Fabio Bresolin

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

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Publications (216)795.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The radially averaged metallicity distribution of the ISM and the young stellar population of a sample of 20 disk galaxies is investigated by means of an analytical chemical evolution model which assumes constant ratios of galactic wind mass loss and accretion mass gain to star formation rate. Based on this model the observed metallicities and their gradients can be described surprisingly well by the radially averaged distribution of the ratio of stellar mass to ISM gas mass. The comparison between observed and model predicted metallicity is used to constrain the rate of mass loss through galactic wind and accretion gain in units of the star formation rate. Three groups of galaxies are found: galaxies with either mostly winds and only weak accretion, or mostly accretion and only weak winds, and galaxies where winds are roughly balanced by accretion. The three groups are distinct in the properties of their gas disks. Galaxies with approximately equal rates of mass-loss and accretion gain have low metallicity, atomic hydrogen dominated gas disks with a flat spatial profile. The other two groups have gas disks dominated by molecular hydrogen out to 0.5 to 0.7 isophotal radii and show a radial exponential decline, which is on average steeper for the galaxies with small accretion rates. The rates of accretion (<1.0 x SFR) and outflow (<2.4 x SFR) are relatively low. The latter depend on the calibration of the zero point of the metallicity determination from the use of HII region strong emission lines.
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    ABSTRACT: We present metallicity gradients in 49 local field star-forming galaxies. We derive gas-phase oxygen abundances using two widely adopted metallicity calibrations based on the [OIII]/Hbeta, [NII]/Halpha and [NII]/[OII] line ratios. The two derived metallicity gradients are usually in good agreement within +/-0.14 dex/R25 (R25 is the B-band iso-photoal radius), but the metallicity gradients can differ significantly when the ionisation parameters change systematically with radius. We investigate the metallicity gradients as a function of stellar mass (8<log(M*/Msun)<11) and absolute B-band luminosity (-16 > MB > -22). When the metallicity gradients are expressed in dex/kpc, we show that galaxies with lower mass and luminosity, on average, have steeper metallicity gradients. When the metallicity gradients are expressed in dex/R25, we find no correlation between the metallicity gradients, and stellar mass and luminosity. We provide a local benchmark metallicity gradient of field star-forming galaxies useful for comparison with studies at high redshifts. We investigate the origin of the local benchmark gradient using simple chemical evolution models and observed gas and stellar surface density profiles in nearby field spiral galaxies. Our models suggest that the local benchmark gradient is a direct result of the coevolution of gas and stellar disk under virtually closed-box chemical evolution when the stellar-to-gas mass ratio becomes high (>>0.3). These models imply low current mass accretion rates (<0.3xSFR), and low mass outflow rates (<3xSFR) in local field star-forming galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Our research on the age-metallicity and mass-metallicity relations of galaxies is presented and compared to the most popular investigations in the field.
    Metal Production and Distribution in a Hierarchical Universe, Paris; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Super-luminous supernovae of type Ic have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. PTF12dam is one of the closest and best studied super-luminous explosions that has a broad and slowly fading lightcurve similar to SN 2007bi. These events have been previously proposed to be pair-instability explosions of very massive stars in metal poor, dwarf galaxies. An alternative explanation is that they are powered by spinning down magnetars and this model fits the published data well. Here we present new photometry and spectroscopy for PTF12dam from 200-500 days (rest-frame) after peak and a detailed analysis of the host galaxy (SDSS J142446.21+461348.6 at z = 0.107). Using deep templates and image subtraction we show that the full lightcurve can be fit with a magnetar model if escape of high-energy gamma rays is taken into account. The full bolometric lightcurve from -53 to +399 days (with respect to peak) cannot be fit satisfactorily with the pair-instability models. An alternative model of interaction with a dense CSM produces a good fit to the data although the physical configuration of the progenitor system is somewhat contrived. The host galaxy is a compact dwarf (M_g = -19.30 +/- 0.10), low mass system (2.8 x 10^8 M_sun) with a high star-formation rate (5.0 M_sun/year). The remarkably strong nebular lines provide detections of the [O III] \lambda 4363 and [O II] \lambda\lambda 7320,7330 auroral lines and an accurate oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.04 +\- 0.09. This adds weight to previous results that the hosts of type Ic super-luminous supernovae are all metal poor, low mass, high star-formation rate galaxies. We show here that they are at the extreme end of the metallicity distribution of dwarf galaxies and propose that low metallicity is a requirement to produce these rare and peculiar supernovae.
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    ABSTRACT: In a LCDM universe, disk galaxies' outer regions are the last to form. Characterizing their contents is critical for understanding the ongoing process of disk formation, but observing outer disk stellar populations is challenging due to their low surface brightness. We present extremely deep 3.6 micron observations (Spitzer IRAC) of NGC 4625, a galaxy known for its radially extended ultraviolet emitting stellar population. We combine the new imaging with archival UV imaging from the GALEX mission to derive multiwavelength radial profiles for NGC 4625 and compare them to stellar populations models. The colors can be explained by the young stellar population that is responsible for the UV emission and indicate that the current star formation rates in the outermost disk are recent. Extended star formation in NGC 4625 may have been initiated by an interaction with neighboring galaxies NGC 4618 and NGC 4625a, supporting speculation that minor interactions are a common trigger for outer disk star formation and late stage disk growth.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 793(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/65 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The validity of the emission-line luminosity versus ionized gas velocity dispersion (L–σ) correlation for H II galaxies (HIIGx) and its potential as an accurate distance estimator are assessed. For a sample of 128 local (0.02 ≲ z ≲ 0.2) compact HIIGx with high equivalent widths of their Balmer emission lines, we obtained the ionized gas velocity dispersion from high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) high-dispersion spectroscopy (Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) and European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (VLT–UVES)) and integrated Hβ fluxes from low-dispersion wide aperture spectrophotometry. We find that the L(Hβ)–σ relation is strong and stable against restrictions in the sample (mostly based on the emission-line profiles). The ‘Gaussianity’ of the profile is important for reducing the root-mean-square (rms) uncertainty of the distance indicator, but at the expense of substantially reducing the sample. By fitting other physical parameters into the correlation, we are able to decrease the scatter significantly without reducing the sample. The size of the star-forming region is an important second parameter, while adding the emission-line equivalent width or the continuum colour and metallicity produces the solution with the smallest rms scatter=δlog L(Hβ) = 0.233. The derived coefficients in the best L(Hβ)–σ relation are very close to what is expected from virialized ionizing clusters, while the derived sum of the stellar and ionized gas masses is similar to the dynamical mass estimated using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) corrected Petrosian radius. These results are compatible with gravity being the main mechanism causing the broadening of the emission lines in these very young and massive clusters. The derived masses range from about 2 × 106 M⊙ to 109 M⊙ and their ‘corrected’ Petrosian radius ranges from a few tens to a few hundred pc.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 442(4):3565. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu987 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep echelle spectrophotometry of the brightest emission-line knots of the star-forming galaxies He 2-10, Mkn 1271, NGC 3125, NGC 5408, POX 4, SDSS J1253-0312, Tol 1457-262, Tol 1924-416 and the HII region Hubble V in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The data have been taken with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the 3100-10420 $\AA$ range. We determine electron densities and temperatures of the ionized gas from several emission-line intensity ratios for all the objects. We derive the ionic abundances of C$^{2+}$ and/or O$^{2+}$ from faint pure recombination lines (RLs) in several of the objects, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios. We have explored the chemical evolution at low metallicities analysing the C/O vs. O/H, C/O vs. N/O and C/N vs. O/H relations for Galactic and extragalactic HII regions and comparing with results for halo stars and DLAs. We find that HII regions in star-forming dwarf galaxies occupy a different locus in the C/O vs. O/H diagram than those belonging to the inner discs of spiral galaxies, indicating their different chemical evolution histories, and that the bulk of C in the most metal-poor extragalactic HII regions should have the same origin than in halo stars. The comparison between the C/O ratios in HII regions and in stars of the Galactic thick and thin discs seems to give arguments to support the merging scenario for the origin of the Galactic thick disc. Finally, we find an apparent coupling between C and N enrichment at the usual metallicities determined for HII regions and that this coupling breaks in very low-metallicity objects.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 443(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1177 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ~6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ~ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ~ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 787(2):142. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/142 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low resolution ESO VLT/FORS spectra of blue supergiant stars are analyzed to determine stellar metallicities (based on elements such as Fe, Ti, Mg) in the extended disk of the spiral galaxy NGC3621. Mildly subsolar metallicity (-0.30 dex) is found for the outer objects beyond 7 kpc independent of galactocentric radius and compatible with the absence of a metallicity gradient confirming the results of a recent investigation of interstellar medium HII region gas oxygen abundances. The stellar metallicities are slightly higher than those from the HII regions when based on measurements of the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 AE but lower than the ones obtained with the R23 strong line method. It is shown that the present level of metallicity in the extended disk cannot be the result of chemical evolution over the age of the disk with the present rate of in situ star formation. Additional mechanisms must be involved. In addition to metallicity, stellar effective temperatures, gravities, interstellar reddening, and bolometric magnitudes are determined. After application of individual reddening corrections for each target the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars is used to obtain a distance modulus of 29.07+/-0.09 mag (distance D=6.52+/-0.28 Mpc). This new distance is discussed in relation to Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 788(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/56 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of super star clusters older than ~6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z]= +0.28 +/- 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R~3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z]= -0.32 +/- 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R~1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the VLT (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of super star cluster metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this letter.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (4.5 A) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent temperature indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. (2007) to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the Flux-weighted Gravity-Luminosity Relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [Z] = -0.67 +/- 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. (2007) based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([Z] = -0.93 +/- 0.07), suggesting a low alpha/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of HII regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 +/- 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 785(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/151 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new results on the chemical composition of the Galactic ring nebula NGC6888 surrounding the WN6(h) star WR136. The data are based on deep spectroscopical observations taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph at the 8.2m Subaru Telescope. The spectra cover the optical range from 3700 to 7400 A. The effect of the CNO cycle is well identified in the abundances of He, N, and O, while elements not involved in the synthesis such as Ar, S, and Fe present values consistent with the solar vicinity and the ambient gas. The major achievement of this work is the first detection of the faint CII 4267 recombination line in a Wolf-Rayet nebula. This allows to estimate the C abundance in NGC6888 and therefore investigate for the first time the trace of the CNO cycle in a ring nebula around a Wolf-Rayet star. Although the detection of the CII line has a low signal-to-noise ratio, the C abundance seems to be higher than the predictions of recent stellar evolution models of massive stars. The Ne abundance also show a puzzling pattern with an abundance of about 0.5 dex lower than the solar vicinity, which may be related to the action of the NeNa cycle. Attending to the constraints imposed by the dynamical timescale and the He/H and N/O ratios of the nebula, the comparison with stellar evolution models indicates that the initial mass of the stellar progenitor of NGC6888 is between 25 Msun and 40 Msun.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 785(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/100 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) survey has obtained imaging in 5 bands (grizy_P1) over 10 Medium Deep Survey (MDS) fields covering a total of 70 square degrees. This paper describes the search for apparently hostless supernovae (SNe) within the first year of PS1 MDS data with an aim of discovering new superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). A total of 249 hostless transients were discovered down to a limiting magnitude of M_AB ~ 23.5, of which 75 were classified as Type Ia SNe. There were 58 SNe with complete light curves that are likely core-collapse SNe (CCSNe) or SLSNe and 13 of these have had spectra taken. Of these 13 hostless, non-Type Ia SNe, 9 were SLSNe of Type I at redshifts between 0.5-1.4. Thus one can maximise the discovery rate of Type I SLSNe by concentrating on hostless transients and removing normal SNe Ia. We present data for three new possible SLSNe; PS1-10pm (z = 1.206), PS1-10ahf (z = 1.16) and PS1-11acn (z ~ 0.61), and estimate the rate of SLSNe-I to be between 0.6pm0.3 * 10^-4 and 1.0pm0.3 * 10^-4 of the CCSNe rate within 0.3 <= z <= 1.4 by applying a Monte-Carlo technique. The rate of slowly evolving, SN2007bi-like explosions is estimated as a factor of 10 lower than this range.
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    ABSTRACT: Our research on the age-metallicity and mass-metallicity relations of galaxies is presented and compared to the most recent investigations in the field. We have been able to measure oxygen abundances using the direct method for objects spanning four orders of magnitude in mass, and probing the last 4 Gyr of galaxy evolution. We have found preliminary evidence that the metallicity evolution is consistent with expectations based on age-metallicity relations obtained with low resolution stellar spectra of resolved Local Group galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first results of a long term program aiming to provide accurate independent estimates of the Hubble constant (H_0 ) and the Dark Energy equation of state parameter (w) using the L(Hβ )-σ distance estimator for Giant HII regions and HII galaxies (HIIGs). We have used VLT and Subaru high dispersion spectroscopic observations of a local sample of HIIGs, identified in the SDSS DR7 catalogue in order to re-define and improve the L(Hβ ) - σ distance indicator and to determine the Hubble constant.
    Massive Young Star Clusters Near and Far: From the Milky Way to Reionization. 2013 Guillermo Haro Conference; 01/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first direct determination of a stellar metallicity in the spiral galaxy NGC4258 (D=7.6 Mpc) based on the quantitative analysis of a low-resolution (~5 AE) Keck LRIS spectrum of a blue supergiant star located in its disk. A determination of stellar metallicity in this galaxy is important for the absolute calibration of the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation as an anchor for the extragalactic distance scale and for a better characterization of its dependence as a function of abundance. We find a value 0.2 dex lower than solar metallicity at a galactocentric distance of 8.7 kpc, in agreement with recent HII region studies using the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 AE. We determine the effective stellar temperature, gravity, luminosity and line-of-sight extinction of the blue supergiant being studied. We show that it fits well on the flux-weighted gravity--luminosity relation (FGLR), strengthening the potential of this method as a new extragalactic distance indicator.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 779(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/779/2/L20 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a distance determination to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on an analysis of four detached, long period, late type eclipsing binaries discovered by the OGLE Survey. The components of the binaries show negligible intrinsic variability. A consistent set of stellar parameters was derived with low statistical and systematic uncertainty. The absolute dimensions of the stars are calculated with a precision of better than 3%. The surface brightness - infrared color relation was used to derive the distance to each binary. The four systems clump around a distance modulus of (m - M)=18.99 with a dispersion of only 0.05 mag. Combining these results with the distance published by Graczyk et al. for the eclipsing binary OGLE SMC113.3 4007 we obtain a mean distance modulus to the SMC of 18.965 +/- 0.025 (stat.) +/- 0.048 (syst.) mag. This corresponds to a distance of 62.1 +/- 1.9 kpc, where the error includes both uncertainties. Taking into account other recent published determinations of the SMC distance we calculated the distance modulus difference between the SMC and the LMC equal to 0.458 +/- 0.068 mag. Finally we advocate mu_{SMC}=18.95 +/- 0.07 as a new "canonical" value of the distance modulus to this galaxy.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 780(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/59 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10(44) ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of (56)Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to (56)Fe via (56)Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.
    Nature 10/2013; 502(7471):346-9. DOI:10.1038/nature12569 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) PS1-11ap, discovered with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey at z = 0.524. This intrinsically blue transient rose slowly to reach a peak magnitude of M_u = -21.4 mag and bolometric luminosity of 8 x 10^43 ergs^-1 before settling onto a relatively shallow gradient of decline. The observed decline is significantly slower than those of the superluminous type Ic SNe which have been the focus of much recent attention. Spectroscopic similarities with the lower redshift SN2007bi and a decline rate similar to 56Co decay timescale initially indicated that this transient could be a candidate for a pair instability supernova (PISN) explosion. Overall the transient appears quite similar to SN2007bi and the lower redshift object PTF12dam. The extensive data set, from 30 days before peak to 230 days after, allows a detailed and quantitative comparison with published models of PISN explosions. We find that the PS1-11ap data do not match these model explosion parameters well, supporting the recent claim that these SNe are not pair instability explosions. We show that PS1-11ap has many features in common with the faster declining superluminous Ic supernovae and the lightcurve evolution can also be quantitatively explained by the magnetar spin down model. At a redshift of z = 0.524 the observer frame optical coverage provides comprehensive restframe UV data and allows us to compare it with the superluminous SNe recently found at high redshifts between z = 2-4. While these high-z explosions are still plausible PISN candidates, they match the photometric evolution of PS1-11ap and hence could be counterparts to this lower redshift transient.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 437(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1923 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cedres & Cepa (2002, Cat. J/A+A/391/809) used CDD observations in several narrow-band filters to compile a catalogue of 338 HII regions in the inner parts of M 101 (NGC 5457), also providing information about their fluxes, extinctions, equivalent widths, spatial distribution, excitations, radiation hardness, ionization parameters and metallicities. H1013 is identified as the HII region number 299 in their catalogue. We use the Hα and Hβ continuum-subtracted images (kindly provided by B. Cedres) in our study. These images were obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope with the ALFOSC instrument in direct imaging mode (spatial resolution of 0.189-arcsec/pix). (1 data file).

Publication Stats

4k Citations
795.90 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2015
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute for Astronomy
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2014
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2002–2014
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2013
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2009
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1998–2009
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Hawai'i System
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • Northern Arizona University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Flagstaff, Arizona, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Concepción
      • Departamento de Física
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–2005
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy "Galileo Galilei"
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2004
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1996
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States