T. Hackman

University of Turku, Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland

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Publications (53)104.02 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: () is a Li-rich, rapidly rotating single K giant. We set out to study the spot configuration and activity level by calculating surface temperature maps of the star. Methods: We apply the Doppler imaging method on high-resolution optical spectroscopy obtained during 2004-2006. Results: In July-August 2004, no clear spot structures were visible, but the spot coverage increased in July 2005, and cool spots emerged, especially at intermediate latitudes. Later on in September 2006, the spot coverage increased and cool spots were visible on both sides of the equator. However, the map of 2006 suffers from bad phase coverage, meaning it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the spot locations during that season. Conclusions: Compared with earlier Doppler maps of DI Psc and temperature maps obtained for other late-type stars with similar rotation rates, DI Psc seems to be in a low activity state especially during the observing season of July-August 2004. During the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons, the spot activity seen in the spectral line profiles and inferred from Doppler images increases, and the temperature contrast in our last map is more comparable to what was reported in an earlier study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the spot activity level of the star is variable over time. However, the present and previous Doppler images form too short a time series to draw conclusions about a possible activity cycle in DI Psc.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
    01/2014;
  • 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We model the photometry of RS CVn star $\sigma$ Geminorum to obtain new information on the changes of the surface starspot distribution, i.e., activity cycles, differential rotation and active longitudes. We use the previously published Continuous Periods Search-method (CPS) to analyse V-band differential photometry obtained between the years 1987 and 2010 with the T3 0.4 m Automated Telescope at the Fairborn Observatory. The CPS-method divides data into short subsets and then models the light curves with Fourier-models of variable orders and provides estimates of the mean magnitude, amplitude, period and light curve minima. These light curve parameters are then analysed for signs of activity cycles, differential rotation and active longitudes. We confirm the presence of two previously found stable active longitudes, synchronised with the orbital period $P_{\rm{orb}}=19.60$d and find eight events where the active longitudes are disrupted. The epochs of the primary light curve minima rotate with a shorter period $P_{\rm{min,1}}=19.47$d than the orbital motion. If the variations in the photometric rotation period were to be caused by differential rotation, this would give a differential rotation coefficient of $\alpha \ge 0.103$. The presence of two slightly different periods of active regions may indicate a superposition of two dynamo modes, one stationary in the orbital frame and the other one propagating in the azimuthal direction. Our estimate of the differential rotation is much higher than previous results. However, simulations show that this can be caused by insufficient sampling in our data.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the light curve periodicity of the solar analogue V352 CMa and in particular show that the presence or absence of periodicity in low amplitude light curves can be modelled with the Continuous Period Search (CPS) method. We applied the CPS method to 14 years of V-band photometry of V352 CMa and obtained estimates for the mean, amplitude, period and minima of the light curves in the selected datasets. We also applied the Power Spectrum Method (PSM) to these datasets and compared the performance of this frequently applied method to that of CPS. We detected signs of a $11.7 \pm 0.5$ year cycle in in the mean brightness. The long-term average photometric rotation period was $7.24 \pm 0.22$ days. The lower limit for the differential rotation coefficient would be $|k| > 0.12$, if the law of solar surface differential rotation were valid for V352 CMa and the period changes traced this phenomenon. Signs of stable active longitudes rotating with a period of $7.157 \pm 0.002$ days were detected from the epochs of the light minima with the Kuiper method. CPS performed better than the traditional PSM, because the latter always used a sinusoidal model for the data even when this was clearly not the correct model.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: According to earlier Doppler images of the magnetically active primary giant component of the RS CVn binary II Peg, the surface of the star was dominated by one single active longitude that was clearly drifting in the rotational frame of the binary system during 1994-2002; later imaging for 2004-2010, however, showed decreased and chaotic spot activity, with no signs of the drift pattern. Here we set out to investigate from a more extensive photometric dataset whether such a drift is a persistent phenomenon, in which case it could be due to either an azimuthal dynamo wave or an indication of the binary system orbital synchronization still being incomplete. We analyse the datasets using the Carrier Fit method (hereafter CF), especially suitable for analyzing time series in which a fast clocking frequency (such as the rotation of the star) is modulated with a slower process (such as the stellar activity cycle). We combine all collected photometric data into one single data set, and analyze it with the CF method. As a result, we confirm the earlier results of the spot activity having been dominated by one primary spotted region almost through the entire data set, and the existence of a persistent, nearly linear drift. Disruptions of the linear trend and complicated phase behavior are also seen, but the period analysis reveals a rather stable periodicity with P(spot)=6.71054d plus/minus 0.00005d. After the linear trend is removed from the data, we identify several abrupt phase jumps, three of which are analyzed in more detail with the CF method. These phase jumps closely resemble what is called flip-flop event, but the new spot configurations do not, in most cases, persist for longer than a few months.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differential Johnson V- and B-photometry of the star FK Comae (HD 117555) from automated photometric telescopes are presented. HD 117567 was used as the comparison star. Missing observations are denoted as "99.0000". (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Time series of high-resolution spectra of the late B-type star HD 11753 exhibiting HgMn chemical peculiarity are used to study the surface distribution of different chemical elements and their temporal evolution. Methods: High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra were obtained using the CORALIE spectrograph at La Silla in 2000, 2009, and 2010. Surface maps of YII, SrII, TiII, and CrII were calculated using the Doppler imaging technique. The results were also compared to equivalent width measurements. The evolution of chemical spots both on short and long time scales were investigated. Results: We determine the binary orbit of HD 11753 and fine-tune the rotation period of the primary. The earlier discovered fast evolution of the chemical spots is confirmed by an analysis using both the chemical spot maps and equivalent width measurements. In addition, a long-term decrease in the overall YII and SrII abundances is discovered. A detailed analysis of the chemical spot configurations reveals some possible evidence that a very weak differential rotation is operating in HD 11753.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radial velocities of HgMn star HD 11753 are presented. The measurements obtained from high resolution observations for the 153 CORALIE spectra, five FEROS spectra, and 13 HARPS spectra are presented together with two mid-resolution spectra obtained with the REOSC. The radial velocities were measured by cross-correlations using a synthetic spectrum for Teff=11000K and logg=4.0 as template. For each measurement Heliocentric Julian Date (HJD-2400000), orbital phase, radial velocity measurement, error of the measurement, residual observed-minus-calculated and the instrument information are given. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamo processes in cool active stars generate complex magnetic fields responsible for prominent surface stellar activity and variability at different time scales. For a small number of cool stars magnetic field topologies were reconstructed from the time series of spectropolarimetric observations using the Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) method. In this study we follow a long-term evolution of the magnetic field topology of the RS CVn binary star II Peg. We collected high-resolution circular polarisation observations of II Peg using the SOFIN spectropolarimeter at the Nordic Optical Telescope. These data cover 12 epochs spread over 7 years. A multi-line diagnostic technique in combination with a new ZDI code is applied to interpret these observations. Magnetic inversions using these data reveals evolving magnetic fields with typical local strengths of 0.5-1.0 kG and complex topologies. Despite using a self-consistent magnetic and temperature mapping technique, we do not find a clear correlation between magnetic and temperature features in the ZDI maps. Neither do we confirm the presence of persistent azimuthal field rings found in other RS CVn stars. Reconstruction of the magnetic field topology of II Peg reveals significant evolution of both the surface magnetic field structure and the extended magnetospheric field geometry. From 2004 to 2010 the total field energy drastically declined and the field became less axisymmetric. This also coincided with the transition from predominantly poloidal to mainly toroidal field topology. A qualitative comparison of the ZDI maps of II Peg with the prediction of dynamo theory suggests that the magnetic field in this star is produced mainly by the turbulent alpha^2 dynamo rather than the solar alphaOmega dynamo. Our results do not show a clear active longitude system, nor is there an evidence of the presence of an azimuthal dynamo wave.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FK Comae is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the flip-flop phenomenon was discovered. Therefore, it is of interest to perform a more thorough study of the evolution of the spot activity in FK Com. In this study, we analyse 15 years of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is \Delta \phi < 0.4. In addition we see two mergers of spot regions and two cases where the apparent phase shifts are caused by spot regions drifting with respect to each other. Furthermore we detect variations in the rotation period corresponding to a differential rotation coefficient of |k| > 0.031. The flip-flop cannot be interpreted as a single phenomenon, where the main activity jumps from one active longitude to another. In some of our cases the phase shifts can be explained by differential rotation: Two spot regions move with different angular velocity and even pass each other. Comparison between the methods show that the carrier fit utility is better in retrieving slow evolution especially from a low amplitude light curve, while the continuous period search is more sensitive in case of rapid changes.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the future night-time spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope and present its science core projects. The spectrograph provides a 3-pixel resolution of up to R=87 000 in 45 échelle orders covering the wavelength range 390-900 nm with three grating settings. An iodine cell can be used for high-precision radial velocity work in the 500-630 nm range. The operation of the spectrograph and the telescope will be fully automated without the presence of humans during night-time and will be based on the successful STELLA control system. Future upgrades include a second optical camera for even higher spectral resolution, a Stokes-V polarimeter and a link to the laser-frequency comb at the Vacuum Tower Telescope. The night-time core projects are a study of the angular-momentum evolution of ``The Sun in Time'' and a continuation of our long-term Doppler imaging of active stars.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 11/2012; 333:901. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the spot activity of the young chromospherically active main sequence star LQ Hya. Our aims are to identify possible active longitudes, estimate the differential rotation and study long and short term changes in the activity. Our analysis is based on 24 years of Johnson V-band photometry. We use the previously published Continuous Period Search (CPS) method to model the evolution of the light curve of LQ Hya. The CPS fits a Fourier series model to short overlapping subsets of data. This enables us to monitor the spot configuration of the star with a higher time resolution. We find seasonal variability in the mean level and amplitude of the light curve of LQ Hya. The variability of the light curve amplitude seems not to be cyclic, but the long-term variations in the mean magnitude could be explained by an approximately 13 year cycle. Because of the limited length of the observed time series, it is not yet possible to determine whether this structure really is periodic and represents an activity cycle. We estimate the differential rotation of the star to be small, and the star is potentially very close to a rigid rotator. We search for active longitudes and find that on time scales up to six months there are typically one or two relatively stable active areas on the star with limited phase migration. On time scales longer than one year, no stable active longitudes have been present except for the period between 2003 and 2009 and possibly also some time before 1995. We find any signs of flip-flops with a regular period. The mean time scale of change of the light curve during the observation period is determined to be of the same order of magnitude as the predicted convective turnover time for the star.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the long-term spot activity of the RS CVn star II Peg by means of Doppler imaging based on spectroscopy and time series analysis of photometry. We present 28 Doppler imaging temperature maps spanning the years 1994-2010, of which 14 were calculated for the present study. The longitudinal spot distribution, derived from the surface temperature maps, is compared with epochs of the light curve minima, derived from photometric observations. We detect a longitudinal drift in the major spot structure during 1995-2003. After this there is a clear decrease in the activity level and no clear drift can be seen. We conclude that the variations could be caused by a cyclic behaviour of the underlying magnetic dynamo. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 12/2011; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an earlier study, we reported on the excitation of large-scale vortices in Cartesian hydrodynamical convection models subject to rapid enough rotation. In that study, the conditions of the onset of the instability were investigated in terms of the Reynolds (Re) and Coriolis (Co) numbers in models located at the stellar North pole. In this study, we extend our investigation to varying domain sizes, increasing stratification and place the box at different latitudes. The effect of the increasing box size is to increase the sizes of the generated structures, so that the principal vortex always fills roughly half of the computational domain. The instability becomes stronger in the sense that the temperature anomaly and change in the radial velocity are observed to be enhanced. The model with the smallest box size is found to be stable against the instability, suggesting that a sufficient scale separation between the convective eddies and the scale of the domain is required for the instability to work. The instability can be seen upto the co-latitude of 30 degrees, above which value the flow becomes dominated by other types of mean flows. The instability can also be seen in a model with larger stratification. Unlike the weakly stratified cases, the temperature anomaly caused by the vortex structures is seen to depend on depth.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 09/2011; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We study the spot activity of II Peg during the years 2004-2010 to determine long- and short-term changes in the magnetic activity. In a previous study, we detected a persistent active longitude, as well as major changes in the spot configuration occurring on a timescale of shorter than a year. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the same phenomena persist in the star during these six years of spectroscopic monitoring. Methods. The observations were collected with the high-resolution SOFIN spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. The temperature maps were calculated using a Doppler imaging code based on Tikhonov regularization. Results. We present 12 new temperature maps that show spots distributed mainly over high and intermediate latitudes. In each image, 1-3 main active regions can be identified. The activity level of the star is clearly lower than during our previous study for the years 1994-2002. In contrast to the previous observations, we detect no clear drift of the active regions with respect to the rotation of the star. Conclusions. Having shown a systematic longitudinal drift of the spot-generating mechanism during 1994-2002, the star has clearly switched to a low-activity state for 2004-2010, during which the spot locations appear more random over phase space. It could be that the star is near to a minimum of its activity cycle.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the generation of large-scale vortices in rotating turbulent convection by means of Cartesian direct numerical simulations. We find that for sufficiently rapid rotation, cyclonic structures on a scale large in comparison to that of the convective eddies, emerge, provided that the fluid Reynolds number exceeds a critical value. For slower rotation, cold cyclonic vortices are preferred, whereas for rapid rotation, warm anti-cyclonic vortices are favoured. In some runs in the intermediate regime both types of cyclones co-exist for thousands of convective turnover times. The temperature contrast between the vortices and the surrounding atmosphere is of the order of five per cent. We relate the simulation results to observations of rapidly rotating late-type stars that are known to exhibit large high-latitude spots from Doppler imaging. In many cases, cool spots are accompanied with spotted regions with temperatures higher than the average. In this paper, we investigate a scenario according to which the spots observed in the temperature maps could have a non-magnetic origin due to large-scale vortices in the convection zones of the stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2011; 742(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The included files present the numerical data of our CPS analysis of the young solar analogue HD 116956 photometry. The data consists of differential Johnson V-band photometry using the star HD 114446 as the comparison star. The CPS method is described in detail in our present paper. For a thorough description of the formatting of the numerical results provided by the CPS, see the appendix A of our paper. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The observations were collected with the SOFIN spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. The temperature maps were calculated using a Doppler imaging code based on Tikhonov regularization. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We formulate an improved time series analysis method for the analysis of photometry of active stars. This new Continuous Period Search (CPS) method is applied to 12 years of V band photometry of the young solar analogue HD 116956 (NQ UMa). The new method is developed from the previous Three Stage Period Analysis (TSPA) method. Our improvements are the use of a sliding window in choosing the modelled datasets, a criterion applied to select the best model for each dataset and the computation of the time scale of change of the light curve. We test the performance of CPS with simulated and real data. The CPS has a much improved time resolution which allows us to better investigate fast evolution of stellar light curves. We can also separate between the cases when the data is best described by periodic and aperiodic (e.g. constant brightness) models. We find, however, that the performance of the CPS has certain limitations. It does not determine the correct model complexity in all cases, especially when the underlying light curve is constant and the number of observations too small. Also the sensitivity in detecting two close light curve minima is limited and it has a certain amount of intrinsic instability in its period estimation. Using the CPS, we find persistent active longitudes in the star HD 116956 and a "flip-flop" event that occurred during the year 1999. Assuming that the surface differential rotation of the star causes observable period variations in the stellar light curve, we determine the differential rotation coefficient to be |k|>0.11. The mean timescale of change of the light curve during the whole 12 year observing period was T_C=44.1 d, which is of the same order as the predicted convective turnover time of the star. We also investigate the presence of activity cycles on the star, but do not find any conclusive evidence supporting them.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2010; 527. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We gathered about 100 high-resolution spectra of three typical HgMn (mercury-manganese) stars, HD 11753, HD 53244, and HD 221507, to search for slowly pulsating B-like pulsations and surface inhomogeneous distribution of various chemical elements. Methods. Classical frequency analysis methods were used to detect line profile variability and to determine the variation period. Doppler imaging reconstruction was performed to obtain abundance maps of chemical elements on the stellar surface. Results. For HD 11753, which is the star with the most pronounced variability, distinct spectral line profile changes were detected for Ti, Sr, Y, Zr, and Hg, whereas for HD 53244 and HD 221507 the most variable line profiles belong to the elements Hg and Y, respectively. We derived rotation periods for all three stars from the variations of radial velocities and equivalent widths of spectral lines belonging to inhomogeneously distributed elements: P_rot (HD 11753)=9.54 d, P_rot (HD 53244)=6.16 d, and P_rot (HD 221507)=1.93 d. For HD 11753 the Doppler imaging technique was applied to derive the distribution of the most variable elements Ti, Sr, and Y using two datasets separated by ~65 days. Results of Doppler imaging reconstruction revealed noticeable changes in the surface distributions of TiII, SrII, and YII between the datasets, indicating the hitherto not well understood physical processes in stars with radiative envelopes that cause a rather fast dynamical chemical spot evolution. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 6 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

109 Citations
104.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of Turku
      • Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1999–2011
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Physics
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2008
    • City of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland