ABSTRACT: The synthetic complexes protohemin-6(7)-L-arginyl-L-alanine (HM-RA) and protohemin-6(7)-L-histidine methyl ester (HM-H) were prepared by condensation of suitably protected Arg-Ala or His residues with protohemin IX. HM-RA and HM-H were used for reconstitution of apomyoglobin from horse heart, yielding the Mb-RA and Mb-H derivatives, respectively, of the protein. The spectral, binding and catalytic properties of Mb-RA and Mb-H are significantly different from those of Mb. As shown by MM and MD calculations, these differences are determined by some local structural changes around the heme which are generated by increased mobility of a key peptide segment (Phe43-Lys47), containing the residue (Lys45) that in native Mb interacts with one of the porphyrin carboxylate groups. In the reconstituted Mbs this carboxylate group is bound to the Arg-Ala or His residue and is no longer available for electrostatic interaction with Lys45. The mobility of the peptide segment near the active site allows the distal histidine to come to a closer contact with the heme, and in fact Mb-RA and Mb-H exist as an equilibrium between a high-spin form and a major low-spin, six-coordinated form containing a bis-imidazole ligated heme. The two forms are clearly distinguishable in the NMR spectra, that also show that each of them consists of a mixture of the two most stable isomers resulting from cofactor reconstitution, as also anticipated by MM and MD calculations. Exogenous ligands such as cyanide, azide, or hydrogen peroxide can displace the bound distal histidine, but their affinity is reduced. On the other hand, mobilization of the peptide chain around the heme in the reconstituted Mbs increases the accessibility of large donor molecules at the heme periphery, with respect to native Mb, where a rigid backbone limits access to the distal pocket. The increased active site accessibility of Mb-RA and Mb-H facilitates the binding and electron transfer of phenolic substrates in peroxidase-type oxidations catalyzed by the reconstituted proteins in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
Biochemistry 09/2000; 39(31):9571-82. · 3.42 Impact Factor