E. K. Grebel

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (567)1379.53 Total impact

  • V. Lora, A. C. Raga, E. K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: Dwarf Galaxies are the most common objects in the Universe and are believed to contain large amounts of dark matter. There are mainly three morphologic types of dwarf galaxies: dwarf ellipticals, dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars. Dwarf irregular galaxies are particularly interesting in dwarf galaxy evolution, since dwarf spheroidal predecessors could have been very similar to them. Therefore, a mechanism linked to gas-loss in dwarf irregulars should be observed, i.e. ram pressure stripping. In this paper, we study the interaction between the ISM of a dwarf galaxy, and a flowing IGM. We derive the weak-shock, plasmon solution corresponding to the balance between the post-bow shock pressure and the pressure of the stratified ISM (which we assume follows the fixed stratification of a gravitationally dominant dark matter halo). We compare our model with previously published numerical simulations and with the observed shape of the HI cloud around the Ho II and Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxies. We show that such a comparison provides a straightforward way for estimating the Mach number of the impinging flow.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope, aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging, from the near-ultraviolet to the I-band, with the Wide Field Camera 3, plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the Wide Field Camera 3 are: F275W(2,704 A), F336W(3,355 A), F438W(4,325 A), F555W(5,308 A), and F814W(8,024 A); the parallel observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys use the filters: F435W(4,328 A), F606W(5,921 A), and F814W(8,057 A). The multi-band images are yielding accurate recent (<~50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial science results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with JWST and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40-cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extended between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (stream_SE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (stream_NW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc and display a clear (g-r) colour gradient. The orientation of stream_SE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e=0.6) around NGC 4631 over $\sim$ 3.5 Gyr, with a dynamical mass ratio (m1:m2) of ~40. Both modelling and inferences from the morphology of the streams indicate these are not associated with the complex HI tidal features observed between both spirals, which likely originate from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. The detailed structure of stream_NW suggests it may contain the progenitor of the stream, in agreement with the N-body model. In addition, stream_NW is roughly aligned with two very faint dwarf spheroidal candidates. The system of dwarf galaxies and the tidal stream around NGC 4631 can provide an additional interesting case for exploring the anisotropy distribution of satellite galaxies recently reported in Local Group spiral galaxies by means of future follow-up observations.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Our dataset contains spectroscopic observations of 29 globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way performed with VLT/X-shooter. Here we present detailed data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm. These are not restricted to our particular dataset, but are generally applicable to different kinds of X-shooter data without major limitation on the astronomical object of interest. The packaged pipeline provided by ESO (v1.5.0) performs well and reliably for the wavelength calibration and the associated rectification procedure, yet we find several weaknesses in the reduction cascade that are addressed with additional calibration steps, such as bad pixel interpolation, flat fielding, and slit illumination corrections. Furthermore, the instrumental PSF is analytically modeled and used to reconstruct flux losses at slit transit and for optimally extracting point sources. Regular observations of spectrophotometric standard stars allow us to detect instrumental variability, which needs to be understood if a reliable absolute flux calibration is desired. A cascade of additional custom calibration steps is presented that allows for an absolute flux calibration uncertainty of less than ten percent under virtually every observational setup provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high. The optimal extraction increases the signal-to-noise ratio typically by a factor of 1.5, while simultaneously correcting for resulting flux losses. The wavelength calibration is found to be accurate to an uncertainty level of approximately 0.02 Angstrom. We find that most of the X-shooter systematics can be reliably modeled and corrected for. This offers the possibility of comparing observations on different nights and with different telescope pointings and instrumental setups, thereby facilitating a robust statistical analysis of large datasets.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence for mass segregation in the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 14, which is intuitively unexpected since its present-day two-body relaxation time significantly exceeds the Hubble time. Based on archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we analyse the radial dependence of the stellar mass function in the cluster's inner 39.2 pc in the mass range of 0.53 <= m <= 0.80 M&sun;, ranging from the main-sequence turn-off down to a V-band magnitude of 27.1 mag. The mass function at different radii is well approximated by a power law and rises from a shallow slope of 0.6 ± 0.2 in the cluster's core to a slope of 1.6 ± 0.3 beyond 18.6 pc. This is seemingly in conflict with the finding by Beccari et al., who interpret the cluster's non-segregated population of (more massive) blue straggler stars, compared to (less massive) red giants and horizontal branch stars, as evidence that the cluster has not experienced dynamical segregation yet. We discuss how both results can be reconciled. Our findings indicate that the cluster was either primordially mass segregated and/or used to be significantly more compact in the past. For the latter case, we propose tidal shocks as the mechanism driving the cluster's expansion, which would imply that Palomar 14 is on a highly eccentric orbit. Conversely, if the cluster formed already extended and with primordial mass segregation, this could support an accretion origin of the cluster.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 443:815-827. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness (OH-SB relation) in the infrared W1 band are examined for a nearby late-type galaxies. The oxygen abundances were presented in Paper I. The photometric characteristics of the disks are inferred here using photometric maps from the literature through bulge-disk decomposition. We find evidence that the OH - SB relation is not unique but depends on the galactocentric distance r (taken as a fraction of the optical radius R_25) and on the properties of a galaxy: the disk scale length h and the morphological T-type. The parametric OH - SB relation reproduces the observed data better than a simple, one-parameter relation; the deviations resulting when using our parametric relation are smaller by a factor of ~1.4 than that the simple relation. The influence of the parameters on the OH - SB relation varies with galactocentric distance. The influence of the T-type on the OH - SB relation is negligible at the centers of galaxies and increases with galactocentric distance. In contrast, the influence of the disk scale length on the OH -- SB relation is maximum at the centers of galaxies and decreases with galactocentric distance, disappearing at the optical edges of galaxies. Two-dimensional relations can be used to reproduce the observed data at the optical edges of the disks and at the centers of the disks. The disk scale length should be used as a second parameter in the OH - SB relation at the center of the disk while the morphological T-type should be used as a second parameter in the relation at optical edge of the disk. The general properties of the abundance - surface brightness relations are similar for the three considered bands B, K, and W1.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2014; 148(6). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a circular mid-infrared shell around the emission-line star Wray 16-137 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of Wray 16-137 with the Southern African Large Telescope revealed a rich emission spectrum typical of the classical luminous blue variables (LBVs) like P Cygni. Subsequent spectroscopic and photometric observations showed drastic changes in the spectrum and brightness during the last three years, meaning that Wray 16-137 currently undergoes an S Dor-like outburst. Namely, we found that the star has brightened by \approx 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, while its spectrum became dominated by Fe ii lines. Taken together, our observations unambiguously show that Wray 16-137 is a new member of the family of Galactic bona fide LBVs.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar population studies of globular clusters have suggested that the brightest clusters in the Galaxy might actually be the remnant nuclei of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. If the present Galactic globular clusters formed within larger stellar systems, they are likely surrounded by extra-tidal halos and/or tails made up of stars that were tidally stripped from their parent systems. The stellar surroundings around globular clusters are therefore one of the best places to look for the remnants of an ancient dwarf galaxy. Here an attempt is made to search for tidal debris around the supernovae enriched globular clusters M22 and NGC 1851 as well as the kinematically unique cluster NGC 3201. The stellar parameters from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) are used to identify stars with RAVE metallicities, radial velocities and elemental-abundances consistent with the abundance patterns and properties of the stars in M22, NGC 1851 and NGC 3201. The discovery of RAVE stars that may be associated with M22 and NGC 1851 are reported, some of which are at projected distances of ~10 degrees away from the core of these clusters. Numerous RAVE stars associated with NGC 3201 suggest that either the tidal radius of this cluster is underestimated, or that there are some unbound stars extending a few arc minutes from the edge of the cluster's radius. No further extra-tidal stars associated with NGC 3201 could be identified. The bright magnitudes of the RAVE stars make them easy targets for high resolution follow-up observations, allowing an eventual further chemical tagging to solidify (or exclude) stars outside the tidal radius of the cluster as tidal debris. In both our radial velocity histograms of the regions surrounding NGC 1851 and NGC 3201, a peak of stars at 230 km/s is seen, consistent with extended tidal debris from omega Centauri.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We provide APASS photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all the 425,743 stars included in the latest 4th RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of 4 distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014 and 0.021 mag for B, V, g', r' and i' band, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process, and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been chi2 fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore in temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and reddening. Resulting Teff and E(B-V), computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process it is found that the reddening caused by an homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for E(B-V,poles)=0.036 +/- 0.002 at the galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b|>=25 deg.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2014; 148(5). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption lines observed in visual and near-infrared spectra of stars. Understanding their origin in the interstellar medium is one of the oldest problems in astronomical spectroscopy, as DIBs have been known since 1922. In a completely new approach to understanding DIBs, we combined information from nearly 500,000 stellar spectra obtained by the massive spectroscopic survey RAVE (Radial Velocity Experiment) to produce the first pseudo-three-dimensional map of the strength of the DIB at 8620 angstroms covering the nearest 3 kiloparsecs from the Sun, and show that it follows our independently constructed spatial distribution of extinction by interstellar dust along the Galactic plane. Despite having a similar distribution in the Galactic plane, the DIB 8620 carrier has a significantly larger vertical scale height than the dust. Even if one DIB may not represent the general DIB population, our observations outline the future direction of DIB research.
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 08/2014; 345(6198):791-5.
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    ABSTRACT: It has recently been suggested that high-density clusters have stellar age distributions narrower than that of the Orion Nebula Cluster, indicating a possible trend of narrower age distributions for denser clusters. We show this effect to likely arise from star formation being faster in gas with a higher density. We model the star formation history of molecular clumps in equilibrium by associating a star formation efficiency (SFE) per free-fall time, \eff, to their volume density profile. Our model predicts a steady decline of the star formation rate (SFR), which we quantify with its half-life time, namely, the time needed for the SFR to drop to half its initial value. Given the uncertainties affecting the SFE per free-fall time, we consider two distinct values: 0.1 and 0.01. For isothermal spheres, \eff=0.1 leads to a half-life time of order the clump free-fall time, \tff. Therefore, the age distributions of stars formed in high-density clumps have smaller full-widths at half-maximum than those of stars formed in low-density clumps. When \eff=0.01, the half-life time is 10 times longer. We explore what happens if the star formation duration is shorter than 10\tff, that is, if the half-life time of the SFR cannot be defined. There, we build on the invariance of the shape of the young cluster mass function to show that an anti-correlation between clump density and star formation duration is expected. Therefore, regardless of whether the star formation duration is longer than the SFR half-life time, denser molecular clumps yield narrower star age distributions in clusters. Published densities and stellar age spreads of young clusters actually suggest that the time-scale for star formation is of order 1-4\tff. We conclude that there is no need to invoke the existence of multiple cluster formation mechanisms to explain the observed range of stellar age spreads in clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 791(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we develop a simple analytical criterion to investigate the role of the environment on the onset of star formation. We will consider the main external agents that influence the star formation (i.e. ram pressure, tidal interaction, Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) in a spherical galaxy moving through an external environment. The theoretical framework developed here has direct applications to the cases of dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy. We develop an analytic formalism to solve the fluid dynamics equations in a non-inertial reference frame mapped with spherical coordinates. The two-fluids instability at the interface between a stellar system and its surrounding hotter and less dense environment is related to the star formation processes through a set of differential equations. The solution presented here is quite general, allowing us to investigate most kinds of orbits allowed in a gravitationally bound system of stars in interaction with a major massive companion. We present an analytical criterion and some simple numerical and observational applications to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a stellar system on its surrounding environment. This criterion predicts the threshold value for the onset of star formation in a mass vs. size space for any orbit of interest. Moreover, we make evident for the first time the theoretical dependencies of the different instability phenomena acting on a system in a fully analytical way.
    arxiv. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the Galactic potential in the solar neigbourhood from RAVE observations. We select red clump stars for which accurate distances, radial velocities and metallicities have been measured. Combined with data from the 2MASS and UCAC catalogues, we build a sample of ~4600 red clump stars within a cylinder of 500 pc radius oriented in the direction of the South Galactic Pole, in the range of 200 pc to 2000 pc distances. We deduce the vertical force and the total mass density distribution up to 2 kpc away from the Galactic plane by fitting a distribution function depending explicitly on three isolating integrals of the motion in a separable potential locally representing the Galactic one with four free parameters. Due to the deep extension of our sample, we can determine nearly independently the dark matter mass density and the baryonic disk surface mass density. We find (i) at 1 kpc K_z/(2\pi G)=68.5+/-1.0 Msun/pc2, and (ii) at 2kpc Kz/(2\pi G)=96.9+/-2.2 Msun/pc2. Assuming the solar Galactic radius at R0=8.5 kpc, we deduce the local dark matter density rho_{DM}(z=0)=0.0143+/-0.0011Msun/pc3=0.542+/-0.042 Gev/cm3 and the baryonic surface mass density Sigma{bar}=44.4+/-4.1 Msun/pc2. Our results are in agreement with previously published Kz determinations up to 1 kpc, while the extension to 2 kpc shows some evidence for an unexpectedly large amount of dark matter. A flattening of the dark halo of order 0.8 can produce such a high local density in combination with a circular velocity of 240 km/s. Another explanation, allowing for a lower circular velocity, could be the presence of a secondary dark component, a very thick disk resulting either from the deposit of dark matter from the accretion of multiple small dwarf galaxies, or from the presence of an effective 'phantom' thick disk in the context of effective galactic-scales modifications of gravity.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the kinematics of $\sim200\,000$ giant stars that lie within $\sim 1.5$ kpc of the plane to measure the vertical profile of mass density near the Sun. We find that the dark mass contained within the isodensity surface of the dark halo that passes through the Sun $((6\pm0.9)\times10^{10}\mathrm{M}_\odot)$, and the surface density within 0.9 kpc of the plane $((69\pm10)\ \mathrm{M_\odot\,pc^{-2}})$ are almost independent of the (oblate) halo's axis ratio $q$. If the halo is spherical, 45 per cent of the radial force on the Sun is provided by baryons, and only 4.3 per cent of the Galaxy's mass is baryonic. If the halo is flattened, the baryons contribute even less strongly to the local radial force and to the Galaxy's mass. The dark-matter density at the location of the Sun is $0.0126\,q^{-0.89}\ \mathrm{M_\odot\,pc^{-3}}=0.48\,q^{-0.89}\ \mathrm{GeV\,cm^{-3}}$. When combined with other literature results we find hints for a mildly oblate dark halo with $q\simeq 0.8$. Our value for the dark mass within the solar radius is larger than that predicted by cosmological dark-matter-only simulations but in good agreement with simulations once the effects of baryonic infall are taken into account. Our mass models consist of three double-exponential discs, an oblate bulge and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark-matter halo, and we model the dynamics of the RAVE stars in the corresponding gravitational fields by finding distribution functions $f(\mathbf{J})$ that depend on three action integrals. Statistical errors are completely swamped by systematic uncertainties, the most important of which is the distance to the stars in the photometric and spectroscopic samples. Systematics other than the flattening of the dark halo yield overall uncertainties $\sim10$ per cent.
    06/2014; 445(3).
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the kinematic parameters of the Milky Way disc using the RAVE and GCS stellar surveys. We do this by fitting a kinematic model to the data taking the selection function of the data into account. For stars in the GCS we use all phase-space coordinates, but for RAVE stars we use only $(l,b,v_{\rm los})$. Using MCMC technique, we investigate the full posterior distributions of the parameters given the data. We investigate the `age-velocity dispersion' relation for the three kinematic components ($\sigma_R,\sigma_{\phi},\sigma_z$), the radial dependence of the velocity dispersions, the Solar peculiar motion ($U_{\odot},V_{\odot}, W_{\odot} $), the circular speed $\Theta_0$ at the Sun and the fall of mean azimuthal motion with height above the mid-plane. We confirm that the Besan\c{c}on-style Gaussian model accurately fits the GCS data, but fails to match the details of the more spatially extended RAVE survey. In particular, the Shu distribution function (DF) handles non-circular orbits more accurately and provides a better fit to the kinematic data. The Gaussian distribution function not only fits the data poorly but systematically underestimates the fall of velocity dispersion with radius. We find that correlations exist between a number of parameters, which highlights the importance of doing joint fits. The large size of the RAVE survey, allows us to get precise values for most parameters. However, large systematic uncertainties remain, especially in $V_{\odot}$ and $\Theta_0$. We find that, for an extended sample of stars, $\Theta_0$ is underestimated by as much as $10\%$ if the vertical dependence of the mean azimuthal motion is neglected. Using a simple model for vertical dependence of kinematics, we find that it is possible to match the Sgr A* proper motion without any need for $V_{\odot}$ being larger than that estimated locally by surveys like GCS.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 793(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STEP (the SMC in Time: Evolution of a Prototype interacting late-type dwarf galaxy) is a Guaranteed Time Observation survey being performed at the VST (the ESO VLT Survey Telescope). STEP will image an area of 74 deg$^2$ covering the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud (32 deg$^2$), the Bridge that connects it to the Large Magellanic Cloud (30 deg$^2$) and a small part of the Magellanic Stream (2 deg$^2$). Our $g,r,i,H_{\alpha}$ photometry is able to resolve individual stars down to magnitudes well below the main-sequence turnoff of the oldest populations. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products of the survey. We also present preliminary results for the first two fields for which data acquisition is completed, including some detailed analysis of the two stellar clusters IC\,1624 and NGC\,419.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarfs would follow from the observed structure if cloud and stellar subregions more readily coalesce when self-gravity in the unit cell contributes more to the total gravitational potential.
    04/2014; 787(1).
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    S. Pasetto, C. Chiosi, M. Cropper, E. K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar convection is customarily described by Mixing-Length Theory, which makes use of the mixing-length scale to express the convective flux, velocity, and temperature gradients of the convective elements and stellar medium. The mixing-length scale is taken to be proportional to the local pressure scale height, and the proportionality factor (the mixing-length parameter) must be determined by comparing the stellar models to some calibrator, usually the Sun. No strong arguments exist to suggest that the mixing-length parameter is the same in all stars and at all evolutionary phases. Because of this, all stellar models in literature are hampered by this basic uncertainty. The aim of this study is to present a new theory of stellar convection that does not require the mixing length parameter. We present a self-consistent analytical formulation of stellar convection that determines the properties of stellar convection as a function of the physical behaviour of the convective elements themselves and the surrounding medium. This new theory is formulated starting from a conventional solution of the Navier-Stokes/Euler equations, i.e. the Bernoulli equation for a perfect fluid, but expressed in a non-inertial reference frame co-moving with the convective elements. In our formalism the motion of stellar convective cells inside convective- unstable layers is fully determined by a new system of equations for convection in a non-local and time dependent formalism. We obtain an analytical, non-local, time-dependent solution for the convective energy transport that does not depend on any free parameter. The predictions of the new theory are compared with those from the standard mixing-length paradigm for the most accurate calibrator, the Sun, with very satisfactory results.
    03/2014; 445(4).
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    L. S. Pilyugin, E. K. Grebel, A. Y. Kniazev
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the oxygen and nitrogen abundance distributions across the optical disks of 130 nearby late-type galaxies using around 3740 published spectra of HII regions. We use these data in order to provide homogeneous abundance determinations for all objects in the sample, including HII regions in which not all of the usual diagnostic lines were measured. Examining the relation between N and O abundances in these galaxies we find that the abundances in their centres and at their isophotal R_25 disk radii follow the same relation. The variation in N/H at a given O/H is around 0.3 dex. We suggest that the observed spread in N/H may be partly caused by the time delay between N and O enrichment and the different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types and dimensions. We study the correlations between the abundance properties (central O and N abundances, radial O and N gradients) of a galaxy and its morphological type and dimension.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2014; 147(6). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse the kinematics of ̃400 000 stars that lie within ̃2 kpc of the Sun and have spectra measured in the Radial Velocity Experiment. We decompose the sample into hot and cold dwarfs, red-clump and non-clump giants. The kinematics of the clump giants are consistent with being identical with those of the giants as a whole. Without binning the data we fit Gaussian velocity ellipsoids to the meridional-plane components of velocity of each star class and give formulae from which the shape and orientation of the velocity ellipsoid can be determined at any location. The data are consistent with the giants and the cool dwarfs sharing the same velocity ellipsoids, which have vertical velocity dispersion rising from 21 km s-1 in the plane to ̃55 km s-1 at |z| = 2 kpc and radial velocity dispersion rising from 37 km s-1 to 82 km s-1 in the same interval. At (R, z), the longest axis of one of these velocity ellipsoids is inclined to the Galactic plane by an angle ̃0.8 arctan(z/R). We use a novel formula to obtain precise fits to the highly non-Gaussian distributions of vφ components in eight bins in the (R, z) plane. We compare the observed velocity distributions with the predictions of a published dynamical model fitted to the velocities of stars that lie within ̃150 pc of the Sun and star counts towards the Galactic pole. The predictions for the vz distributions are exceptionally successful. The model's predictions for vφ are successful except for the hot dwarfs, and its predictions for vr fail significantly only for giants that lie far from the plane. If distances to the model's stars are overestimated by 20 per cent, the predicted distributions of vr and vz components become skew, and far from the plane broader. The broadening significantly improves the fits to the data. The ability of the dynamical model to give such a good account of a large body of data to which it was not fitted inspires confidence in the fundamental correctness of the assumed, disc-dominated, gravitational potential.
    01/2014; 439(2).

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,379.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2014
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Macquarie University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2013
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Universität Basel
      • Department of Physics
      Basel, BS, Switzerland
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1996–2009
    • University of Wuerzburg
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • Australian National University
      • Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2000–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999–2008
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
  • 1991–2008
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • Wesleyan University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Middletown, Connecticut, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1993
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany