-line tutorials, announcements, links to both US and internationally developed tools and services, and exhibits and hands-on training at annual meetings of the American Astronomical Society and through summer schools and community days. All digital products of the VAO Project, including software, documentation, and tutorials, are stored in a repository for community access. The enduring legacy of the VAO is an increasing expectation that new telescopes and facilities incorporate VO capabilities during the design of their data management systems.
    03/2015; 732. DOI:10.1016/j.ascom.2015.03.007
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    ABSTRACT: Among efforts to detect gravitational radiation, pulsar timing arrays are uniquely poised to detect "memory" signatures, permanent perturbations in spacetime from highly energetic astrophysical events such as mergers of supermassive black hole binaries. The North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) observes dozens of the most stable millisecond pulsars using the Arecibo and Green Bank radio telescopes in an effort to study, among other things, gravitational wave memory. We herein present the results of a search for gravitational wave bursts with memory (BWMs) using the first five years of NANOGrav observations. We develop original methods for dramatically speeding up searches for BWM signals. In the directions of the sky where our sensitivity to BWMs is best, we would detect mergers of binaries with reduced masses of $10^9$ $M_\odot$ out to distances of 30 Mpc; such massive mergers in the Virgo cluster would be marginally detectable. We find no evidence for BWMs. However, with our non-detection, we set upper limits on the rate at which BWMs of various amplitudes could have occurred during the time spanned by our data--e.g., BWMs with amplitudes greater than $10^{-13}$ must occur at a rate less than 1.5 yr$^{-1}$.
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery and timing of radio pulsars within the Galactic centre is a fundamental aspect of the SKA Science Case, responding to the topic of "Strong Field Tests of Gravity with Pulsars and Black Holes" (Kramer et al. 2004; Cordes et al. 2004). Pulsars have in many ways proven to be excellent tools for testing the General theory of Relativity and alternative gravity theories (see Wex (2014) for a recent review). Timing a pulsar in orbit around a companion, provides a unique way of probing the relativistic dynamics and spacetime of such a system. The strictest tests of gravity, in strong field conditions, are expected to come from a pulsar orbiting a black hole. In this sense, a pulsar in a close orbit ($P_{\rm orb}$ < 1 yr) around our nearest supermassive black hole candidate, Sagittarius A* - at a distance of ~8.3 kpc in the Galactic centre (Gillessen et al. 2009a) - would be the ideal tool. Given the size of the orbit and the relativistic effects associated with it, even a slowly spinning pulsar would allow the black hole spacetime to be explored in great detail (Liu et al. 2012). For example, measurement of the frame dragging caused by the rotation of the supermassive black hole, would allow a test of the "cosmic censorship conjecture." The "no-hair theorem" can be tested by measuring the quadrupole moment of the black hole. These are two of the prime examples for the fundamental studies of gravity one could do with a pulsar around Sagittarius A*. As will be shown here, SKA1-MID and ultimately the SKA will provide the opportunity to begin to find and time the pulsars in this extreme environment.
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    ABSTRACT: The magneto-ionic structures of the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium are still poorly understood, especially at distances larger than a few kiloparsecs from the Sun. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Galactic magnetic field and electron density distribution may be probed through observations of radio pulsars, primarily owing to their compact nature, high velocities, and highly-polarized short-duration radio pulses. Phase 1 of the SKA, i.e. SKA1, will increase the known pulsar population by an order of magnitude, and the full SKA, i.e. SKA2, will discover pulsars in the most distant regions of our Galaxy. SKA1-VLBI will produce model-independent distances to a large number of pulsars, and wide-band polarization observations by SKA1-LOW and SKA1-MID will yield high precision dispersion measure, scattering measure, and rotation measure estimates along thousands of lines of sight. When combined, these observations will enable detailed tomography of the large-scale magneto-ionic structure of both the Galactic disk and the Galactic halo. Turbulence in the interstellar medium can be studied through the variations of these observables and the dynamic spectra of pulsar flux densities. SKA1-LOW and SKA1-MID will monitor interstellar weather and produce sensitive dynamic and secondary spectra of pulsar scintillation, which can be used to make speckle images of the ISM, study turbulence on scales between ~10^8 and ~10^13 m, and probe pulsar emission regions on scales down to $\sim$10 km. In addition, extragalactic pulsars or fast radio bursts to be discovered by SKA1 and SKA2 can be used to probe the electron density distribution and magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium beyond the Milky Way.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first millisecond timescale radio interferometric search for the new class of transient known as fast radio bursts (FRBs). We used the Very Large Array (VLA) for a 166-hour, millisecond imaging campaign to detect and precisely localize an FRB. We observed at 1.4 GHz and produced visibilities with 5 ms time resolution over 256 MHz of bandwidth. Dedispersed images were searched for transients with dispersion measures from 0 to 3000 pc/cm3. No transients were detected in observations of high Galactic latitude fields taken from September 2013 though October 2014. Observations of a known pulsar show that images typically had a thermal-noise limited sensitivity of 120 mJy/beam (8 sigma; Stokes I) in 5 ms and could detect and localize transients over a wide field of view. Our nondetection limits the FRB rate to less than 7e4/sky/day (95% confidence) above a fluence limit of 1.2 Jy-ms. Assuming a Euclidean flux distribution, the VLA rate limit is inconsistent with the published rate of Thornton et al. We recalculate previously published rates with a homogeneous consideration of the effects of primary beam attenuation, dispersion, pulse width, and sky brightness. This revises the FRB rate downward and shows that the VLA observations had a roughly 60% chance of detecting a typical FRB and that a 95% confidence constraint would require roughly 500 hours of similar VLA observing. Our survey also limits the repetition rate of an FRB to 2 times less than any known repeating millisecond radio transient.
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    Dayton L. Jones, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Jack O. Burns
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    ABSTRACT: The period between the creation of the cosmic microwave background at a redshift of ~1000 and the formation of the first stars and black holes that re-ionize the intergalactic medium at redshifts of 10-20 is currently unobservable. The baryonic component of the universe during this period is almost entirely neutral hydrogen, which falls into local regions of higher dark matter density. This seeds the formation of large-scale structures including the cosmic web that we see today in the filamentary distribution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The only detectable signal from these dark ages is the 21-cm spectral line of hydrogen, redshifted down to frequencies of approximately 10-100 MHz. Space-based observations of this signal will allow us to determine the formation epoch and physics of the first sources of ionizing radiation, and potentially detect evidence for the decay of dark matter particles. JPL is developing deployable low frequency antenna and receiver prototypes to enable both all-sky spectral measurements of neutral hydrogen and ultimately to map the spatial distribution of the signal as a function of redshift. Such observations must be done from space because of Earth's ionosphere and ubiquitous radio interference. A specific application of these technologies is the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) mission. This small Explorer class mission is designed to measure the sky-averaged hydrogen signal from the shielded region above the far side of the Moon. These data will complement ground-based radio observations of the final stages of intergalactic re-ionization at higher frequencies. DARE will also serve as a scientific percursor for space-based interferometry missions to image the distribution of hydrogen during the cosmic dark ages.
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    ABSTRACT: We present initial pulsar results from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) obtained during the commissioning period of LWA1 and early science results. We present detections of periodic emission from 38 previously known pulsars, including 3 millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The effects of the interstellar medium on pulsar emission are significantly enhanced at the low frequencies of the LWA1 band (10--88 MHz), making LWA1 a very sensitive instrument for characterizing changes in dispersion measures (DM) and other effects from the interstellar medium. We report DM measurements for 38 pulsars and mean flux density measurements for 24 pulsars. We also introduce the LWA1 Pulsar Data Archive, which stores reduced data products from LWA1 pulsar observations. Reduced data products for the observations presented here can be found on the archive. Reduced data products from future LWA1 pulsar observations will also be made available through the archive.
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a search for continuous gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries using robust frequentist and Bayesian techniques. We augment standard pulsar timing models with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency variable pulse shape terms. We apply our techniques to the Five Year Data Release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves. We find that there is no evidence for the presence of a detectable continuous gravitational wave; however, we can use these data to place the most constraining upper limits to date on the strength of such gravitational waves. Using the full 17 pulsar data set we place a 95% upper limit on the strain amplitude of h 0 3.0 × 10–14 at a frequency of 10 nHz. Furthermore, we place 95% sky-averaged lower limits on the luminosity distance to such gravitational wave sources, finding that dL 425 Mpc for sources at a frequency of 10 nHz and chirp mass 1010M ☉. We find that for gravitational wave sources near our best timed pulsars in the sky, the sensitivity of the pulsar timing array is increased by a factor of ~four over the sky-averaged sensitivity. Finally we place limits on the coalescence rate of the most massive supermassive black hole binaries.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 794(2):141. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/2/141 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • N. E. Kassim, S. D. Hyman, H. Intema, T. J. W. Lazio
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    ABSTRACT: An upgrade of the low frequency observing system of the VLA developed by NRL and NRAO, called low band (LB), will open a new era of Galactic center (GC) transient monitoring. Our previous searches using the VLA and GMRT have revealed a modest number of radio-selected transients, but have been severely sensitivity and observing time limited. The new LB system, currently accessing the 236--492 MHz frequency range, promises ≥5 × improved sensitivity over the legacy VLA system. The new system is emerging from commissioning in time to catch any enhanced sub-GHz emission from the G2 cloud event, and we review existing limits based on recent observations. We also describe a proposed 24/7 commensal system, called the LOw Band Observatory (LOBO). LOBO offers over 100 VLA GC monitoring hours per year, possibly revealing new transients and helping validate ASTRO2010's anticipation of a new era of transient radio astronomy. A funded LOBO pathfinder called the VLA Low Frequency Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) is under development. Finally, we consider the impact of LB and LOBO on our GC monitoring program.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 10/2014; 9(S303):458-460. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314001148
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of global HI 21 cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization is the key science driver for several ongoing ground-based and future ground/space based experiments. The crucial spectral features in the global 21cm signal (turning points) occurs at low radio frequencies < 100 MHz. In addition to the human-generated RFI (Radio Frequency Interference), Earth's ionosphere drastically corrupts low-frequency radio observations from the ground. In this paper, we examine the effects of time-varying ionospheric refraction, absorption and thermal emission at these low radio frequencies and their combined effect on any ground-based global 21cm experiment. It should be noted that this is the first study of the effect of a dynamic ionosphere on global 21cm experiments. Our results indicate that the spectral features in the global 21cm signal below 100 MHz cannot be detected from the ground under even "quiet" night-time ionospheric conditions. Any attempt to calibrate the ionospheric effect will be subject to the inaccuracies in the current ionospheric measurements using GPS (Global Positioning System) ionospheric measurements, riometer measurements, ionospheric soundings, etc. Even considering an optimistic improvement in the accuracy of GPS-TEC (Total Electron Content) measurements, we conclude that the detection of the global 21cm signal below 100 MHz from the ground is not possible. Hence, a space-based mission above the Earth's atmosphere is best suited to carry out these high sensitivity observations of the global 21 cm signal at low radio frequencies.
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    ABSTRACT: The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky, and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array collaboration undertook a 24-hour global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1 - 24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nancay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized root-N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the S/N of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L-band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a recent re-reduction of the data from the Very Large Array (VLA) Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS). We used the VLSS catalogue as a sky model to correct the ionospheric distortions in the data and create a new set of sky maps and corresponding catalogue at 73.8 MHz. The VLSS Redux (VLSSr) has a resolution of 75 arcsec, and an average map rms noise level of σ ̃ 0.1 Jy beam-1. The clean bias is 0.66 × σ and the theoretical largest angular size is 36 arcmin. Six previously unimaged fields are included in the VLSSr, which has an unbroken sky coverage over 9.3 sr above an irregular southern boundary. The final catalogue includes 92 964 sources. The VLSSr improves upon the original VLSS in a number of areas including imaging of large sources, image sensitivity, and clean bias; however the most critical improvement is the replacement of an inaccurate primary beam correction which caused source flux errors which vary as a function of radius to nearest pointing centre in the VLSS.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 440(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu256 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use MERLIN, VLA and VLBA observations of Galactic \HI absorption towards 3C~138 to estimate the structure function of the \HI opacity fluctuations at AU scales. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there is likely to be a significant bias in the estimated structure function at signal-to-noise ratios characteristic of our observations, if the structure function is constructed in the manner most commonly used in the literature. We develop a new estimator that is free from this bias and use it to estimate the true underlying structure function slope on length scales ranging $5$ to $40$~AU. From a power law fit to the structure function, we derive a slope of $0.81^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$, i.e. similar to the value observed at parsec scales. The estimated upper limit for the amplitude of the structure function is also consistent with the measurements carried out at parsec scales. Our measurements are hence consistent with the \HI opacity fluctuation in the Galaxy being characterized by a power law structure function over length scales that span six orders of magnitude. This result implies that the dissipation scale has to be smaller than a few AU if the fluctuations are produced by turbulence. This inferred smaller dissipation scale implies that the dissipation occurs either in (i) regions with densities $\gtrsim 10^3 $cm$^-3$ (i.e. similar to that inferred for "tiny scale" atomic clouds or (ii) regions with a mix of ionized and atomic gas (i.e. the observed structure in the atomic gas has a magneto-hydrodynamic origin).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu881 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project currently observes 43 pulsars using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes. In this work we use a subset of 17 pulsars timed for a span of roughly five years (2005--2010). We analyze these data using standard pulsar timing models, with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-variable pulse shape terms. Within the timing data, we perform a search for continuous gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries in circular orbits using robust frequentist and Bayesian techniques. We find that there is no evidence for the presence of a detectable continuous gravitational wave; however, we can use these data to place the most constraining upper limits to date on the strength of such gravitational waves. Using the full 17 pulsar dataset we place a 95% upper limit on the sky-averaged strain amplitude of $h_0\lesssim 3.8\times 10^{-14}$ at a frequency of 10 nHz. Furthermore, we place 95% \emph{all sky} lower limits on the luminosity distance to such gravitational wave sources finding that the $d_L \gtrsim 425$ Mpc for sources at a frequency of 10 nHz and chirp mass $10^{10}{\rm M}_{\odot}$. We find that for gravitational wave sources near our best timed pulsars in the sky, the sensitivity of the pulsar timing array is increased by a factor of $\sim$4 over the sky-averaged sensitivity. Finally we place limits on the coalescence rate of the most massive supermassive black hole binaries.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Chasing the Identification of ASCA Galactic Objects (ChIcAGO) survey, which is designed to identify the unknown X-ray sources discovered during the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey (AGPS). Little is known about most of the AGPS sources, especially those that emit primarily in hard X-rays (2-10 keV) within the F_x ~ 10^-13 to 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1 X-ray flux range. In ChIcAGO, the subarcsecond localization capabilities of Chandra have been combined with a detailed multi-wavelength follow-up program, with the ultimate goal of classifying the >100 unidentified sources in the AGPS. Overall to date, 93 unidentified AGPS sources have been observed with Chandra as part of the ChIcAGO survey. A total of 253 X-ray point sources have been detected in these Chandra observations within 3' of the original ASCA positions. We have identified infrared and optical counterparts to the majority of these sources, using both new observations and catalogs from existing Galactic plane surveys. X-ray and infrared population statistics for the X-ray point sources detected in the Chandra observations reveal that the primary populations of Galactic plane X-ray sources that emit in the F_x ~ 10^-13 to 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1 flux range are active stellar coronae, massive stars with strong stellar winds that are possibly in colliding-wind binaries, X-ray binaries, and magnetars. There is also a fifth population that is still unidentified but, based on its X-ray and infrared properties, likely comprise partly of Galactic sources and partly of active galactic nuclei.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2014; 212(1). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/212/1/13 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [1] A new capability for high-sensitivity, all-sky monitoring of VHF meteor-trail reflections with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array, or “LWA1,” is described. LWA1 is a ∼ 100m-diameter HF/VHF array of 256 crossed-dipole antennas with a unique transient buffer mode that allows it to monitor for meteor trails via all-sky imaging with the same sensitivity as a single-dish antenna m in diameter. To demonstrate this capability, we have used a two-hour observing run conducted in August 2012 aimed at detecting and characterizing meteor-trail reflections of analog TV transmissions at 55.25 MHz. The analysis techniques described here allowed for a detection rate of ∼9,500 trails per hour, including the detection of two meteor streams with radiants in the Aries/Perseus and Aquila/Hercules regions that were not previously reported in the literature. In addition, we have found a population of relatively long-duration (∼ 1 to a few minutes), typically fainttrails. These trails have implied horizontal speeds of 15–130 m s− 1, with a typical speed of ∼30 m s− 1. We have also used high-resolution time series of the brightest trails to characterize decay times over a relatively large geographical area (10∘ × 7∘ in longitude and latitude) and on short (∼5 minutes) time scales. Potential enhancements that could be enabled by the addition of more LWA stations are discussed.
    03/2014; 49(3). DOI:10.1002/2013RS005220
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    ABSTRACT: This whitepaper describes how the VLASS could be designed in a manner to allow the identification of candidate dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) at separations <7 kpc. Dual AGN represent a clear marker of two supermassive black holes within an ongoing merger. A dual AGN survey will provide a wealth of studies in structure growth and gravitational-wave science. Radio wavelengths are ideal for identifying close pairs, as disturbed stellar and gaseous material can obscure their presence in optical and shorter wavelengths. With sufficiently high resolution and sensitivity, a large-scale radio imaging survey like the VLASS will uncover many of these systems and provide the means to broadly study the radio properties of candidate dual systems revealed at other wavelengths. We determine that the ideal survey for our purposes will be at as high a resolution as possible, with significantly more science return in A array at L-band or higher, or B array at C-band or higher. We describe a range of potential survey parameters within this document. Based on the analysis outlined in this whitepaper, our ideal survey would create a catalogue of $\gtrsim$100 dual AGN in either: 1) a medium-sensitivity (~1 mJy detection threshold), wide-field (few thousand square degree) survey, or 2) a high-sensitivity (~10 uJy threshold) survey of several hundred square degrees.
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    ABSTRACT: A community meeting on the topic of "Radio Astronomy in the LSST Era" was hosted by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA (2013 May 6--8). The focus of the workshop was on time domain radio astronomy and sky surveys. For the time domain, the extent to which radio and visible wavelength observations are required to understand several classes of transients was stressed, but there are also classes of radio transients for which no visible wavelength counterpart is yet known, providing an opportunity for discovery. From the LSST perspective, the LSST is expected to generate as many as 1 million alerts nightly, which will require even more selective specification and identification of the classes and characteristics of transients that can warrant follow up, at radio or any wavelength. The LSST will also conduct a deep survey of the sky, producing a catalog expected to contain over 38 billion objects in it. Deep radio wavelength sky surveys will also be conducted on a comparable time scale, and radio and visible wavelength observations are part of the multi-wavelength approach needed to classify and understand these objects. Radio wavelengths are valuable because they are unaffected by dust obscuration and, for galaxies, contain contributions both from star formation and from active galactic nuclei. The workshop touched on several other topics, on which there was consensus including the placement of other LSST "Deep Drilling Fields," inter-operability of software tools, and the challenge of filtering and exploiting the LSST data stream. There were also topics for which there was insufficient time for full discussion or for which no consensus was reached, which included the procedures for following up on LSST observations and the nature for future support of researchers desiring to use LSST data products.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 01/2014; 126(936). DOI:10.1086/675262 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
731.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • SpecTIR™ Remote Sensing Division
      Reno, Nevada, United States
  • 2003–2013
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
    • Carleton College
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Northfield, Minnesota, United States
  • 2012
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009–2011
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2005–2009
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • SETI Institute
      Mountain View, California, United States
    • The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
      • Australia Telescope National Facility
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1998–2005
    • Kennesaw State University
      • Department of Biology and Physics
      Кеннесо, Georgia, United States
  • 2001
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Columbia, South Carolina, United States
    • United States Naval Research Laboratory
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1991–1999
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1997
    • United States Naval Observatory
      Washington, Maine, United States
  • 1995
    • Cornell College
      Cornell, Wisconsin, United States