ABSTRACT: Transplantation of islets is a viable option for the treatment of diabetes. A significant proportion of islets is lost during isolation, storage and after transplantation as a result of apoptosis. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is an important cell survival factor. The aim of the present study was to determine whether preservation of CREB function is needed for survival of human islets.
To determine the effects of downregulation of CREB activity on beta cell apoptosis in a transplantation setting, adenoviral vectors were used to express two dominant negative mutant forms of CREB in human islets isolated from cadaveric donors. Markers of apoptosis were determined in these transduced islets under basal conditions and following treatment with growth factor.
Expression of CREB mutants in human islets resulted in significant (p < 0.001) activation of caspase-9, a key regulatory enzyme in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, when compared with islets transduced with adenoviral beta galactosidase. Immunocytochemical analysis showed the activation of caspase-9 to be predominantly in beta cells. Other definitive markers of apoptosis such as parallel activation of caspase-3, accumulation of cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase and nuclear condensation were also observed. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic action of growth factors exendin-4 and betacellulin in human islets exposed to cytokines was partially lost when CREB function was impaired.
Our findings suggest that impairment of CREB-mediated transcription could lead to loss of islets by apoptosis with potential implications in islet transplantation as well as in the mechanism of beta cell loss leading to diabetes.
Diabetologia 08/2007; 50(8):1649-59. · 6.81 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Type 1A diabetes is characterized by a long prodromal phase during which autoantibodies to islet antigens are present. Nevertheless, we lack data on the pancreatic pathology of subjects who are positive for islet autoantibodies (to islet autoantigens GAD65, insulin, and ICA512).
In this manuscript, we describe a novel strategy in obtaining pancreata and pancreatic lymph nodes from islet autoantibody-positive organ donors that involves careful coordination among the laboratory and the organ donor provider organization.
We developed a rapid screening protocol for islet autoantibodies measurement of organ donors to allow identification of positive subjects before organ harvesting. In this way we were able to obtain pancreata and pancreatic lymph nodes from subjects with and without islet autoimmunity.
The organ donors used in this study were obtained from the general community.
The population studied consisted of 112 organ donors (age range 1 month to 86 yr, mean age 39 yr).
The main outcome measure of this study consisted of evaluating the pancreatic histology and identify T cells autoreactive for islet antigens in the pancreatic lymph nodes.
To date we have identified three positive subjects and obtained the pancreas for histological evaluation from one of the autoantibody-positive donors who expressed ICA512 autoantibodies. Although this subject did not exhibit insulitis, lymphocytes derived from pancreatic lymph nodes reacted to the islet antigen phogrin.
In summary, these results indicate that it is possible to screen organ donors in real time for antiislet antibodies, characterize pancreatic histology, and obtain viable T cells for immunological studies.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 06/2006; 91(5):1855-61. · 6.50 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Numerous studies indicate that CD4 T cells are required for acute cardiac allograft rejection. However, the precise role for CD4 T cells in this response has remained ambiguous owing to the multipotential properties of this T-cell subpopulation. In the current study, we demonstrate the capacity of CD4 T cells to serve as direct effector cells of cardiac allograft rejection. We show that CD4 T cells are both necessary and sufficient for acute graft rejection, as indicated by adoptive transfer experiments in immune-deficient SCID and rag1(-/-) recipients. We have analyzed the contribution of direct (donor MHC class II restricted) and indirect (host MHC class II restricted) antigen recognition in CD4-mediated rejection. Acute CD4 T cell-mediated rejection required MHC class II expression by the allograft, indicating the importance of direct graft recognition. In contrast, reciprocal experiments indicate that CD4 T cells can acutely reject allogeneic cardiac allografts established in rag1(-/-) hosts that were also MHC class II deficient. This latter result indicates that indirect presentation of donor antigens by host MHC class II is not required for acute CD4-mediated rejection. Taken together, these results indicate that CD4 T cells can serve as effector cells for primary acute cardiac allograft rejection, predominantly via direct donor antigen recognition and independent of indirect reactivity.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/2000; 106(8):1003-10. · 15.39 Impact Factor