P. O. Lagage

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (140)250.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5e-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5e-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The second sub-system is the metrology, it projects young fringes on the CCD. The fringes are created by two single mode fibers facing the CCD and fixed on the mirror. In this paper we present the experiments conducted and the results obtained since July 2013 when we had the first light on both the metrology and pseudo stars. We explain the data reduction procedures we used.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5e-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5e-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. In this paper we present the metrology and the pseudo stellar sources sub-systems, we present a performance model and an error budget of the experiment and we report the present status of the demonstration. Finally we also present our first results: the experiment had its first light in July 2013 and a first set of data was taken in air. The analysis of this first set of data showed that we can already measure the pixel positions with an accuracy of about 1e-4 pixel.
    Proc SPIE 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present the design of the MWIR channels of EChO. Two channels cover the 5-11 micron spectral range. The choice of the boundaries of each channel is a trade-off driven by the science goals (spectral features of key molecules) and several parameters such as the common optics design, the dichroic plates design, the optical materials characteristics, the detector cut-off wavelength. We also will emphasize the role of the detectors choice that drives the thermal and mechanical designs and the cooling strategy.
    Proc SPIE 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest wavelength range possible. It is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope. The mission is currently being studied by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The payload suite is required to provide simultaneous coverage from the visible to the mid-infrared and must be highly stable and effectively operate as a single instrument. In this paper we describe the integrated spectrometer payload design for EChO which will cover the 0.4 to 16 micron wavelength band. The instrumentation is subdivided into 5 channels (Visible/Near Infrared, Short Wave InfraRed, 2 x Mid Wave InfraRed; Long Wave InfraRed) with a common set of optics spectrally dividing the input beam via dichroics. We discuss the significant design issues for the payload and the detailed technical trade-offs that we are undertaking to produce a payload for EChO that can be built within the mission and programme constraints and yet which will meet the exacting scientific performance required to undertake transit spectroscopy.
    SPIE Proceedings of Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2012: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave; 07/2012
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    ABSTRACT: The NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) mission is a proposition submitted to ESA for its 2010 call for M-size mission. The main scientific goal is to detect and characterize planetary systems in an exhaustive way down to 1 Earth mass in the habitable zone and further away, around nearby stars for F, G, and K spectral types. This survey would provide the actual planetary masses, the full characterization of the orbits including their inclination, for all the components of the planetary system down to that mass limit. Extremely- high-precision astrometry, in space, can detect the dynamical effect due to even low mass orbiting planets on their central star, reaching those scientific goals. NEAT will continue the work performed by Hipparcos (1mas precision) and Gaia (7{\mu}as aimed) by reaching a precision that is improved by two orders of magnitude (0.05{\mu}as, 1{\sigma} accuracy). The two modules of the payload, the telescope and the focal plane, must be placed 40m away leading to a formation flying option studied as the reference mission. NEAT will operate at L2 for 5 years, the telescope satellite moving around the focal plane one to point different targets and allowing whole sky coverage in less than 20 days. The payload is made of 3 subsystems: primary mirror and its dynamic support, the focal plane with the detectors, and the metrology. The principle is to measure the angles between the target star, usually bright (R \leq 6), and fainter reference stars (R \leq 11) using a metrology system that projects dynamical Young's fringes onto the focal plane. The proposed architecture relies on two satellites of about 700 kg, offering a capability of more than 20,000 reconfigurations. The two satellites are launched in a stacked configuration using a Soyuz ST launch, and are deployed after launch to individually perform cruise to their operational Lissajous orbit.
    08/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: The Mid Infra Red Instrument (MIRI) is one of the four instruments onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), providing imaging, coronagraphy and spectroscopy over the 5-28 microns band. To verify the optical performance of the instrument, extensive tests were performed at CEA on the flight model (FM) of the Mid-InfraRed IMager (MIRIM) at cryogenic temperatures and in the infrared. This paper reports on the point spread function (PSF) measurements at 5.6 microns, the shortest operating wavelength for imaging. At 5.6 microns the PSF is not Nyquist-sampled, so we use am original technique that combines a microscanning measurement strategy with a deconvolution algorithm to obtain an over-resolved MIRIM PSF. The microscanning consists in a sub-pixel scan of a point source on the focal plane. A data inversion method is used to reconstruct PSF images that are over-resolved by a factor of 7 compared to the native resolution of MIRI. We show that the FWHM of the high-resolution PSFs were 5-10% wider than that obtained with Zemax simulations. The main cause was identified as an out-of-specification tilt of the M4 mirror. After correction, two additional test campaigns were carried out, and we show that the shape of the PSF is conform to expectations. The FWHM of the PSFs are 0.18-0.20 arcsec, in agreement with simulations. 56.1-59.2% of the total encircled energy (normalized to a 5 arcsec radius) is contained within the first dark Airy ring, over the whole field of view. At longer wavelengths (7.7-25.5 microns), this percentage is 57-68%. MIRIM is thus compliant with the optical quality requirements. This characterization of the MIRIM PSF, as well as the deconvolution method presented here, are of particular importance, not only for the verification of the optical quality and the MIRI calibration, but also for scientific applications. Comment: 13 pages, submitted to SPIE Proceedings vol. 7731, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave
    Proc SPIE 06/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.
    EAS Publications Series 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: MIRI is one of four instruments to be built for the James Webb Space Telescope. It provides imaging, coronography and integral field spectroscopy over the 5-28.5um wavelength range. MIRI is the only instrument which is cooled to 7K by a dedicated cooler, much lower than the passively cooled 40K of the rest of JWST, and consists of both an Optical System and a Cooler System. This paper will describe the key features of the overall instrument design and then concentrate on the status of the MIRI Optical System development. The flight model design and manufacture is complete, and final assembly and test of the integrated instrument is now underway. Prior to integration, all of the major subassemblies have undergone individual environmental qualification and performance tests and end-end testing of a flight representative model has been carried out. The paper will provide an overview of results from this testing and describe the current status of the flight model build and the plan for performance verification and ground calibration.
    Proc SPIE 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Sagittarius is the supermassive black hole residing at the center of the Milky Way. It has been the main target of an extensive multiwavelength campaign we carried out in April 2007. Herein, we report the detection of a bright flare from the vicinity of the horizon, observed simultaneously in X-rays (XMM-Newton/EPIC) and near infrared (VLT/NACO) on April 4th for 1–2 h. For the first time, such an event also benefitted from a soft γ-rays (INTEGRAL/ISGRI) and mid infrared (VLT/VISIR) coverage, which enabled us to derive upper limits at both ends of the flare spectral energy distribution (SED). We discuss the physical implications of the contemporaneous light curves as well as the SED, in terms of synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission processes.
    Advances in Space Research 10/2009; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Expanding HII regions and propagating shocks are common in the environment of young high-mass star-forming complexes. They can compress a pre-existing molecular cloud and trigger the formation of dense cores. We investigate whether these phenomena can explain the formation of high-mass protostars within an infrared dark cloud located at the position of G327.3-0.6 in the Galactic plane, in between two large infrared bubbles and two HII regions. Methods: The region of G327.3-0.6 was imaged at 450 ? m with the CEA P-ArT\'eMiS bolometer array on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment telescope in Chile. APEX/LABOCA and APEX-2A, and Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS archives data were used in this study. Results: Ten massive cores were detected in the P-ArT\'eMiS image, embedded within the infrared dark cloud seen in absorption at both 8 and 24 ?m. Their luminosities and masses indicate that they form high-mass stars. The kinematical study of the region suggests that the infrared bubbles expand toward the infrared dark cloud. Conclusions: Under the influence of expanding bubbles, star formation occurs in the infrared dark areas at the border of HII regions and infrared bubbles. Comment: 4 pages
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2009; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope is a proposed 2.5 m optical/infrared telescope to be located at DomeC on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items. Comment: 27 pages, 16 figures (degraded quality), accepted for publication in PASA
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia 05/2009; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5 m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ~30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice s good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILO and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e., studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e., studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System). Comment: 19 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in PASA
    05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports measurements of Sgr A* made with NACO in L' band (3.80 μm), Ks band (2.12 μm), and H band (1.66 μm), and with VISIR in N band (11.88 μm) at the ESO VLT, as well as with XMM-Newton at X-ray (2-10 keV) wavelengths. On 2007 April 4, a very bright flare was observed from Sgr A* simultaneously at L' band and X-ray wavelengths. No emission was detected using VISIR. The resulting spectral energy distribution has a blue slope (β>0 for νL ν νβ, consistent with νL ν ν0.4) between 12 μm and 3.8 μm. For the first time, our high-quality data allow a detailed comparison of infrared (IR) and X-ray light curves with a resolution of a few minutes. The IR and X-ray flares are simultaneous to within 3 minutes. However, the IR flare lasts significantly longer than the X-ray flare (both before and after the X-ray peak), and prominent substructures in the 3.8 μm light curve are clearly not seen in the X-ray data. From the shortest timescale variations in the L'-band light curve, we find that the flaring region must be no more than 1.2RS in size. The high X-ray to IR flux ratio, blue νL ν slope MIR to L' band, and the soft νL ν spectral index of the X-ray flare together place strong constraints on possible flare emission mechanisms. We find that it is quantitatively difficult to explain this bright X-ray flare with inverse Compton processes. A synchrotron emission scenario from an electron distribution with a cooling break is a more viable scenario.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2009; 698(1):676. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution spectroscopic mid-infrared observations of the circumstellar (CS) disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 97048 obtained with the VLT Imager and Spectrometer for the Mid-InfraRed. We conducted observations of mid-infrared pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen (H2) as a tracer of warm gas in the disk surface layers. In a previous paper, we reported the detection of the S(1) pure rotational line of H2 at 17.035 μm, and argued that it is arising from the inner regions of the disk around the star. We used the VISIR on the VLT for a more comprehensive study based on complementary observations of the other mid-infrared molecular transitions, namely S(2) and S(4) at 12.278 μm and 8.025 μm respectively, to investigate the physical properties of the molecular gas in the CS disk around HD 97048. We do not detect either the S(2) line or the S(4) H2 line from the disk of HD 97048, but we derive upper limits on the integrated line fluxes which allows us to estimate an upper limit on the gas excitation temperature, T ex < 570 K. This limit on the temperature is consistent with the assumptions previously used in the analysis of the S(1) line, and allows us to set stronger constraints on the mass of warm gas in the inner regions of the disk. Indeed, we estimate the mass of warm gas to be lower than 0.1 M Jup. We also discuss the probable physical mechanisms which could be responsible for the excitation of H2 in the disk of HD 97048.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2009; 695(2):1302. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed a bright flare of Sgr A* in the near-infrared with the adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectrometer SINFONI. Within the uncertainties, the observed spectrum is featureless and can be described by a power law. Our data suggest that the spectral index is correlated with the instantaneous flux and that both quantities experience significant changes within less than 1 hour. We argue that the near-infrared flares from Sgr A* are due to synchrotron emission of transiently heated electrons, the emission being affected by orbital dynamics and synchrotron cooling, both acting on timescales of ≈20 minutes.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 640(2):L163. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. In a previous work, three bright mid-infrared/radio sources were discovered in the nuclear region of starburst/AGN galaxy NGC 1365. Aims. The present study aims to confirm that these sources are indeed young and massive "embedded" clusters, and derive their physical parameters, such as extinction, age and mass. Methods. Using ISAAC and VISIR at the VLT we obtained maps and low resolution spectra in the near-and mid-infrared. The resulting datasets are first interpreted by comparing the observations with images and spectra of the close-by young cluster R136 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and then by using model predictions for both the nebular emission lines and the spectral energy distribution of the sources. Results. We produce maps of the region containing the three sources in the R, J, Ks, L' bands and at 12.8 mu m and perform their accurate relative positioning. We also provide spectra in the ranges 1.8-2.4 mu m, 3.3-4.0 mu m, 8.1-9.3 mu m and 10.4-13.2 mu m. The spectral energy distribution of the three sources rises with wavelength. Emission lines from ionised hydrogen and molecular hydrogen are detected, as well as PAH emission. A conspicuous [NeII] 12.8 mu m line is also observed, while neither the [ArIII] 8.9 mu m nor the [SIV] 10.4 mu m lines are detected. This provides a stringent constraint on the age of the sources: we argue that they are relatively evolved young clusters (6-8Myr). Owing to their ionising photon emission rates and ages, they must be extremely massive clusters (of the order of 10(7) M-circle dot). Their mid-infrared spectral energy distribution suggests the presence of two components: (1) an optically thin component, with a continuum comparable to that of R136; and (2) an optically thick component which might be related to subsequent or on-going episodes of star formation. We anticipate that these sources are good candidates for evolution according to a bi-modal hydrodynamical regime, in which matter is trapped at the centre of a compact and massive cluster and generates further star formation. ESO fellowship program PCI program of ON/MCT 383076/07-2
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2008; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    F. Rahoui, S. Chaty, P. O. Lagage
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    ABSTRACT: We report mid-infrared observations of SGR 1806-20 and its environment - with the highest spatial resolution in this domain to date - using ESO/VISIR in 2005 and 2006, and we retrieved Spitzer/IRAC-MIPS archival data of the same field. We aimed at studying the mid-infrared emission of the stars associated with the same cluster as SGR 1806-20, to detect variations that could be due to the high-energy activity of the magnetar through interaction with the dust. We also aimed at studying the morphology of the cloud close to the centre of the cluster. We performed broadband photometry of three stars - LBV 1806-20, a WC9 and an O/B supergiant - on our VISIR images, as well as on the IRAC data. We then built and fitted their broadband spectral energy distributions with a combination of two absorbed black bodies, representing their stellar components, as well as a possible mid-infrared excess, in order to derive their physical parameters. We show that LBV 1806-20 and the WC9 star exhibit a mid-infrared excess, likely because of the presence of circumstellar dust related to their winds. We also show that only LBV 1806-20 had a variable flux over a period of two years, variability which is due to its LBV nature rather than to a heating of the gas and dust cloud by the high-energy emission of SGR 1806-20. Finally, differences in the intrinsic absorptions of the three stars show an inhomogeneous structure of the density of the gas and dust cloud in the massive star cluster. Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures, 4 tables, accepted in A&A
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2008; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The earliest phases of massive star formation are currently much debated. Aims. In an effort to make progress, we took a census of Class0-like protostellar dense cores in the NGC 3576 region, one of the nearest and most luminous embedded sites of high-mass star formation in the Galaxy. Methods: We used the P-ArTeMiS bolometer camera on the APEX telescope to produce the first 450-micron dust continuum map of the filamentary dense clump associated with NGC 3576. Results: Combining our 450-micron observations with existing data at other wavelengths, we have identified seven massive protostellar sources along the NGC 3576 filament and placed them in the M_env - L_bol evolutionary diagram for protostars. Conclusions: Comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks suggests that these seven protostellar sources will evolve into massive stars with masses M* ~ 15-50 Msun. Four sources are classified as candidate high-mass Class 0 objects, two sources as massive Class I objects, and one source appears to be at an intermediate stage. Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures + 2 online figures, 2 online tables. Accepted for publication in A&A (Letters)
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2008; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant molecule in the circumstellar (CS) environments of young stars, and is a key element in giant planet formation. The measurement of the H2 content provides the most direct probe of the total amount of CS gas, especially in the inner warm planet-forming regions of the disks. Aims: Most Herbig Be stars (HBes) are distant from the Sun and their nature and evolution are still debated. We therefore conducted mid-infrared observations of H2 as a tracer of warm gas around HBes known to have gas-rich CS environments. Methods: We report a search for the H2 S(1) emission line at 17.0348 microns in the CS environments of 5 HBes with the high resolution spectroscopic mode of VISIR (ESO VLT Imager and Spectrometer for the mid-InfraRed). Results: No source shows evidence for H2 emission at 17.0348 microns. Stringent 3sigma upper limits on the integrated line fluxes are derived. Depending on the adopted temperature, limits on column densities and masses of warm gas are also estimated. These non-detections constrain the amount of warm (>150 K) gas in the immediate CS environments of our target stars to be less than 1-10 Jupiter masses. Comment: Research Note accepted for publication in A&A, 5 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2008; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MIRI is the mid-IR instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope and provides imaging, coronography and integral field spectroscopy over the 5-28mum wavelength range. MIRI is the only instrument which is cooled to 7K by a dedicated cooler, much lower than the passively cooled 40K of the rest of JWST, which introduces unique challenges. The paper will describe the key features of the overall instrument design. The flight model design of the MIRI Optical System is completed, with hardware now in manufacture across Europe and the USA, while the MIRI Cooler System is at PDR level development. A brief description of how the different development stages of the optical and cooling systems are accommodated is provided, but the paper largely describes progress with the MIRI Optical System. We report the current status of the development and provide an overview of the results from the qualification and test programme.
    Proc SPIE 08/2008;

Publication Stats

673 Citations
250.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2009
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1995–2009
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2006
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States