Tom Oosterloo

University of Western Australia, Perth City, Western Australia, Australia

Are you Tom Oosterloo?

Claim your profile

Publications (203)631.65 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the Atlas3D project. We study trends between our dynamically-derived IMF normalisation and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population- (SSP-) equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [alpha/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalisation of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of normalisation at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak IMF-[alpha/Fe] and IMF-age correlations, and no significant IMF-[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalisation via low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.
    08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use the Atlas3D sample to perform a study of the intrinsic shapes of early-type galaxies, taking advantage of the available combined photometric and kinematic data. Based on our ellipticity measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and additional imaging from the Isaac Newton Telescope, we first invert the shape distribution of fast and slow rotators under the assumption of axisymmetry. The so-obtained intrinsic shape distribution for the fast rotators can be described with a Gaussian with a mean flattening of q=0.25 and standard deviation sigma_q = 0.14, and an additional tail towards rounder shapes. The slow rotators are much rounder, and are well described with a Gaussian with mean q = 0.63 and sigma_q =0.09. We then checked that our results were consistent when applying a different and independent method to obtain intrinsic shape distributions, by fitting the observed ellipticity distributions directly using Gaussian parametrisations for the intrinsic axis ratios. Although both fast and slow rotators are identified as early-type galaxies in morphological studies, and in many previous shape studies are therefore grouped together, their shape distributions are significantly different, hinting at different formation scenarios. The intrinsic shape distribution of the fast rotators shows similarities with the spiral galaxy population. Including the observed kinematic misalignment in our intrinsic shape study shows that the fast rotators are predominantly axisymmetric, with only very little room for triaxiality. For the slow rotators though there are very strong indications that they are (mildly) triaxial.
    08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed study of the stellar and HI structure of the dwarf irregular galaxies SextansA and SextansB, members of the NGC3109 association. We use newly obtained deep (r~26.5) and wide field g,r photometry to extend the Surface Brightness (SB) profiles of the two galaxies down to mu_V~ 31.0 mag/arcsec^2. We find that both galaxies are significantly more extended than what previously traced with surface photometry, out to ~4 kpc from their centers along their major axis. Older stars are found to have more extended distribution with respect to younger populations. We obtain the first estimate of the mean metallicity for the old stars in SexB, from the color distribution of the Red Giant Branch, <[Fe/H]>=-1.6. The SB profiles show significant changes of slope and cannot be fitted with a single Sersic model. Both galaxies have HI discs as massive as their respective stellar components. In both cases the HI discs display solid-body rotation with maximum amplitude of ~50 km/s (albeit with significant uncertainty due to the poorly constrained inclination), implying a dynamical mass ~10^{9}~M_sun, a mass-to-light ratio M/L_V~25 and a dark-to-barionic mass ratio of ~10. The distribution of the stellar components is more extended than the gaseous disc in both galaxies. We find that the main, approximately round-shaped, stellar body of Sex~A is surrounded by an elongated low-SB stellar halo that can be interpreted as a tidal tail, similar to that found in another member of the same association (Antlia). We discuss these, as well as other evidences of tidal disturbance, in the framework of a past passage of the NGC3109 association close to the Milky Way, that has been hypothesized by several authors and is also supported by the recently discovered filamentary configuration of the association itself.
    04/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) in the early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D sample, based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22um and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-ultraviolet emission. We combine these with gas masses estimated from 12CO and HI data in order to investigate the star formation efficiency (SFE) in a larger sample of ETGs than previously available. We first recalibrate (based on WISE data) the relation between old stellar populations (traced at Ks-band) and 22um luminosity, allowing us to remove the contribution of 22um emission from circumstellar dust. We then go on to investigate the position of ETGs on the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. Molecular gas-rich ETGs have comparable star formation surface densities to normal spiral galaxy centres, but they lie systematically offset from the KS relation, having lower star formation efficiencies by a factor of ~2.5 (in agreement with other authors). This effect is driven by galaxies where a substantial fraction of the molecular material is in the rising part of the rotation curve, and shear is high. We show here for the first time that although the number of stars formed per unit gas mass per unit time is lower in ETGs, it seems that the amount of stars formed per free-fall time is approximately constant. The scatter around this dynamical relation still correlates with galaxy properties such as the shape of the potential in the inner regions. This leads us to suggest that dynamical properties (such as shear or the global stability of the gas) may be important second parameters that regulate star formation and cause much of the scatter around star-formation relations.
    03/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One quarter of all nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) outside Virgo host a disc/ring of HI with size from a few to tens of kpc and mass up to ~1e+9 solar masses. Here we investigate whether this HI is related to the presence of a stellar disc within the host making use of the classification of ETGs in fast and slow rotators (FR/SR). We find a large diversity of HI masses and morphologies within both families. Surprisingly, SRs are detected as often, host as much HI and have a similar rate of HI discs/rings as FRs. Accretion of HI is therefore not always linked to the growth of an inner stellar disc. The weak relation between HI and stellar disc is confirmed by their frequent kinematical misalignment in FRs, including cases of polar and counterrotating gas. In SRs the HI is usually polar. This complex picture highlights a diversity of ETG formation histories which may be lost in the relative simplicity of their inner structure and emerges when studying their outer regions. We find that LCDM hydrodynamical simulations have difficulties reproducing the HI properties of ETGs. The gas discs formed in simulations are either too massive or too small depending on the star formation feedback implementation. Kinematical misalignments match the observations only qualitatively. The main point of conflict is that nearly all simulated FRs and a large fraction of all simulated SRs host corotating HI. This establishes the HI properties of ETGs as a novel challenge to simulations.
    01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present new Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae (SAURON) integral-field spectroscopy and Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations of molecular outflow host galaxy NGC 1266 that indicate NGC 1266 has experienced a rapid cessation of star formation. Both the SAURON maps of stellar population age and the Swift UVOT observations demonstrate the presence of young ($< 1$ Gyr) stellar populations within the central 1 kpc, while existing Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) CO(1--0) maps indicate that the sites of current star formation are constrained to the inner few hundred parsecs of the galaxy only. The optical spectrum of NGC 1266 from Moustakas & Kennicutt (2006) reveal a characteristic post-starburst (K+A) stellar population and Davis et al. (2012) confirm that ionized gas emission in the system originate from a shock. Galaxies with K+A spectra and shock-like ionized gas line ratios may comprise an important, overlooked segment of the post-starburst population, containing exactly those objects in which the AGN is actively expelling the star-forming material. While AGN activity is not the likely driver of the post-starburst event that occurred 500 Myr ago, the faint spiral structure seen in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-field Camera 3 (WFC3) Y-, J- and H-band imaging seems to point to the possibility of gravitational torques being the culprit. If the molecular gas were driven into the center at the same time as the larger scale galaxy disk underwent quenching, the AGN might be able to sustain the presence of molecular gas for $\gtrsim 1$ Gyr by cyclically injecting turbulent kinetic energy into the dense molecular gas via a radio jet, inhibiting star formation.
    11/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using deep 21-cm HI data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ~18.3 kpc-long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly-found feature stretches 1.3 deg to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ~65 km/s lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (~10 km/s across ~26 arcmin) transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The HI mass of IC 10 is 9.5x10^7 (d/805 kpc)^2 Msun and the mass of the new extension is 7.1x10^5 (d/805 kpc)^2 Msun. An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the HI extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously-found counter-rotating HI gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The energy released by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) has a strong impact on the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). This feedback is considered to be the regulating factor for the growth of the central massive black hole and for the rate of star formation in a galaxy. We have located, using very-long-baseline interferometry, the fast outflow of neutral hydrogen in the young, restarted radio-loud AGN 4C12.50. The outflow is located 100 parsec from the nucleus where the radio jet interacts with the ISM, as well as around the associated radio lobe. These observations show that the radio plasma drives the outflow and removes gas from the central regions and that jet-driven outflows can play a relevant role in feedback mechanisms.
    Science 09/2013; 341(6150):1082-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We perform an HI stacking analysis to study the relation between HI content and optical/radio/IR properties of galaxies located in the Lockman Hole area. In the redshift range covered by the observations (up to z = 0.09), we use the SDSS to separate galaxies with different optical characteristics, and we exploit the deep L-band radio continuum image (with noise 11 \mu Jy/beam) to identify galaxies with radio continuum emission. Infrared properties are extracted from the Spitzer catalog. We detect HI in blue galaxies, but HI is also detected in the group of red galaxies - albeit with smaller amounts than for the blue sample. We identify a group of optically inactive galaxies with early-type morphology that does not reveal any HI and ionized gas. These inactive galaxies likely represent the genuine red and dead galaxies depleted of all gas. Unlike inactive galaxies, HI is detected in red LINER-like objects. Galaxies with radio continuum counterparts mostly belong to the sub-mJy population, whose objects are thought to be a mixture of star-forming galaxies and low-power AGNs. After using several AGN diagnostics, we conclude that the radio emission in the majority of our sub-mJy radio sources stems from star formation. LINERs appear to separate into two groups based on IR properties and HI content. LINERs with a 24 \mu m detection show relatively large amounts of HI and are also often detected in radio continuum as a result of ongoing star formation. The LINER galaxies which are not detected at 24 \mu m are more like the optically inactive galaxies by being depleted of HI gas and having no sign of star formation. Radio LINERs in the latter group are the best candidates for hosting low-luminosity radio AGN.
    09/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We measure the neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) gas content of field galaxies at intermediate redshifts of z ~ 0.1 and z ~ 0.2 using hydrogen 21-cm emission lines observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). In order to make high signal-to-noise ratio detections, an HI signal stacking technique is applied: HI emission spectra from multiple galaxies, optically selected by the CNOC2 redshift survey project, are co-added to measure the average HI mass of galaxies in the two redshift bins. We calculate the cosmic HI gas densities ({\Omega}_{HI}) at the two redshift regimes and compare those with measurements at other redshifts to investigate the global evolution of the HI gas density over cosmic time. From a total of 59 galaxies at z ~ 0.1 we find {\Omega}_{HI} = (0.33 $\pm$ 0.05) ~ $\times$ 10$^{-3}$, and at z ~ 0.2 we find {\Omega}_{HI} = (0.34 $\pm$ 0.09) ~ $\times$ 10$^{-3}$, based on 96 galaxies. These measurements help bridge the gap between high-z damped Lyman-$\alpha$ observations and blind 21-cm surveys at $z=$ 0. We find that our measurements of {\Omega}_{HI} at z ~ 0.1 and 0.2 are consistent with the HI gas density at z ~ 0 and that all measurements of {\Omega}_{HI} from 21-cm emission observations at $z \la$ ~ 0.2 are in agreement with no evolution of the HI gas content in galaxies during the last 2.4 Gyr.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 435(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present new HI observations of Hoag's Object obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The data show that the luminous optical ring around the elliptical body has a bright HI counterpart that shares the kinematical properties of the optical ring. The entire HI structure is twice as large as the optical ring and shows a mild warp in its outer regions relative to the inner ring. We detect two additional HI sources close in redshift to that of Hoag's Object, and report on a newly identified SDSS optical companion galaxy. The HI sources are ~0.3 and ~1 Mpc away in projected distance, and the companion galaxy is also ~1 Mpc away. Our main conclusion is that the HI detected in Hoag's Object shows no indication that this galaxy has experienced a recent (less than ~1 Gyr ago) accretion event. At least one of the two additional HI detected objects does not have an optical counterpart. One possibility is that this object is an HI filament left over from an interaction shaping Hoag's Object, in which case this interaction must also have occurred at least 1-2 Gyr ago.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nearby radio galaxy 3C293 is one of a small group of objects where extreme outflows of neutral hydrogen have been detected. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of previous observations, the exact location of the outflow was not able to be determined. In this letter, we present new higher resolution VLA observations of the central regions of this radio source and detect a fast outflow of HI with a FWZI velocity of \Delta v~1200 km/s associated with the inner radio jet, approximately 0.5 kpc west of the central core. We investigate possible mechanisms which could produce the observed HI outflow and conclude that it is driven by the radio-jet. However, this outflow of neutral hydrogen is located on the opposite side of the nucleus to the outflow of ionised gas previously detected in this object. We calculate a mass outflow rate in the range of 8-50 solar masses/yr corresponding to a kinetic energy power injected back into the ISM of 1.38x10^{42} - 1.00x10^{43} erg/s or 0.01 - 0.08 percent of the Eddington luminosity. This places it just outside the range required by some galaxy evolution simulations for negative feedback from the AGN to be effective in halting star-formation within the galaxy.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We introduce the `Bluedisk' project, a large programme at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that has mapped the H I in a sample of 23 nearby galaxies with unusually high H I mass fractions, along with a similar-sized sample of control galaxies. This paper presents the sample selection, observational set-up, data reduction strategy and a first analysis of the sizes and structural properties of the H I discs. We find that the H I-rich galaxies lie on the same H I mass versus H I size relation as normal spiral galaxies, extending it to total H I masses of 2 × 1010 M⊙ and radii R1 of ˜100 kpc. The H I-rich galaxies have significantly larger values of H I-to-optical size ratio and more clumpy H I discs than those of normal spirals. There is no evidence that the discs of H I-rich galaxies are more disturbed. In fact, the centre of the H I distribution corresponds more closely with the centre of the optical light in the H I-rich galaxies than in the controls. All these results argue against a scenario in which new gas has been brought in by mergers. It is possible that they may be more consistent with cooling from a surrounding quasi-static halo of warm/hot gas.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 433(1):270-294. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' × 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 06/2013; 770(2):L29. · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [Abridged and Edited] We investigate nuclear light profiles in 135 ATLAS3D galaxies for which the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging is available and compare them to the large scale kinematics obtained with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. Specific angular momentum, lambda_R, correlates with the shape of nuclear light profiles, where cores are typically found in slow rotators and core-less galaxies are fast rotators. Cores are found only in massive galaxies and only in systems with the stellar mass M>8x10^10 Msun. Based on our sample, we, however, see no evidence for a bimodal distribution of nuclear slopes. The best predictor for finding a core is based on the stellar velocity dispersion within an effective radius, sigma_e, and specific angular momentum, where cores are found for lambda_R<0.25 and sigma_e>160 km/s. We estimate that only about 10% of nearby early-type galaxies contain cores. Furthermore, we show that there is a genuine population of fast rotators with cores. We also show that core fast rotators are morphologically, kinematically and dynamically different from core slow rotators. The cores of fast rotators could harbour black holes of similar masses to those in core slow rotators, but typically more massive than those found in core-less fast rotators. Core-less galaxies, and especially core-less fast rotators, are under-luminous in the diffuse X-ray emission, but the presence of a core does not imply high X-ray luminosities. We postulate a possible population of core-less galaxies among slow rotators, which can not be explained as face-on discs, but comprise a genuine sub-population of slow rotators. These galaxies are typically less massive and flatter than core slow rotators, and show evidence for dynamical cold structures and exponential photometric components. We discuss possible processes for formation of cores and their subsequent preservation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 433(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34' x 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.
    03/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) of an outflow of molecular gas in the radio-loud Seyfert galaxy IC5063 (z = 0.0110). In addition to the emission of the large-scale CO disk, a prominent blueshifted wing is observed in the CO(2-1) spectrum. IC5063 represents one of the best cases of a fast jet-driven HI (and ionized gas) outflow, which is located at the site of a radio-bright feature about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus. It is possible that the blueshifted part of the molecular gas is associated with this outflow and is accelerated by the interaction with the radio jet. The outflow of molecular gas is characterized by an H$_2$ mass of the outflowing component of between 2.25 +/- 0.70 x 10^7 M_sun and 1.29 +/- 0.40 x 10^8 M_sun and a mass outflow rate between 22 and 129 M_sun/yr depending on the assumption for alpha_X and assuming a luminosity ratio L'_CO(2-1)/L'_CO(1-0) = 1. This confirms that this may indeed be the dominant component in outflows driven by the nuclear activity that are also found in other objects. However, this high mass outflow rate cannot easily be supported for a long time, suggesting that the gas outflow in IC5063 happens in bursts and is in a particularly strong phase at present. Owing to its proximity, IC5063 serves as an excellent laboratory for understanding the impact of radio jets on the gas-rich inter-stellar medium.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star-formation history. Yet, it is still unclear what drives the precise amount of hot gas around these galaxies. By combining photometric and spectroscopic measurements for the early-type galaxies observed during the Atlas3D integral-field survey with measurements of their X-ray luminosity based on X-ray data of both low and high spatial resolution we conclude that the hot-gas content of early-type galaxies can depend on their dynamical structure. Specifically, whereas slow rotators generally have X-ray halos with luminosity L_X,gas and temperature T values that are in line with what is expected if the hot-gas emission is sustained by the thermalisaton of the kinetic energy carried by the stellar-mass loss material, fast rotators tend to display L_X,gas values that fall consistently below the prediction of this model, with similar T values that do not scale with the stellar kinetic energy as observed in the case of slow rotators. Considering that fast rotators are likely to be intrinsically flatter than slow rotators, and that the few L_X,gas-deficient slow rotators also happen to be relatively flat, the observed L_X,gas deficiency in these objects would support the hypothesis whereby flatter galaxies have a harder time in retaining their hot gas. We discuss the implications that a different hot-gas content could have on the fate of both acquired and internally-produced gaseous material, considering in particular how the L_X,gas deficiency of fast rotators would make them more capable to recycle the stellar-mass loss material into new stars than slow rotators. This is consistent with the finding that molecular gas and young stars are detected only in fast rotators in the Atlas3D sample, and that fast rotators tend to dustier than slow rotators. [Abridged]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 432(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We present a detailed study of the physical properties of the molecular gas in a sample of 18 molecular gas-rich early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS$ 3D sample. Our goal is to better understand the star formation processes occurring in those galaxies, starting here with the dense star-forming gas. We use existing integrated $^{12}$CO(1-0, 2-1), $^{13}$CO(1-0, 2-1), HCN(1-0) and HCO$^{+}$(1-0) observations and present new $^{12}$CO(3-2) single-dish data. From these, we derive for the first time the average kinetic temperature, H$_{2}$ volume density and column density of the emitting gas, this using a non-LTE theoretical model. Since the CO lines trace different physical conditions than of those the HCN and HCO$^{+}$ lines, the two sets of lines are treated separately. We also compare for the first time the predicted CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) and gas properties of our molecular gas-rich ETGs with those of a sample of nearby well-studied disc galaxies. The gas excitation conditions in 13 of our 18 ETGs appear analogous to those in the centre of the Milky Way. Such results have never been obtained before for ETGs and open a new window to explore further star-formation processes in the Universe. The conclusions drawn should nevertheless be considered carefully, as they are based on a limited number of observations and on a simple model. In the near future, with higher CO transition observations, it should be possible to better identify the various gas components present in ETGs, as well as more precisely determine their associated physical conditions. To achieve these goals, we show here from our theoretical study, that mid-J CO lines (such as the $^{12}$CO(6-5) line) are particularly useful.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 432(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the global efficiency of star formation in high resolution hydrodynamical simulations of gas discs embedded in isolated early-type and spiral galaxies. Despite using a universal local law to form stars in the simulations, we find that the early-type galaxies are offset from the spirals on the large-scale Kennicutt relation, and form stars 2 to 5 times less efficiently. This offset is in agreement with previous results on morphological quenching: gas discs are more stable against star formation when embedded in early-type galaxies due to the lower disc self-gravity and increased shear. As a result, these gas discs do not fragment into dense clumps and do not reach as high densities as in the spiral galaxies. Even if some molecular gas is present, the fraction of very dense gas (above 10^4 cm-3) is significantly reduced, which explains the overall lower star formation efficiency. We also analyse a sample of local early-type and spiral galaxies, measuring their CO and HI surface densities and their star formation rates as determined by their non-stellar 8um emission. As predicted by the simulations, we find that the early-type galaxies are offset from the Kennicutt relation compared to the spirals, with a twice lower efficiency. Finally, we validate our approach by performing a direct comparison between models and observations. We run a simulation designed to mimic the stellar and gaseous properties of NGC524, a lenticular galaxy, and find a gas disc structure and global star formation rate in good agreement with the observations. Morphological quenching thus seems to be a robust mechanism, and is also consistent with other observations of a reduced star formation efficiency in early-type galaxies in the COLD GASS survey. This lower efficiency of star formation is not enough to explain the formation of the whole Red Sequence, but can contribute to the reddening of some galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 432(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
631.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Western Australia
      • International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR)
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2012
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Dwingelo, Drenthe, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy