Scott Chapman

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (52)125.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large unbiased sample of 870um selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band, optical-near-infrared, photometry. We model the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z=2.3+/-0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient optical or near-infrared photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of IRAC and Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming these sources have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z~1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that the undetected SMGs lie at higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z=2.5+/-0.2. More critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG phase at z>3 is 35+/-5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass for SMGs of Mstar=(8+/-1)x10^10Mo, but caution that there are significant systematic uncertainties in our stellar mass estimate, up to x5 for individual sources. We compare our sample of SMGs to a volume-limited, morphologically classified sample of ellipticals in the local Universe. Assuming the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ~100Myr we show that their descendants at z~0 would have a space density and M_H distribution which are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit ALMA 870um (345GHz) observations of submillimetre sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South to investigate the far-infrared properties of high-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). Using the precisely located 870um ALMA positions of 99 SMGs, together with 24um and radio imaging of this field, we deblend the Herschel/SPIRE imaging of this region to extract their far-infrared fluxes and colours. The median photometric redshifts for ALMA LESS (ALESS) SMGs which are detected in at least two SPIRE bands increases with wavelength of the peak in their SEDs, with z=2.3+/-0.2, 2.5+/-0.3 and 3.5+/-0.5 for the 250, 350 and 500-um peakers respectively. We find that 34 ALESS SMGs do not have a >3-sigma counterpart at 250, 350 or 500-um. These galaxies have a median photometric redshift of z=3.3+/-0.5, which is higher than the full ALESS SMG sample; z=2.5+/-0.2. Using the photometric redshifts together with the 250-870um photometry, we estimate the far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust temperature of each SMG. The median infrared luminosity of the S_870um>2mJy SMGs is L_IR=(3.0+/-0.3)x10^{12}Lo(SFR=300+/-30Mo/yr). At a fixed luminosity, the characteristic dust temperature of these high-redshift SMGs is 2-3K lower than comparably luminous galaxies at z=0, reflecting the more extended star formation occurring in these systems. By extrapolating the 870um number counts to S_ 870um=1mJy, we show that the contribution of S_870um>1mJy SMGs to the cosmic star formation budget is 20% of the total over the redshift range z~1-4. We derive a median dust mass for these SMGs of M_d=(3.6+/-0.3)x10^8Mo and by adopting an appropriate gas-to-dust ratio, we estimate an average molecular mass of M_H2=(4.2+/-0.4)x10^{10}Mo. Finally, we use our estimates of the H2 masses to show that SMGs with S_870um>1mJy contain ~10% of the z~2 volume-averaged H2 mass density at this epoch.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMG) in the 870-um band derived from arcsecond resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-um-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the (0.5x0.5)deg^2 LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Submillimetre Survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma(870um)~0.4mJy, some ~3x deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of ~1.5" compared to ~19" for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pin-point the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower-resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blending of unresolved SMGs. The difficulty which well-constrained theoretical models have in reproducing the high-surface densities of SMGs, thus remains. However, our observations do show that all of the very brightest sources in the LESS sample, S(870um)>12mJy, comprise emission from multiple, fainter SMGs, each with 870-um fluxes of <9mJy. This implies a natural limit to the star-formation rate in SMGs of <10^3 M_Sun/yr, which in turn suggests that the space densities of z>1 galaxies with gas masses in excess of ~5x10^10 M_Sun is <10^-5 Mpc^-3. We also discuss the influence of this blending on the identification and characterisation of the SMG counterparts to these bright submillimetre sources and suggest that it may be responsible for previous claims that they lie at higher redshifts than fainter SMGs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2012; 432(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA 870-um (345GHz) observations of two sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from an ALMA study of the 126 sub-millimeter sources from the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Survey (LESS). The ALMA data identify the counterparts to these previously unidentified sub-millimeter sources and serendipitously detect bright emission lines in their spectra which we show are most likely to be [C II]157.74um emission yielding redshifts of z=4.42 and z=4.44. This blind detection rate within the 7.5-GHz bandpass of ALMA is consistent with the previously derived photometric redshift distribution of SMGs and suggests a modest, but not dominant (<25%), tail of 870-um selected SMGs at z>4. We find that the ratio of L_CII/L_FIR in these SMGs is much higher than seen for similarly far-infrared-luminous galaxies at z~0, which is attributed to the more extended gas reservoirs in these high-redshift ULIRGs. Indeed, in one system we show that the [C II] emission shows hints of extended emission on >3kpc scales. Finally, we use the volume probed by our ALMA survey to show that the bright end of the [C II] luminosity function evolves strongly between z=0 and z~4.4, reflecting the increased ISM cooling in galaxies as a result of their higher star-formation rates. These observations demonstrate that even with short integrations, ALMA is able to detect the dominant fine structure cooling lines from high-redshift ULIRGs, measure their energetics and trace their evolution with redshift.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2012; 427(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of the [OI]63um far-infrared cooling line from a sample of six unlensed and spectroscopically-confirmed 870um-selected submillimetre (submm) galaxies (SMGs) at 1.1<z<1.6 from the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Submm Survey (LESS). This is the first survey of [OI]63um, one of the main photodissociation region (PDR) cooling lines, in SMGs. New high-resolution ALMA interferometric 870um continuum imaging confirms that these six Herschel-targeted SMG counterparts are bona fide sources of submm emission. We detect [OI]63um in two SMGs with a SNR >3, tentatively detect [OI]63um in one SMG, and constrain the line flux for the non-detections. We also exploit the combination of submm continuum photometry from 250-870um and our new PACS continuum measurements to constrain the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity, L_FIR, in these SMGs to < 30%. We find that SMGs do not show a deficit in their [OI]63um-to-far-infrared continuum luminosity ratios (with ratios ranging from ~0.5-1.5%), similar to what was seen previously for the [CII]158um-to-FIR ratios in SMGs. These observed ratios are about an order of magnitude higher than what is seen typically for local ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which adds to the growing body of evidence that SMGs are not simply `scaled up' versions of local ULIRGs. Rather, the PDR line-to-L_FIR ratios suggest that the star formation modes of SMGs are likely more akin to that of local normal (lower-luminosity) star-forming galaxies, with the bulk of the star formation occurring in extended regions, galaxy-scale (~kpc) in size. These observations represent the first step towards a census of the major PDR cooling lines in typical SMGs that will be attainable with ALMA, enabling detailed modelling to probe the global properties of the star formation and the evolutionary status of SMGs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 427(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic and eleven-band photometric redshifts for galaxies in the 100-uJy Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field radio source sample. We find good agreement between our redshift distribution and that predicted by the SKA Simulated Skies project. We find no correlation between K-band magnitude and radio flux, but show that sources with 1.4-GHz flux densities below ~1mJy are fainter in the near-infrared than brighter radio sources at the same redshift, and we discuss the implications of this result for spectroscopically-incomplete samples where the K-z relation has been used to estimate redshifts. We use the infrared--radio correlation to separate our sample into radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and show that only radio-loud hosts have spectral energy distributions consistent with predominantly old stellar populations, although the fraction of objects displaying such properties is a decreasing function of radio luminosity. We calculate the 1.4-GHz radio luminosity function (RLF) in redshift bins to z=4 and find that the space density of radio sources increases with lookback time to z~2, with a more rapid increase for more powerful sources. We demonstrate that radio-loud and radio-quiet sources of the same radio luminosity evolve very differently. Radio-quiet sources display strong evolution to z~2 while radio-loud AGNs below the break in the radio luminosity function evolve more modestly and show hints of a decline in their space density at z>1, with this decline occurring later for lower-luminosity objects. If the radio luminosities of these sources are a function of their black hole spins then slowly-rotating black holes must have a plentiful fuel supply for longer, perhaps because they have yet to encounter the major merger that will spin them up and use the remaining gas in a major burst of star formation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2012; 421(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent photometric surveys have shown that the disk and halo of M31, the Andromeda galaxy, extend much further than previously thought, and contain stellar streams and arcs which indicate the complex history of this galaxy. We propose to examine the outer disk and halo of M31 from an infrared perspective. By extending the existing IRAC maps of the galaxy, we can trace the stellar mass to larger radii, better constraining mass models. An improved understading of the stellar populations in these remote areas will provide more detailed clues about the interaction history of the galaxy.
    Spitzer Proposal. 05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: The Pan Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS) CFHT Megaprime survey of the M31-M33 system has found a star stream which extends about 120 kpc NW from the center of M31. The great length of the stream, and the likelihood that it does not significantly intersect the disk of M31, means that it is unusually well suited for a measurement of stream gaps and clumps along its length as a test for the predicted thousands of dark matter sub-halos. The main result of this paper is that the density of the stream varies between zero and about three times the mean along its length on scales of 2-20 kpc. The probability that the variations are random fluctuations in the star density is less than 10–5. As a control sample, we search for density variations at precisely the same location in stars with metallicity higher than the stream [Fe/H] = [0, –0.5] and find no variations above the expected shot noise. The lumpiness of the stream is not compatible with a low mass star stream in a smooth galactic potential, nor is it readily compatible with the disturbance caused by the visible M31 satellite galaxies. The stream's density variations appear to be consistent with the effects of a large population of steep mass function dark matter sub-halos, such as found in LCDM simulations, acting on an approximately 10 Gyr old star stream. The effects of a single set of halo substructure realizations are shown for illustration, reserving a statistical comparison for another study.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2011; 731(2):124. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of five new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXIII-XXVII, located in the outer halo of M31. These galaxies were found in the second year of data from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) of the M31/M33 subgroup. This survey now provides an almost complete panoramic view of the M31 halo out to an average projected radius of ~150 kpc. The metal-poor stellar density map for this whole region serves, not only as an illustration of the discovery space for satellite galaxies, but also gives a birds-eye view of the ongoing assembly process of an L* disk galaxy. Four of the new dwarfs appear as well-defined spatial over-densities of stars lying on the expected locus of metal-poor red giant branch stars at the distance of M31. The fifth over-density, And XXVII, is embedded in an extensive stream of such stars and is possibly the remnant of a strong tidal disruption event. All five satellites have metallicities and luminosities typical of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and continue the trend whereby the brighter dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31 generally have much larger half-light radii than their Milky Way counterparts. With an extended sample of M31 satellite galaxies we also revisit the spatial distribution of this population and find that, within the current limits of the PAndAS survey, the surface density of satellites is essentially constant out to 150 kpc. This corresponds to a radial density distribution of satellites varying as 1/r, a result seemingly in conflict with the predictions of cosmological simulations. (Abridged)
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2011; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose to obtain griK imaging with the SOAR telescope of 10 members of a flux-limited sample of millimeter-bright point sources discovered in 1250 deg^2 of South Pole Telescope survey data-with the eventual goal of imaging the full sample of 48 sources over several proposal cycles. These rare sources are the brightest members of the dusty, star-forming galaxy population, and both theoretical calculations and an intensive multiwavelength followup campaign (including SOAR and space observations) indicate the majority of these sources are at high redshift and strongly lensed. The magnification and the long-wavelength selection makes these sources the best window we have to directly investigate massive galaxy formation in the early universe. Our proposed observations to image the environment, characterize the lens, and in some cases detect the lensed source, are the first step towards fulfilling the scientific promise of this exciting new class of sources. The long-term legacy of these observations will be to provide the astronomical community with a sample of high-redshift, strongly lensed systems for detailed studies with Herschel, ALMA, and JWST.
    NOAO Proposal. 02/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We propose NIFS observations to map the gas velocity and metallicity fields of a demographically complete sample of 8 high-z ULIRGs, including both submm-selected galaxies (SMGs - cold dust) and submm-faint radio galaxies (SFRGs - hot dust), at z 2. Our team includes hydrodynamical simulators from two groups who have independently identified candidate hot and cold-dust ULIRGs at high-z in their models, and we have explicitly run simulations of the expected properties observable with SINFONI. Our target ULIRGs have z's chosen to lie between sky lines, with detections already of H-alpha from our ISAAC slit observations, and where both Hapha/NII and OII/NeIII suggest a broad intrinsic spread in metallicity. The observations will allow us to address why high-redshift ULIRGs lie above the high redshift blue main-sequence of star forming galaxies (SFR versus stellar mass), and whether or not they represent the merger of two blue sequence galaxies.
    NOAO Proposal. 08/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: A large sub-mm survey with Herschel will enable many exciting science opportunities, especially in an era of wide-field optical and radio surveys and high resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. The Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey (HSLS), will lead to imaging data over 4000 sq. degrees at 250, 350, and 500 micron. Major Goals of HSLS are: (a) produce a catalog of 2.5 to 3 million galaxies down to 26, 27 and 33 mJy (50% completeness; 5 sigma confusion noise) at 250, 350 and 500 micron, respectively, in the southern hemisphere (3000 sq. degrees) and in an equatorial strip (1000 sq. degrees), areas which have extensive multi-wavelength coverage and are easily accessible from ALMA. Two thirds of the of the sources are expected to be at z > 1, one third at z > 2 and about a 1000 at z > 5. (b) Remove point source confusion in secondary anisotropy studies with Planck and ground-based CMB data. (c) Find at least 1200 strongly lensed bright sub-mm sources leading to a 2% test of general relativity. (d) Identify 200 proto-cluster regions at z of 2 and perform an unbiased study of the environmental dependence of star formation. (e) Perform an unbiased survey for star formation and dust at high Galactic latitude and make a census of debris disks and dust around AGB stars and white dwarfs. Comment: White paper supplement to the proposal submitted by the HSLS science team to ESA for Herschel open-time programs
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: A large sub-mm survey with Herschel will enable many exciting science opportunities, especially in an era of wide-field optical and radio surveys and high resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. The Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey (HSLS), will lead to imaging data over 4000 sq. degrees at 250, 350, and 500 micron. Major Goals of HSLS are: (a) produce a catalog of 2.5 to 3 million galaxies down to 26, 27 and 33 mJy (50% completeness; 5 sigma confusion noise) at 250, 350 and 500 micron, respectively, in the southern hemisphere (3000 sq. degrees) and in an equatorial strip (1000 sq. degrees), areas which have extensive multi-wavelength coverage and are easily accessible from ALMA. Two thirds of the of the sources are expected to be at z > 1, one third at z > 2 and about a 1000 at z > 5. (b) Remove point source confusion in secondary anisotropy studies with Planck and ground-based CMB data. (c) Find at least 1200 strongly lensed bright sub-mm sources leading to a 2% test of general relativity. (d) Identify 200 proto-cluster regions at z of 2 and perform an unbiased study of the environmental dependence of star formation. (e) Perform an unbiased survey for star formation and dust at high Galactic latitude and make a census of debris disks and dust around AGB stars and white dwarfs.
    06/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We have detected the CO(2-1) transition from the submillimetre galaxy (SMG) LESSJ033229.4-275619 at z=4.755 using the new Compact Array Broadband Backend system on the Australian Telescope Compact Array. These data have identified a massive gas reservoir available for star formation for the first time in an SMG at z~5. We use the luminosity and velocity width (FWHM of 160 km/s) of the CO(2--1) line emission to constrain the gas and dynamical mass of Mgas~1.6x10^10 Msun and Mdyn(<2kpc)~5x10^10 (0.25/sin^2(i)) Msun, respectively, similar to that observed for SMGs at lower redshifts of z~2-4, although we note that our observed CO FWHM is a factor of ~3 narrower than typically seen in SMGs. Together with the stellar mass we estimate a total baryonic mass of Mbary~1x10^11 Msun, consistent with the dynamical mass for this young galaxy within the uncertainties. Dynamical and baryonic mass limits of high-redshift galaxies are useful tests of galaxy formation models: using the known z~4-5 SMGs as examples of massive baryonic systems, we find that their space density is consistent with that predicted by current galaxy formation models. In addition, these observations have helped to confirm that z~4-5 SMGs possess the baryonic masses and gas consumption timescales necessary to be the progenitors of the luminous old red galaxies seen at z~3. Our results provide a preview of the science that ALMA will enable on the formation and evolution of the earliest massive galaxies in the Universe. Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters July 5, 2010: 5 pages, 3 figures
    04/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a quantitative morphological analysis using HST NICMOS H160- and ACS I775- band imaging of 25 spectroscopically confirmed submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) which have redshifts between z=0.7-3.4. Our analysis also employs a comparison sample of more typical star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts (such as LBGs) which have lower far-infrared luminosities. This is the first large-scale study of the morphologies of SMGs in the near-infrared at ~0.1" resolution (<1kpc). We find that the half light radii of the SMGs (r_h=2.3+/-0.3 and 2.8+/-0.4kpc in the observed I- and H-bands respectively) and asymmetries are not statistically distinct from the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies. However, we demonstrate that the SMG morphologies differ more between the rest-frame UV and optical-bands than typical star-forming galaxies and interpret this as evidence for structured dust obscuration. We show that the composite observed H-band light profile of SMGs is better fit with a Sersic index with n~2, suggesting the stellar structure of SMGs is best described by a spheroid/elliptical galaxy light distribution. We also compare the sizes and stellar masses of SMGs to local and high-redshift populations, and find that the SMGs have stellar densities which are comparable to local early-type galaxies, as well as luminous, red and dense galaxies at z~1.5 which have been proposed as direct SMG descendants, although the SMG stellar masses and sizes are systematically larger. Overall, our results suggest that the physical processes occuring within the galaxies are too complex to be simply characterised by the rest-frame UV/optical morphologies which appear to be essentially decoupled from all other observables, such as bolometric luminosity, stellar or dynamical mass. Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 12 pages, 8 figs. High resolution version available at: http://astro.dur.ac.uk/~ams/papers/smg_morph.pdf
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXI and Andromeda XXII, located in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies (M31 and M33). These discoveries stem from the first year data of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, a photometric survey of the M31/M33 group conducted with the Megaprime/MegaCam Wide-Field Camera mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both satellites appear as spatial overdensities of stars which, when plotted in a color-magnitude diagram, follow metal-poor, [Fe/H] = –1.8, red giant branches at the distance of M31/M33. Andromeda XXI is a moderately bright dwarf galaxy (MV = –9.9 ± 0.6), albeit with low surface brightness, emphasizing again that many relatively luminous M31 satellites still remain to be discovered. It is also a large satellite, with a half-light radius close to 1 kpc, making it the fourth largest Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy after the recently discovered Andromeda XIX, Andromeda II, and Sagittarius around the Milky Way, and supports the trend that M31 satellites are larger than their Milky Way counterparts. Andromeda XXII is much fainter (MV = –6.5 ± 0.8) and lies a lot closer in projection to M33 than it does to M31 (42 versus 224 kpc), suggesting that it could be the first Triangulum satellite to be discovered. Although this is a very exciting possibility in the context of a past interaction of M33 with M31 and the fate of its satellite system, a confirmation will have to await a good distance estimate to confirm its physical proximity to M33. Along with the dwarf galaxies found in previous surveys of the M31 surroundings, these two new satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 20.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2009; 705(1):758. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose to obtain radial velocities for red giant branch stars in a newly discovered, vast, stellar stream, coherent over 70 kpc at typical radii of 40 kpc from the center of the M31 galaxy. Coupled with our exquisite extant photometry covering M31 and its surrounding structures, the requested kinematics (sampled at 4 positions along the stream) will enable us to determine the orbit of the stream and identify its progenitor; there is a tantalizing possibility that it is linked to Andromeda I, but kinematics are required to test this hypothesis. By using this stream as a potentiometer, we will therefore determine the total mass of M31 contained within the orbit. This will represent an independent and direct measure of the gravitational potential - the dark matter content - of an L_star galaxy; it can only be achieved using the multiplexing capabilities and high throughput of the Keck/DEIMOS instrument.
    NOAO Proposal. 08/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the identification of the highest redshift submm-selected source currently known: LESSJ033229.4-275619. This source was detected in the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Submillimetre Survey (LESS), a sensitive 870-um survey (~1.2-mJy rms) of the full 30'x30' ECDFS with the LABOCA camera on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The submm emission is identified with a radio counterpart for which optical spectroscopy provides a redshift of z=4.76. We show that the bolometric emission is dominated by a starburst with a star formation rate of ~1000 Msun/yr, although we also identify a moderate luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in this galaxy. Thus it has characteristics similar to those of z~2 submm galaxies (SMGs), with a mix of starburst and obscured AGN signatures. This demonstrates that ultraluminous starburst activity is not just restricted to the hosts of the most luminous (and hence rare) QSOs at z~5, but was also occurring in less extreme galaxies at a time when the Universe was less than 10% of its current age. Assuming that we are seeing the major phase of star formation in this galaxy, then we demonstrate that it would be identified as a luminous distant red galaxy at z~3 and that the current estimate of the space density of z>4 SMGs is only sufficient to produce ~10% of the luminous red galaxy population at these early times. However, this leaves open the possibility that some of these galaxies formed through less intense, but more extended star formation events. If the progenitors of all of the luminous red galaxies at z~3 go through an ultraluminous starburst at z>4 then the required volume density of z>4 SMGs will exceed that predicted by current galaxy formation models by more than an order of magnitude. Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, 1 table, Accepted for publication in MNRAS Feb 23
    02/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the combined GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation and GRASIL spectrophotometric code to investigate the properties of galaxies selected via their sub-mm emission. Our fiducial model has previously been shown to fit the properties of local ULIRGs, as well as the number counts of faint sub-mm galaxies. Here, we test the model in detail by comparing the SEDs and stellar, dynamical, gas and halo masses of sub-mm galaxies against observational data. We precisely mimic the sub-mm and radio selection function of the observations and show that the predicted far-infrared properties of model galaxies with S_850>5mJy and S_1.4>30uJy are in good agreement with observations. Although the dust emission model does not assume a single dust temperature, the far-infrared SEDs are well described by single component modified black-body spectrum with characteristic temperature 32+/-5K. We also find evidence that the observations may have uncovered evolution in the far-infrared--radio relation in ULIRGs out to z~2. We show that the predicted redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies provides a reasonable fit to the observational data with a median redshift z=2.0, with the radio-selected subset predicted to make up approximately 75% of the population. However, the predicted K-band and mid-infrared (3--8um) flux densities of the sub-mm galaxies (and LBGs) are up to a factor 10x fainter than observed. This discrepancy may indicate that the stellar masses of the sub-mm galaxies in the model are too low: M~10^10Mo, while observations suggest more massive systems, M~10^11Mo. Finally, we discuss the potential modifications to the models which may improve the fit to the observational data. [Abridged]
    10/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The tidal disruption (and potential destruction) of satellite galaxies is a natural prediction of hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios currently proposed to explain the formation and evolution of L_star galaxies like the Milky Way and M31. Our group has identified a candidate stellar stream in the halo of M31 which very likely emanates from NGC205, the bright dwarf elliptical companion to M31. Here, we propose to obtain 4 GMOS fields across this feature. These observations will unambiguously confirm whether this feature is a stream from NGC205, and will measure its velocity, velocity dispersion and metallicity as a function of position. These dynamical data are of fundamental importance to allow a complete model of the orbit of NGC205 to track its destruction as it orbits inside the M31 potential, providing detailed insight into both the potential of the host and, for the first time, the orbital evolution of its satellite companion.
    NOAO Proposal. 08/2008;