E. K. Grebel

University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (589)1415.61 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examine the relation between oxygen abundances in the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from the optical emission lines through the strong-line method (the theoretical calibration of Storchi-Bergmann et al.(1998)), via the direct Te-method, and the central intersect abundances in the host galaxies determined from the radial abundance gradients. We found that the Te-method underestimates the oxygen abundances by up to ~2 dex (with average value of ~0.8 dex) compared to the abundances derived through the strong-line method. This confirms the existence of the so-called "temperature problem" in AGNs. We also found that the abundances in the centres of galaxies obtained from their spectra trough the strong-line method are close to or slightly lower than the central intersect abundances estimated from the radial abundance gradient both in AGNs and Star-forming galaxies. The oxygen abundance of the NLR is usually lower than the maximum attainable abundance in galaxies (~2 times the solar value). This suggests that there is no extraordinary chemical enrichment of the NLRs of AGNs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2015; 453(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1916 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of spectrophotometric observations of the massive star MN18 revealed via discovery of a bipolar nebula around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the optical spectrum obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope, we classify this star as B1 Ia. The evolved status of MN18 is supported by the detection of nitrogen overabundance in the nebula, which implies that it is composed of processed material ejected by the star. We analysed the spectrum of MN18 by using the code CMFGEN, obtaining a stellar effective temperature of \approx 21 kK. The star is highly reddened, E(B-V)\approx 2 mag. Adopting an absolute visual magnitude of M_V=-6.8\pm0.5 (typical of B1 supergiants), MN18 has a luminosity of log L/Lsun \approx 5.42\pm0.30, a mass-loss rate of \approx (2.8-4.5)\times10^{-7} Msun/yr, and resides at a distance of \approx 5.6^{+1.5} _{-1.2} kpc. We discuss the origin of the nebula around MN18 and compare it with similar nebulae produced by other blue supergiants in the Galaxy (Sher 25, HD 168625, [SBW2007] 1) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (Sk-69 202). The nitrogen abundances in these nebulae imply that blue supergiants can produce them from the main sequence stage up to the pre-supernova stage. We also present a K-band spectrum of the candidate luminous blue variable MN56 (encircled by a ring-like nebula) and report the discovery of an OB star at \approx 17 arcsec from MN18. The possible membership of MN18 and the OB star of the star cluster Lynga 3 is discussed.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2015; 454(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1995 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC5253 hosts a number of young, massive star clusters, the two youngest of which are centrally concentrated and surrounded by thermal radio emission (the `radio nebula'). To investigate the role of these clusters in the starburst energetics, we combine new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC5253 with wavelength coverage from 1500 Ang to 1.9 micron in 13 filters. These include H-alpha, P-beta, and P-alpha, and the imaging from the Hubble Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey). The extraordinarily well-sampled spectral energy distributions enable modeling with unprecedented accuracy the ages, masses, and extinctions of the 9 optically brightest clusters (M_V < -8.8) and the two young radio nebula clusters. The clusters have ages ~1-15 Myr and masses ~1x10^4 - 2.5x10^5 M_sun. The clusters' spatial location and ages indicate that star formation has become more concentrated towards the radio nebula over the last ~15 Myr. The most massive cluster is in the radio nebula; with a mass 2.5x10^5 M_sun and an age ~1 Myr, it is 2-4 times less massive and younger than previously estimated. It is within a dust cloud with A_V~50 mag, and shows a clear nearIR excess, likely from hot dust. The second radio nebula cluster is also ~1 Myr old, confirming the extreme youth of the starburst region. These two clusters account for about half of the ionizing photon rate in the radio nebula, and will eventually supply about 2/3 of the mechanical energy in present-day shocks. Additional sources are required to supply the remaining ionizing radiation, and may include very massive stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2015; 811(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/75 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spectra of 34 H II regions in the late-type galaxies NGC1087, NGC2967, NGC3023, NGC4030, NGC4123, and NGC4517A were observed with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). In all 34 H II regions, oxygen abundances were determined through the "counterpart" method (C method). Additionally, in two H II regions in which the auroral lines were detected oxygen abundances were measured through the classic Te method. We also estimated the abundances in our H II regions using the O3N2 and N2 calibrations and compared those with the C-based abundances. With these data we examined the radial abundance distributions in the disks of our target galaxies. We derived surface-brightness profiles and other characteristics of the disks (the surface brightness at the disk center and the disk scale length) in three photometric bands for each galaxy using publicly available photometric imaging data. The radial distributions of the oxygen abundances predicted by the relation between abundance and disk surface brightness in the W1 band obtained for spiral galaxies in our previous study are close to the radial distributions of the oxygen abundances determined from the analysis of the emission line spectra for four galaxies where this relation is applicable. Hence, when the surface-brightness profile of a late-type galaxy is known, this parametric relation can be used to estimate the likely present-day oxygen abundance in its disk.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526311 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present first results from a high resolution multi-band survey of the Westerlund 2 region with the Hubble Space Telescope. Specifically, we imaged Westerlund 2 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys through the $F555W$, $F814W$, and $F658N$ filters and with the Wide Field Camera 3 in the $F125W$, $F160W$, and $F128N$ filters. We derive the first high resolution pixel-to-pixel map of the color excess $E(B-V)_g$ of the gas associated with the cluster, combining the H$\alpha$ ($F658N$) and Pa$\beta$ ($F128N$) line observations. We demonstrate that, as expected, the region is affected by significant differential reddening with a median of $E(B-V)_g=1.87$~mag. After separating the populations of cluster members and foreground contaminants using a $(F814W-F160W)$ vs. $F814W$ color-magnitude diagram, we identify a pronounced pre-main-sequence population in Westerlund 2 showing a distinct turn-on. After dereddening each star of Westerlund 2 individually in the color-magnitude diagram we find via over-plotting PARSEC isochrones that the distance is in good agreement with the literature value of $\sim4.16 \pm 0.33$~kpc. With zero-age-main-sequence fitting to two-color-diagrams, we derive a value of total to selective extinction of $R_V=3.95 \pm 0.135$. A spatial density map of the stellar content reveals that the cluster might be composed of two clumps. We estimate the same age of 0.5-2.0 Myr for both clumps. While the two clumps appear to be coeval, the northern clump shows a $\sim 20 \%$ lower stellar surface density.
    The Astronomical Journal 06/2015; 150(3). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/78 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed clustering analysis of the young stellar population across the star-forming ring galaxy NGC 6503, based on the deep HST photometry obtained with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We apply a contour-based map analysis technique and identify in the stellar surface density map 244 distinct star-forming structures at various levels of significance. These stellar complexes are found to be organized in a hierarchical fashion with 95% being members of three dominant super-structures located along the star-forming ring. The size distribution of the identified structures and the correlation between their radii and numbers of stellar members show power-law behaviors, as expected from scale-free processes. The self-similar distribution of young stars is further quantified from their autocorrelation function, with a fractal dimension of ~1.7 for length-scales between ~20 pc and 2.5 kpc. The young stellar radial distribution sets the extent of the star-forming ring at radial distances between 1 and 2.5 kpc. About 60% of the young stars belong to the detected stellar structures, while the remaining stars are distributed among the complexes, still inside the ring of the galaxy. The analysis of the time-dependent clustering of young populations shows a significant change from a more clustered to a more distributed behavior in a time-scale of ~60 Myr. The observed hierarchy in stellar clustering is consistent with star formation being regulated by turbulence across the ring. The rotational velocity difference between the edges of the ring suggests shear as the driving mechanism for this process. Our findings reveal the interesting case of an inner ring forming stars in a hierarchical fashion.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2015; 452(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1325 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    John J. Vickers · Martin C. Smith · Eva K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we analyze a sample of metal-rich (>-0.8 dex) main sequence stars in the extended solar neighborhood, investigating kinematic outliers from the background population. The data, which are taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are kinematically profiled as a function of distance from the Galactic plane using full six dimensional phase space information. Each star is examined in the context of these kinematic profiles and likelihoods are assigned to quantify whether a star matches the underlying profile. Since some of these stars are likely to have been ejected from the disc, we trace back their orbits in order to determine potential ejection radii. We find that objects with low probability (i.e. `outliers') are typically more metal poor, faster and, most importantly, have a tendency to originate from the inner Galaxy compared to the underlying population. We also compose a sample of stars with velocities exceeding the local escape velocity. Although we do not discount that our sample could be contaminated by objects with spurious proper motions, a number of stars appear to have been ejected from the disc with exceptionally high velocities. Some of these are consistent with being ejected from the spiral arms and hence are a rich resource for further study. Finally we look at objects whose orbits are consistent with them being ejected at high speeds from the Galactic center. Of these objects we find that one, J135855.65+552538.19, is inconsistent with halo, bulge and disk kinematics and could plausibly have been ejected from the Galactic nucleus via a Hills mechanism.
    The Astronomical Journal 06/2015; 150(3). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/77 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the recent star formation of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of the massive ionizing cluster of 30 Doradus, NGC 2070. We recovered the star formation history by comparing deep optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence to post- main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the star formation in the region: i) exceeded the average LMC rate ~ 20 Myr ago; ii) accelerated dramatically ~ 7 Myr ago; and iii) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass function down to 0.5 Msun. The average internal reddening E(B-V) is found to be between 0.3 and 0.4 mag.
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    L. S. Pilyugin · E. K. Grebel · I. A. Zinchenko
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the radial abundance distributions across the discs of 14 irregular galaxies of the types Sm and Im (morphological T types 9 and 10) as traced by their H ii regions. The oxygen and nitrogen abundances in H ii regions are estimated through the Te method or/and with the counterpart method (C method). Moreover, we examine the correspondence between the radial abundance gradient and the surface brightness profile. We find that irregular galaxies with a flat inner profile (flat or outwardly increasing surface brightness in the central region) show shallow (if any) radial abundance gradients. On the other hand, irregular galaxies with a steep inner profile (with or without a bulge or central star cluster) usually show rather steep radial abundance gradients. This is in contrast to the widely held belief that irregular galaxies do not usually show a radial abundance gradient.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2015; 450(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv932 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have discovered a luminous light echo around the normal Type II-Plateau Supernova (SN) 2012aw in Messier 95 (M95; NGC 3351), detected in images obtained approximately two years after explosion with the Wide Field Channel 3 on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by the Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS). The multi-band observations span from the near-ultraviolet through the optical (F275W, F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W). The apparent brightness of the echo at the time was ~21--22 mag in all of these bands. The echo appears circular, although less obviously as a ring, with an inhomogeneous surface brightness, in particular, a prominent enhanced brightness to the southeast. The SN itself was still detectable, particularly in the redder bands. We are able to model the light echo as the time-integrated SN light scattered off of diffuse interstellar dust in the SN environment. We have assumed that this dust is analogous to that in the Milky Way with R_V=3.1. The SN light curves that we consider also include models of the unobserved early burst of light from the SN shock breakout. Our analysis of the echo suggests that the distance from the SN to the scattering dust elements along the echo is ~45 pc. The implied visual extinction for the echo-producing dust is consistent with estimates made previously from the SN itself. Finally, our estimate of the SN brightness in F814W is fainter than that measured for the red supergiant star at the precise SN location in pre-SN images, possibly indicating that the star has vanished and confirming it as the likely SN progenitor.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2015; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/195 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the influence of stellar migration caused by minor mergers (mass ratio from 1:70 to 1:8) on the radial distribution of chemical abundances in the disks of Milky Way-like galaxies during the last four Gyr. A GPU-based pure N-body tree-code model without hydrodynamics and star formation was used. We computed a large set of mergers with different initial satellite masses, positions, and orbital velocities. We find that there is no significant metallicity change at any radius of the primary galaxy in the case of accretion of a low-mass satellite of 10$^9$ M$_{\odot}$ (mass ratio 1:70) except for the special case of prograde satellite motion in the disk plane of the host galaxy. The accretion of a satellite of a mass $\gtrsim3\times10^9$ M$_{\odot}$ (mass ratio 1:23) results in an appreciable increase of the chemical abundances at galactocentric distances larger than $\sim10$ kpc. The radial abundance gradient flattens in the range of galactocentric distances from 5 to 15 kpc in the case of a merger with a satellite with a mass $\gtrsim3\times10^9$ M$_{\odot}$. There is no significant change in the abundance gradient slope in the outer disk (from $\sim15$ kpc up to 25 kpc) in any merger while the scatter in metallicities at a given radius significantly increases for most of the satellite's initial masses/positions compared to the case of an isolated galaxy. This argues against attributing the break (flattening) of the abundance gradient near the optical radius observed in the extended disks of Milky Way-like galaxies only to merger-induced stellar migration.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2015; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/267 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the identification of potential members of nearby Galactic globular clusters using radial velocities from the RAdial Velocity Experiment Data Release 4 (RAVE-DR4) survey database. Our identifications are based on three globular clusters -- NGC 3201, NGC 5139 ($\omega$ Cen) and NGC 362 -- all of which are shown to have |RV|>100 km/s. The identification of globular cluster stars in RAVE DR4 data offers a unique opportunity to test the precision and accuracy of the stellar parameters determined with the currently available Stellar Parameter Pipelines (SPPs) used in the survey, as globular clusters are ideal testbeds for the validation of stellar atmospheric parameters, abundances, distances and ages. For both NGC 3201 and $\omega$ Cen, there is compelling evidence for numerous members (> 10) in the RAVE database; in the case of NGC 362 the evidence is more ambiguous, and there may be significant foreground and/or background contamination in our kinematically-selected sample. A comparison of the RAVE-derived stellar parameters and abundances with published values for each cluster and with BASTI isochrones for ages and metallicities from the literature reveals overall good agreement, with the exception of the apparent underestimation of surface gravities for giants, in particular for the most metal-poor stars. Moreover, if the selected members are part of the main body of each cluster our results would also suggest that the distances from Binney et al. 2013, where only isochrones more metal-rich than -0.9 dex were used, are typically underestimated by ~ 40% with respect to the published distances for the clusters, while the distances from Zwitter et al. 2010 show stars ranging from 1 to ~ 6.5 kpc -- with indications of a trend toward higher distances at lower metallicities -- for the three clusters analysed in this study.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2015; 000(2):1-23. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv800 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the kinematics of a local sample of stars, located within a cylinder of 500 pc radius centered on the Sun, in the RAVE dataset. We find clear asymmetries in the $v_R$-$v_\phi$ velocity distributions of thin and thick disk stars: here are more stars moving radially outwards for low azimuthal velocities and more radially inwards for high azimuthal velocities. Such asymmetries have been previously reported for the thin disk as being due to the Galactic bar, but this is the first time that the same type of structures are seen in the thick disk. Our findings imply that the velocities of thick disk stars should no longer be described by Schwarzschild's, multivariate Gaussian or purely axisymmetric distributions. Furthermore, the nature of previously reported substructures in the thick disk needs to be revisited as these could be associated with dynamical resonances rather than to accretion events. It is clear that dynamical models of the Galaxy must fit the 3D velocity distributions of the disks, rather than the projected 1D, if we are to understand the Galaxy fully.
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    ABSTRACT: We study the kinematics of a local sample of stars, located within a cylinder of radius centered on the Sun, in the RAVE data set. We find clear asymmetries in the - velocity distributions of thin and thick disk stars: there are more stars moving radially outward for low azimuthal velocities and more radially inward for high azimuthal velocities. Such asymmetries have been previously reported for the thin disk as being due to the Galactic bar, but this is the first time that the same type of structures are seen in the thick disk. Our findings imply that the velocities of thick-disk stars should no longer be described by Schwarzschild's, multivariate Gaussian or purely axisymmetric distributions. Furthermore, the nature of previously reported substructures in the thick disk needs to be revisited as these could be associated with dynamical resonances rather than to accretion events. It is clear that dynamical models of the Galaxy must fit the 3D velocity distributions of the disks, rather than the projected 1D, if we are to understand the Galaxy fully.
    02/2015; 800(2):L32. DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/800/2/L32
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    ABSTRACT: The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 sq. deg of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 sq. deg of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 sq. deg; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5,513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 01/2015; 219(1). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/219/1/12 · 11.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the RAdial Velocity Experiment fourth data release (RAVE DR4), and a new metallicity calibration that will be also taken into account in the future RAVE DR5, we investigate the existence and the properties of supersolar metallicity stars ([M/H] ≳ +0.1 dex) in the sample, and in particular in the solar neighbourhood. We find that RAVE is rich in supersolar metallicity stars, and that the local metallicity distribution function declines remarkably slowly up to +0.4 dex. Our results show that the kinematics and height distributions of the supersolar metallicity stars are identical to those of the [M/H] ≲ 0 thin-disc giants that we presume were locally manufactured. The eccentricities of the supersolar metallicity stars indicate that half of them are on a roughly circular orbit (e ≤ 0.15), so under the assumption that the metallicity of the interstellar medium at a given radius never decreases with time, they must have increased their angular momenta by scattering at corotation resonances of spiral arms from regions far inside the solar annulus. The likelihood that a star will migrate radially does not seem to decrease significantly with increasing amplitude of vertical oscillations within range of oscillation amplitudes encountered in the disc.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 447(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2726 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to characterize high-velocity (HiVel) stars in the solar vicinity both chemically and kinematically using the fourth data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). We used a sample of 57 HiVel stars with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 275 km s−1. With 6D position and velocity information, we integrated the orbits of the HiVel stars and found that, on average, they reach out to 13 kpc from the Galactic plane and have relatively eccentric orbits consistent with the Galactic halo. Using the stellar parameters and [α/Fe] estimates from RAVE, we found the metallicity distribution of the HiVel stars peak at [M/H] = −1.2 dex and is chemically consistent with the inner halo. There are a few notable exceptions that include a hypervelocity star candidate, an extremely HiVel bound halo star, and one star that is kinematically consistent with the halo but chemically consistent with the disc. High-resolution spectra were obtained for the metal-rich HiVel star candidate and the second highest velocity star in the sample. Using these high-resolution data, we report the discovery of a metal-rich halo star that has likely been dynamically ejected into the halo from the Galactic thick disc. This discovery could aid in explaining the assembly of the most metal-rich component of the Galactic halo.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 447(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2574 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Eva K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: The Amazing Galactic archaeology: With the help of huge databases and new models, astronomers are learning more about the evolution of our home galaxy and spiral galaxies as a galaxy class.
    German Research 12/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.1002/germ.201590007
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    V. Lora · A. C. Raga · E. K. Grebel
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    ABSTRACT: Dwarf Galaxies are the most common objects in the Universe and are believed to contain large amounts of dark matter. There are mainly three morphologic types of dwarf galaxies: dwarf ellipticals, dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars. Dwarf irregular galaxies are particularly interesting in dwarf galaxy evolution, since dwarf spheroidal predecessors could have been very similar to them. Therefore, a mechanism linked to gas-loss in dwarf irregulars should be observed, i.e. ram pressure stripping. In this paper, we study the interaction between the ISM of a dwarf galaxy, and a flowing IGM. We derive the weak-shock, plasmon solution corresponding to the balance between the post-bow shock pressure and the pressure of the stratified ISM (which we assume follows the fixed stratification of a gravitationally dominant dark matter halo). We compare our model with previously published numerical simulations and with the observed shape of the HI cloud around the Ho II and Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxies. We show that such a comparison provides a straightforward way for estimating the Mach number of the impinging flow.

Publication Stats

16k Citations
1,415.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007–2015
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2013–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Universität Basel
      • Department of Physics
      Basel, BS, Switzerland
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2009
    • University of Wuerzburg
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2000–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1997–2008
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1991–2008
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2002–2005
    • University of Concepción
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Medical Research
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 2003
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States