E. K. Grebel

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (547)1326.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we develop a simple analytical criterion to investigate the role of the environment on the onset of star formation. We will consider the main external agents that influence the star formation (i.e. ram pressure, tidal interaction, Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) in a spherical galaxy moving through an external environment. The theoretical framework developed here has direct applications to the cases of dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy. We develop an analytic formalism to solve the fluid dynamics equations in a non-inertial reference frame mapped with spherical coordinates. The two-fluids instability at the interface between a stellar system and its surrounding hotter and less dense environment is related to the star formation processes through a set of differential equations. The solution presented here is quite general, allowing us to investigate most kinds of orbits allowed in a gravitationally bound system of stars in interaction with a major massive companion. We present an analytical criterion and some simple numerical and observational applications to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a stellar system on its surrounding environment. This criterion predicts the threshold value for the onset of star formation in a mass vs. size space for any orbit of interest. Moreover, we make evident for the first time the theoretical dependencies of the different instability phenomena acting on a system in a fully analytical way.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The role of the environment in the formation of a stellar population is a difficult problem in astrophysics. The reason is that similar properties of a stellar population are found in star systems embedded in different environments or, vice versa, similar environments contain stellar systems with stellar populations having different properties. Aims. In this paper we develop a simple analytical criterion to investigate the role of the environment on the onset of star formation. We will consider the main external agents that influence the star formation (i.e. ram pressure, tidal interaction, Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) in a spherical galaxy moving through an external environment. The theoretical framework developed here has direct applications to the cases of dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy. Methods. We develop an analytic formalism to solve the fluid dynamics equations in a non-inertial reference frame mapped with spherical coordinates. The two-fluids instability at the interface between a stellar system and its surrounding hotter and less dense environment is related to the star formation processes through a set of differential equations. The solution presented here is quite general, allowing us to investigate most kinds of orbits allowed in a gravitationally bound system of stars in interaction with a major massive companion. Results. We present an analytical criterion and some simple numerical and observational applications to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a stellar system on its surrounding environment. This criterion predicts the threshold value for the onset of star formation in a mass vs. size space for any orbit of interest. Moreover, we make evident for the first time the theoretical dependencies of the different instability phenomena acting on a system in a fully analytical way. Key words. tidal forces, ram pressure, Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, dwarf galaxies, molecular clouds, star formation processes, stellar populations, colour magnitude diagrams
    arxiv. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the Galactic potential in the solar neigbourhood from RAVE observations. We select red clump stars for which accurate distances, radial velocities and metallicities have been measured. Combined with data from the 2MASS and UCAC catalogues, we build a sample of ~4600 red clump stars within a cylinder of 500 pc radius oriented in the direction of the South Galactic Pole, in the range of 200 pc to 2000 pc distances. We deduce the vertical force and the total mass density distribution up to 2 kpc away from the Galactic plane by fitting a distribution function depending explicitly on three isolating integrals of the motion in a separable potential locally representing the Galactic one with four free parameters. Due to the deep extension of our sample, we can determine nearly independently the dark matter mass density and the baryonic disk surface mass density. We find (i) at 1 kpc K_z/(2\pi G)=68.5+/-1.0 Msun/pc2, and (ii) at 2kpc Kz/(2\pi G)=96.9+/-2.2 Msun/pc2. Assuming the solar Galactic radius at R0=8.5 kpc, we deduce the local dark matter density rho_{DM}(z=0)=0.0143+/-0.0011Msun/pc3=0.542+/-0.042 Gev/cm3 and the baryonic surface mass density Sigma{bar}=44.4+/-4.1 Msun/pc2. Our results are in agreement with previously published Kz determinations up to 1 kpc, while the extension to 2 kpc shows some evidence for an unexpectedly large amount of dark matter. A flattening of the dark halo of order 0.8 can produce such a high local density in combination with a circular velocity of 240 km/s. Another explanation, allowing for a lower circular velocity, could be the presence of a secondary dark component, a very thick disk resulting either from the deposit of dark matter from the accretion of multiple small dwarf galaxies, or from the presence of an effective 'phantom' thick disk in the context of effective galactic-scales modifications of gravity.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the kinematics of $\sim200\,000$ giant stars that lie within $\sim 1.5$ kpc of the plane to measure the vertical profile of mass density near the Sun. We find that the dark mass contained within the isodensity surface of the dark halo that passes through the Sun $((6\pm0.9)\times10^{10}\mathrm{M}_\odot)$, and the surface density within 0.9 kpc of the plane $((69\pm10)\ \mathrm{M_\odot\,pc^{-2}})$ are almost independent of the (oblate) halo's axis ratio $q$. If the halo is spherical, 45 per cent of the radial force on the Sun is provided by baryons, and only 4.3 per cent of the Galaxy's mass is baryonic. If the halo is flattened, the baryons contribute even less strongly to the local radial force and to the Galaxy's mass. The dark-matter density at the location of the Sun is $0.0126\,q^{-0.89}\ \mathrm{M_\odot\,pc^{-3}}=0.48\,q^{-0.89}\ \mathrm{GeV\,cm^{-3}}$. When combined with other literature results we find hints for a mildly oblate dark halo with $q\simeq 0.8$. Our value for the dark mass within the solar radius is larger than that predicted by cosmological dark-matter-only simulations but in good agreement with simulations once the effects of baryonic infall are taken into account. Our mass models consist of three double-exponential discs, an oblate bulge and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark-matter halo, and we model the dynamics of the RAVE stars in the corresponding gravitational fields by finding distribution functions $f(\mathbf{J})$ that depend on three action integrals. Statistical errors are completely swamped by systematic uncertainties, the most important of which is the distance to the stars in the photometric and spectroscopic samples. Systematics other than the flattening of the dark halo yield overall uncertainties $\sim10$ per cent.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the kinematic parameters of the Milky Way disc using the RAVE and GCS stellar surveys. We do this by fitting a kinematic model to the data taking the selection function of the data into account. For stars in the GCS we use all phase-space coordinates, but for RAVE stars we use only $(l,b,v_{\rm los})$. Using MCMC technique, we investigate the full posterior distributions of the parameters given the data. We investigate the `age-velocity dispersion' relation for the three kinematic components ($\sigma_R,\sigma_{\phi},\sigma_z$), the radial dependence of the velocity dispersions, the Solar peculiar motion ($U_{\odot},V_{\odot}, W_{\odot} $), the circular speed $\Theta_0$ at the Sun and the fall of mean azimuthal motion with height above the mid-plane. We confirm that the Besan\c{c}on-style Gaussian model accurately fits the GCS data, but fails to match the details of the more spatially extended RAVE survey. In particular, the Shu distribution function (DF) handles non-circular orbits more accurately and provides a better fit to the kinematic data. The Gaussian distribution function not only fits the data poorly but systematically underestimates the fall of velocity dispersion with radius. We find that correlations exist between a number of parameters, which highlights the importance of doing joint fits. The large size of the RAVE survey, allows us to get precise values for most parameters. However, large systematic uncertainties remain, especially in $V_{\odot}$ and $\Theta_0$. We find that, for an extended sample of stars, $\Theta_0$ is underestimated by as much as $10\%$ if the vertical dependence of the mean azimuthal motion is neglected. Using a simple model for vertical dependence of kinematics, we find that it is possible to match the Sgr A* proper motion without any need for $V_{\odot}$ being larger than that estimated locally by surveys like GCS.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: STEP (the SMC in Time: Evolution of a Prototype interacting late-type dwarf galaxy) is a Guaranteed Time Observation survey being performed at the VST (the ESO VLT Survey Telescope). STEP will image an area of 74 deg$^2$ covering the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud (32 deg$^2$), the Bridge that connects it to the Large Magellanic Cloud (30 deg$^2$) and a small part of the Magellanic Stream (2 deg$^2$). Our $g,r,i,H_{\alpha}$ photometry is able to resolve individual stars down to magnitudes well below the main-sequence turnoff of the oldest populations. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products of the survey. We also present preliminary results for the first two fields for which data acquisition is completed, including some detailed analysis of the two stellar clusters IC\,1624 and NGC\,419.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarfs would follow from the observed structure if cloud and stellar subregions more readily coalesce when self-gravity in the unit cell contributes more to the total gravitational potential.
    04/2014; 787(1).
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    S. Pasetto, C. Chiosi, M. Cropper, E. K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar convection is customarily described by Mixing-Length Theory, which makes use of the mixing-length scale to express the convective flux, velocity, and temperature gradients of the convective elements and stellar medium. The mixing-length scale is taken to be proportional to the local pressure scale height, and the proportionality factor (the mixing-length parameter) must be determined by comparing the stellar models to some calibrator, usually the Sun. No strong arguments exist to suggest that the mixing-length parameter is the same in all stars and at all evolutionary phases. Because of this, all stellar models in literature are hampered by this basic uncertainty. The aim of this study is to present a new theory of stellar convection that does not require the mixing length parameter. We present a self-consistent analytical formulation of stellar convection that determines the properties of stellar convection as a function of the physical behaviour of the convective elements themselves and the surrounding medium. This new theory is formulated starting from a conventional solution of the Navier-Stokes/Euler equations, i.e. the Bernoulli equation for a perfect fluid, but expressed in a non-inertial reference frame co-moving with the convective elements. In our formalism the motion of stellar convective cells inside convective- unstable layers is fully determined by a new system of equations for convection in a non-local and time dependent formalism. We obtain an analytical, non-local, time-dependent solution for the convective energy transport that does not depend on any free parameter. The predictions of the new theory are compared with those from the standard mixing-length paradigm for the most accurate calibrator, the Sun, with very satisfactory results.
    03/2014;
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    L. S. Pilyugin, E. K. Grebel, A. Y. Kniazev
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the oxygen and nitrogen abundance distributions across the optical disks of 130 nearby late-type galaxies using around 3740 published spectra of HII regions. We use these data in order to provide homogeneous abundance determinations for all objects in the sample, including HII regions in which not all of the usual diagnostic lines were measured. Examining the relation between N and O abundances in these galaxies we find that the abundances in their centres and at their isophotal R_25 disk radii follow the same relation. The variation in N/H at a given O/H is around 0.3 dex. We suggest that the observed spread in N/H may be partly caused by the time delay between N and O enrichment and the different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types and dimensions. We study the correlations between the abundance properties (central O and N abundances, radial O and N gradients) of a galaxy and its morphological type and dimension.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2014; 147(6). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse the kinematics of ̃400 000 stars that lie within ̃2 kpc of the Sun and have spectra measured in the Radial Velocity Experiment. We decompose the sample into hot and cold dwarfs, red-clump and non-clump giants. The kinematics of the clump giants are consistent with being identical with those of the giants as a whole. Without binning the data we fit Gaussian velocity ellipsoids to the meridional-plane components of velocity of each star class and give formulae from which the shape and orientation of the velocity ellipsoid can be determined at any location. The data are consistent with the giants and the cool dwarfs sharing the same velocity ellipsoids, which have vertical velocity dispersion rising from 21 km s-1 in the plane to ̃55 km s-1 at |z| = 2 kpc and radial velocity dispersion rising from 37 km s-1 to 82 km s-1 in the same interval. At (R, z), the longest axis of one of these velocity ellipsoids is inclined to the Galactic plane by an angle ̃0.8 arctan(z/R). We use a novel formula to obtain precise fits to the highly non-Gaussian distributions of vφ components in eight bins in the (R, z) plane. We compare the observed velocity distributions with the predictions of a published dynamical model fitted to the velocities of stars that lie within ̃150 pc of the Sun and star counts towards the Galactic pole. The predictions for the vz distributions are exceptionally successful. The model's predictions for vφ are successful except for the hot dwarfs, and its predictions for vr fail significantly only for giants that lie far from the plane. If distances to the model's stars are overestimated by 20 per cent, the predicted distributions of vr and vz components become skew, and far from the plane broader. The broadening significantly improves the fits to the data. The ability of the dynamical model to give such a good account of a large body of data to which it was not fitted inspires confidence in the fundamental correctness of the assumed, disc-dominated, gravitational potential.
    01/2014; 439(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M⊙). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band Hα images. The program was awarded 60 orbits of HST time and is built on the existing 30 orbits monochromatic proper motion program GO-12499 (PI Lennon). The combination of all these bands provides a unique view of the region: the resulting maps of the Tarantula’s stellar content provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. At the same time access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. We will deliver high-level data products (i.e. star and cluster catalogs, co-registered stacked images). HTTP will become the definitive catalog of the field, and have lasting value for future. HTTP also has an educational and public outreach component aimed to stimulate interest in STEM disciplines among people with visual impairments. “Reach for the Stars: Touch, Look, Listen, Learn” is a free eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method to identify planetary nebula (PN) candidates in imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This method exploits the SDSS's five-band sampling of emission lines in PN spectra, which results in a color signature distinct from that of other sources. Selection criteria based on this signature can be applied to nearby galaxies in which PNe appear as point sources. We applied these criteria to the whole area of M31 as scanned by the SDSS, selecting 167 PN candidates that are located in the outer regions of M31. The spectra of 80 selected candidates were then observed with the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. These observations and cross-checks with literature data show that our method has a selection rate efficiency of about 90%, but the efficiency is different for the different groups of PN candidates. In the outer regions of M31, PNe trace different well-known morphological features like the Northern Spur, the NGC 205 Loop, the G1 Clump, etc. In general, the distribution of PNe in the outer region 8 < R < 20 kpc along the minor axis shows the "extended disk"—a rotationally supported low surface brightness structure with an exponential scale length of 3.21 ± 0.14 kpc and a total mass of ~1010 M ☉, which is equivalent to the mass of M33. We report the discovery of three PN candidates with projected locations in the center of Andromeda NE, a very low surface brightness giant stellar structure in the outer halo of M31. Two of the PNe were spectroscopically confirmed as genuine PNe. These two PNe are located at projected distances along the major axis of ~48 Kpc and ~41 Kpc from the center of M31 and are the most distant PNe in M31 found up to now. With the new PN data at hand we see the obvious kinematic connection between the continuation of the Giant Stream and the Northern Spur. We suggest that 20%-30% of the stars in the Northern Spur area may belong to the Giant Stream. In our data we also see a possible kinematic connection between the Giant Stream and PNe in Andromeda NE, suggesting that Andromeda NE could be the core or remnant of the Giant Stream. Using PN data we estimate the total mass of the Giant Stream progenitor to be ≈109 M ☉. About 90% of its stars appear to have been lost during the interaction with M31. Based in part on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2014; 147(1):16-. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presented tables summarise new radial velocities and average metallicities for Galactic open clusters extracted from the Catalogue of Open Cluster Data (COCD; Kharchenko et al. 2005, Cat. J/A+A/438/1163, J/A+A/440/403). The data were obtained from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE; Kordopatis et al. 2013AJ....146..134K) through a cross match with the stellar catalogues related to the COCD. The RV and [M/H] values were computed as weighted means, considering the individual uncertainties of the included members and their cluster membership probability based on position, proper motion, and photometry.The three uncertainties listed originate from different calculations: "RVRAVE" and "MetRAVE" are the weighted mean values for RV and [M/H] "errRV" and "errMet" are equivalent to the uncertainty of the mean values "sigRV" and "sigMet" are the standard deviations of the mean values "eRV" and "eMet" weighted mean values of the individual uncertainties of the included open cluster (OC) membersFor the calculations we primarily considered most probable OC members (best members) with a membership probability of at least 61%. Only in cases where just one or no most probable members was available we also included possible members (good members) with membership probabilities above 14%. In the table we include the numbers for both types of members separately: best members -> "bmem" and good members -> "gmem".We included reference values for RVs from the second version of the Catalogue of Radial Velocities with Astrometric Data (CRVAD-2) and the Catalogue of Radial Velocities of Open Clusters and Associations (CRVOCA) provided by Kharchenko et al. 2007, Cat. III/254). The CRVAD-2 reference values were computed according to the RAVE values for identified OC members. The CRVOCA references were directly extracted from the catalogue and number of OC members used are given in column "nmem".The reference values for [M/H] were obtained from the online compilation provided by Dias et al. (2002, See B/ocl), hereafter referred to as DAML. These were obtained through different techniques and the literature references from DAML are also included in our table. In DAML actual [M/H] values are mixed with [Fe/H] values and we only considered the actual [M/H], based on information given in the references.(2 data files).
    12/2013;
  • Eva K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: Galaktische Archäologie: Mit riesigen Datensätzen und neuartigen Modellen lernen Astronomen, die Entwicklung unserer Heimatgalaxie und von Spiralgalaxien insgesamt besser zu verstehen.
    forschung. 12/2013; 38(4).
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method to identify planetary nebula (PN) candidates in imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This method exploits the SDSS' five-band sampling of emission lines in PN spectra, which results in a color signature distinct from that of other sources. Selection criteria based on this signature can be applied to nearby galaxies in which PNe appear as point sources. We applied these criteria to the whole area of M31 as scanned by the SDSS, selecting 167 PN candidates that are located in the outer regions of M31. The spectra of 80 selected candidates were then observed with the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. These observations and cross-checks with literature data show that our method has a selection rate efficiency of about 90%, but the efficiency is different for the different groups of PNe candidates. In the outer regions of M31, PNe trace different well-known morphological features like the Northern Spur, the NGC205 Loop, the G1 Clump, etc. In general, the distribution of PNe in the outer region 8<R<20 kpc along the minor axis shows the "extended disk" - a rotationally supported low surface brightness structure with an exponential scale length of 3.21+/-0.14 kpc and a total mass of ~10^10 M_{\sun}, which is equivalent to the mass of M33. We report the discovery of three PN candidates with projected locations in the center of Andromeda NE, a very low surface brightness giant stellar structure in the outer halo of M31. Two of the PNe were spectroscopically confirmed as genuine PNe. These two PNe are located at projected distances along the major axis of ~48 Kpc and ~41 Kpc from the center of M31 and are the most distant PNe in M31 found up to now.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The velocity dispersions of stars near the Sun are known to increase with stellar age, but age can be difficult to determine so a proxy like the abundance of alpha elements (e.g., Mg) with respect to iron, [alpha/Fe], is used. Here we report an unexpected behavior found in the velocity dispersion of a sample of giant stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey with high quality chemical and kinematical information, in that it decreases strongly for stars with [Mg/Fe] > 0.4 dex (i.e., those that formed in the first Gyr of the Galaxy's life). These findings are explained by perturbations from massive mergers in the early Universe, which have affected more strongly the outer parts of the disc, and the subsequent radial migration of stars with cooler kinematics from the inner disc. Similar reversed trends in velocity dispersion are also found for different metallicity subpopulations. Our results suggest that the Milky Way disc merger history can be recovered by relating the observed chemo-kinematic relations to the properties of past merger events.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 781(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By selecting in the RAVE-DR4 survey the stars located between 1 and 2 kpc above the Galactic plane, we question the consistency of the simplest three-component model (thin disc, thick disc, halo) for the Milky Way. We confirm that the metallicity and azimuthal velocity distribution functions of the thick disc are not Gaussian. In particular, we find that the thick disc has an extended metallicity tail going at least down to [M/H]=-2 dex, contributing roughly at 3% of the entire thick disc population and having a shorter scale-length compared to the canonical thick disc. The mean azimuthal velocity of these metal-poor stars allows us to estimate the correlation between the metallicity and the orbital velocity, which is an important constraint on the formation mechanisms of the Galactic thick disc. Given our simple approach, we find dVphi/d[M/H] ~ 50 km/s/dex, which is in a very good agreement with previous literature values. We complete the study with a brief discussion on the implications of the formation scenarios for the thick disc, and suggest that given the above mentioned characteristics, a thick disc mainly formed by radial migration mechanisms seems unlikely.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 436(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RAVE, the unbiased magnitude limited survey of southern sky stars, contained 456,676 medium-resolution spectra at the time of our analysis. Spectra cover the Ca II infrared triplet (IRT) range, which is a known indicator of chromospheric activity. Our previous work classified all spectra using locally linear embedding. It identified 53,347 cases with a suggested emission component in calcium lines. Here, we use a spectral subtraction technique to measure the properties of this emission. Synthetic templates are replaced by the observed spectra of non-active stars to bypass the difficult computations of non-local thermal equilibrium profiles of the line cores and stellar parameter dependence. We derive both the equivalent width of the excess emission for each calcium line on a 5 Å wide interval and their sum EWIRT for ~44,000 candidate active dwarf stars with signal-to-noise ratio >20, with no cuts on the basis of the source of their emission flux. From these, ~14,000 show a detectable chromospheric flux with at least a 2σ confidence level. Our set of active stars vastly enlarges previously known samples. Atmospheric parameters and, in some cases, radial velocities of active stars derived from automatic pipelines suffer from systematic shifts due to their shallower calcium lines. We re-estimate the effective temperature, metallicity, and radial velocities for candidate active stars. The overall distribution of activity levels shows a bimodal shape, with the first peak coinciding with non-active stars and the second with the pre-main-sequence cases. The catalog will be made publicly available with the next RAVE public data releases.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 776(2):127-. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse interstellar bands are usually observed in spectra of hot stars, where interstellar lines are rarely blended with stellar ones. The need for hot stars is a strong limitation in the number of sightlines we can observe and the distribution of sightlines in the Galaxy, as hot stars are rare and concentrated in the Galactic plane. We are introducing a new method, where interstellar lines can be observed in spectra of cool stars in large spectroscopic surveys. The method is completely automated and does not require prior knowledge of the stellar parameters. If known, the stellar parameters only reduce the computational time and are not involved in the extraction of the interstellar spectrum. The main step in extracting interstellar lines is a construction of the stellar spectrum, which is in our method done by finding other observed spectra that lack interstellar features and are otherwise very similar to the spectrum in question. Such spectra are then combined into a single stellar spectrum template, which matches the stellar component in an observed spectrum. We demonstrate the performance of this new method on a sample of 482,430 spectra observed in RAVE survey. However, many spectra have to be combined (48 on average) in order to achieve a S/N ratio high enough to measure the DIB's profile, hence limiting the spatial information about the ISM. Only one strong interstellar line is included in the RAVE spectral range, a diffuse interstellar band at 8620 \AA. We compare its equivalent width with extinction maps and with Bayesian reddening, calculated for individual stars, and provide a linear relation between the equivalent width and reddening. Separately from the introduced method, we calculate equivalent widths of the diffuse interstellar band in spectra of hot stars with known extinction and compare all three linear relations with each other and with relations from the literature.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances and distances determined for 425 561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the 2MASS photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline which is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration website and the Vizier database.
    09/2013;

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,326.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Macquarie University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2013
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Universität Basel
      • Department of Physics
      Basel, BS, Switzerland
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1996–2009
    • University of Wuerzburg
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • Australian National University
      • Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2000–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999–2008
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
  • 1991–2008
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • Wesleyan University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Middletown, Connecticut, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1993
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany