L. R. Bedin

National Institute of Astrophysics, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (158)425.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) Low-mass stars have been recognised as promising targets in the search for rocky, small planets with the potential of supporting life. Doppler search programmes using high-resolution spectrographs like HARPS or HARPS-N are providing huge quantities of optical spectra of M dwarfs. We aim to calibrate empirical relationships to determine stellar parameters for early M dwarfs (spectral types M0-M4.5) using the same spectra that are used for the radial velocity determinations. Our methodology consists in the use of ratios of pseudo equivalent widths of spectral features as a temperature diagnostic. Stars with effective temperatures obtained from interferometric estimates of their radii are used as calibrators. Empirical calibrations for the spectral type are also provided. Combinations of features and ratios of features are used to derive calibrations for the stellar metallicity. Our methods are then applied to a large sample of M dwarfs that are being observed in the framework of the HARPS search for extrasolar planets.The derived temperatures and metallicities are used together with photometric estimates of mass, radius, and surface gravity to calibrate empirical relationships for these parameters. A total of 112 temperature sensitive ratios have been calibrated over the range 3100-3950 K, providing Teff values with typical uncertainties of the order of 70 K. Eighty-two ratios of pseudo equivalent widths of features were calibrated to derive spectral types. Regarding stellar metallicity, 696 combinations of pseudo equivalent widths of individual features and temperature-sensitive ratios have been calibrated, over the metallicity range from -0.54 to +0.24 dex, with estimated uncertainties in the range of 0.07-0.10 dex. We provide our own empirical calibrations for stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity.
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the true and the projected obliquity of HAT-P-36 and WASP-11/HAT-P-10 systems, respectively, which are both composed of a relatively cool star and a hot-Jupiter planet. Thanks to the high-resolution spectrograph HARPS-N, we observed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both the systems by acquiring precise radial-velocity measurements during planetary transit events. We also present photometric observations comprising six light curves covering five transit events, obtained using three medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocussing technique. One transit of WASP-11/HAT-P-10 was followed contemporaneously from two observatories. The three transit light curves of HAT-P-36b show anomalies attributable to starspot complexes on the surface of the parent star, in agreement with the analysis of its spectra that indicate a moderate activity. By analysing the complete HATNet data set of HAT-P-36, we estimated the stellar rotation period by detecting a periodic photometric modulation in the light curve caused by star spots, obtaining Prot=15.3 days, which implies that the inclination of the stellar rotational axis with respect to the line of sight is 65 degree. We used the new spectroscopic and photometric data to revise the main physical parameters and measure the sky-projected misalignment angle of the two systems. We found \lambda=-14 degree for HAT-P-36 and \lambda=7 degree for WASP-11/HAT-P-10, indicating in both cases a good spin-orbit alignment. In the case of HAT-P-36, we also measured its real obliquity, which resulted to be 25 degrees.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multiyear survey aimed at collecting (1) high-precision (̃5 milli-mag), (2) fast-cadence (̃3 min), and (3) relatively long duration (̃10 d) multiband photometric series. The goal of the survey is to discover and characterize efficiently variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern hemisphere (HARPS-N) mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), which will be used for spectroscopic follow-up of any target of interest that this survey discovers or characterizes, (2) measure rotational periods and estimate the activity level of targets we are already monitoring with HARPS and HARPS-N for exoplanet transit search, and (3) long-term characterization of selected targets of interest in open clusters within the planned K2 fields. In this first paper, we give an overview of the project, and report on the variability of objects within the first of our selected fields, which contains two open clusters: M35 and NGC 2158. We detect 519 variable objects, 273 of which are new discoveries, while the periods of most of the previously known variables are considerably improved.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2015; 447(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2697 · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We revisit the TrES-4 system parameters based on high-precision HARPS-N radial-velocity measurements and new photometric light curves. A combined spectroscopic and photometric analysis allows us to determine a spectroscopic orbit with an amplitude $K=51\pm3$ m s$^{-1}$. The derived mass of TrES-4b is found to be $M_{\rm p} = 0.49\pm0.04 \rm M_{Jup}$, significantly lower than previously reported. Combined with the large radius ($R_{\rm p} = 1.84_{-0.09}^{+0.08} \rm R_{Jup}$) inferred from our analysis, TrES-4b becomes the second-lowest density transiting hot Jupiter known. We discuss several scenarios to explain the puzzling discrepancy in the mass of TrES-4b in the context of the exotic class of highly inflated transiting giant planets.
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    ABSTRACT: We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reach the end of the white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence (CS) in the solar-metallicity open cluster NGC 6819. Our photometry and completeness tests show a sharp drop in the number of WDs along the CS at magnitudes fainter than mF606W = 26.050+/- 0.075. This implies an age of 2.25+/-0.20 Gyr, consistent with the age of 2.25+/-0.30 Gyr obtained from fits to the main-sequence turn-off. The use of different WD cooling models and initial-final-mass relations have a minor impact the WD age estimate, at the level of ~0.1 Gyr. As an important by-product of this investigation we also release, in electronic format, both the catalogue of all the detected sources and the atlases of the region (in two filters). Indeed, this patch of sky studied by HST (of size ~70 arcmin sq.) is entirely within the main Kepler-mission field, so the high-resolution images and deep catalogues will be particularly useful.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2015; 448(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv069 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: XO-2 is the first confirmed wide stellar binary system where the almost twin components XO-2N and XO-2S have planets. This stimulated a detailed characterization study of the stellar and planetary components based on new observations. We collected high-resolution spectra with the HARPS-N spectrograph and multi-band light curves. Spectral analysis led to an accurate determination of the stellar atmospheric parameters and characterization of the stellar activity. We collected 14 transit light curves of XO-2Nb used to improve the transit parameters. Photometry provided accurate magnitude differences between the stars and a measure of their rotation periods. The iron abundance of XO-2N was found to be +0.054 dex greater, within more than 3-sigma, than that of XO-2S. We confirm a long-term variation in the radial velocities of XO-2N, and we detected a turn-over with respect to previous measurements. We suggest the presence of a second massive companion in an outer orbit or the stellar activity cycle as possible causes of the observed acceleration. The latter explanation seems more plausible with the present dataset. We obtained an accurate value of the projected spin-orbit angle for the XO-2N system (lambda=7+/-11 degrees), and estimated the real 3-D spin-orbit angle (psi=27 +12/-27 degrees). We measured the XO-2 rotation periods, and found a value of P=41.6 days in the case of XO-2N, in excellent agreement with the predictions. The period of XO-2S appears shorter, with an ambiguity between 26 and 34.5 days that we cannot solve with the present dataset alone. XO-2N appears to be more active than the companion, and this could be due to the fact that we sampled different phases of their activity cycle, or to an interaction between XO-2N and its hot Jupiter that we could not confirm.
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    ABSTRACT: We have been searching for surviving companions of progenitors of Galactic Type-Ia supernovae, in particular SN 1572 and SN 1006. These companion stars are expected to show peculiarities: (i) to be probably more luminous than the Sun, (ii) to have high radial velocity and proper motion, (iii) to be possibly enriched in metals from the SNIa ejecta, and (iv) to be located at the distance of the SNIa remnant. We have been characterizing possible candidate stars using high-resolution spectroscopic data taken at 10m-Keck and 8.2m-VLT facilities. We have identified a very promising candidate companion (Tycho G) for SN 1572, but we have not found any candidate companion for SN 1006, suggesting that SN event occurred in 1006 could have been the result of the merging of two white dwarfs. Adding these results to the evidence from the other direct searches, the clear minority of cases (20\% or less) seem to disfavour the single-degenerate channel or that preferentially the single-degenerate escenario would involve main-sequence companions less massive than the Sun. Therefore, it appears to be very important to continue investigating these and other Galactic Type-Ia SNe such as the Johannes Kepler SN 1604.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-year survey aimed at collecting (1) high-precision (~5 milli-mag), (2) fast-cadence (~3 min), and (3) relatively long duration (~10 days) multi-band photometric series. The goal of the survey is to discover and characterize efficiently variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for HARPS-N@TNG, which will be used for spectroscopic follow-up of any target of interest that this survey discovers or characterizes, (2) measure rotational periods and estimate the activity level of targets we are already monitoring with HARPS and HARPS-N for exoplanet transit search, and (3) long term characterization of selected targets of interest in open clusters within the planned K2 fields. In this first paper we give an overview of the project, and report on the variability of objects within the first of our selected fields, which contains two open clusters: M 35 and NGC 2158. We detect 519 variable objects, 273 of which are new discoveries, while the periods of most of the previously known variables are considerably improved.
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-precision multi-band photometry for the globular cluster (GC) M2. We combine the analysis of the photometric data obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs GO-13297, with chemical abundances by Yong et al.(2014), and compare the photometry with models in order to analyze the multiple stellar sequences we identified in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We find three main stellar components, composed of metal-poor, metal-intermediate, and metal-rich stars (hereafter referred to as population A, B, and C, respectively). The components A and B include stars with different $s$-process element abundances. They host six sub-populations with different light-element abundances, and exhibit an internal variation in helium up to Delta Y~0.07 dex. In contrast with M22, another cluster characterized by the presence of populations with different metallicities, M2 contains a third stellar component, C, which shows neither evidence for sub-populations nor an internal spread in light-elements. Population C does not exhibit the typical photometric signatures that are associated with abundance variations of light elements produced by hydrogen burning at hot temperatures. We compare M2 with other GCs with intrinsic heavy-element variations and conclude that M2 resembles M22, but it includes an additional stellar component that makes it more similar to the central region of the Sagittarius galaxy, which hosts a GC (M54) and the nucleus of the Sagittarius galaxy itself.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 447(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2446 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative HST project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the ACS Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W and F438W. This "magic trio" of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple-population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In the present paper we will describe the data base and our data reduction strategy, as well as the uses we intend to make of the final photometry, astrometry, and proper motions. We will also present preliminary color-magnitude diagrams from the data so far collected. These diagrams also draw on data from GO-12605 and GO-12311, which served as a pilot project for the present GO-13297.
    The Astronomical Journal 10/2014; 149(3). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/149/3/91 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using two HST/ACS data-sets that are separated by ~2 years has allowed us to derive the relative proper-motion for the Sagittarius dwarf irregular (SagDIG) and reduce the heavy foreground Galactic contamination. The proper-motion decontaminated SagDIG catalog provides a much clearer view of the young red-supergiant and intermediate-age asymptotic giant branch populations. We report the identification of 3 Milky Way carbon-rich dwarf stars, probably belonging to the thin disk, and pointing to the high incidence of this class at low Galactic latitudes. A sub-group of 4 oxygen-rich candidate stars depicts a faint, red extension of the well-defined SagDIG carbon-rich sequence. The origin of these oxygen-rich candidate stars remains unclear, reflecting the uncertainty in the ratio of carbon/oxygen rich stars. SagDIG is also a gas-rich galaxy characterized by a single large cavity in the gas disk (HI-hole), which is offset by ~360 pc from the optical centre of the galaxy. We nonetheless investigate the stellar feedback hypothesis by comparing the proper-motion cleaned stellar populations within the HI-hole with appropriately selected comparison regions, having higher HI densities external to the hole. The comparison shows no significant differences. In particular, the centre of the HI-hole (and the comparison regions) lack stellar populations younger than ~400 Myr, which are otherwise abundant in the inner body of the galaxy. We conclude that there is no convincing evidence that the SagDIG HI-hole is the result of stellar feedback, and that gravitational and thermal instabilities in the gas are the most likely mechanism for its formation.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 572. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424055 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed an intensive radial velocity monitoring of XO-2S, the wide companion of the transiting planet-host XO-2N, using HARPS-N at TNG in the framework of the GAPS programme. The radial velocity measurements indicate the presence of a new planetary system formed by a planet that is slightly more massive than Jupiter at 0.48 au and a Saturn-mass planet at 0.13 au. Both planetary orbits are moderately eccentric and were found to be dynamically stable. There are also indications of a long-term trend in the radial velocities. This is the first confirmed case of a wide binary whose components both host planets, one of which is transiting, which makes the XO-2 system a unique laboratory for understanding the diversity of planetary systems.
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    ABSTRACT: The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey is one of six public ESO surveys, and is now in its 4th year of observing. Although far from being complete, the VVV survey has already delivered many results, some directly connected to the intended science goals (detection of variables stars, microlensing events, new star clusters), others concerning more exotic objects, e.g. novae. Now, at the end of the fourth observing period, and comprising roughly 50% of the proposed observations, the actual status of the survey, as well some of the results based on the VVV data, are presented.
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    ABSTRACT: NGC1851 is surrounded by a stellar component that extends more than ten times beyond the tidal radius. Although the nature of this stellar structure is not known, it has been suggested to be a sparse halo of stars or associated with a stellar stream. We analyse the nature of this intriguing stellar component surrounding NGC1851 by investigating its radial velocities and chemical composition, in particular in comparison with those of the central cluster analysed in a homogeneous manner. In total we observed 23 stars in the halo with radial velocities consistent with NGC1851, and for 15 of them we infer [Fe/H] abundances. Our results show that: (i) stars dynamically linked to NGC1851 are present at least up to ~2.5 tidal radii, supporting the presence of a halo of stars surrounding the cluster; (ii) apart from the NGC1851 radial velocity-like stars, our observed velocity distribution agrees with that expected from Galactic models, suggesting that no other sub-structure (such as a stream) at different radial velocities is present in our field; (iii) the chemical abundances for the s-process elements Sr and Ba are consistent with the s-normal stars observed in NGC1851; (iv) all halo stars have metallicities, and abundances for the other studied elements Ca, Mg and Cr, consistent with those exhibited by the cluster. The complexity of the whole NGC1851 cluster+halo system may agree with the scenario of a tidally-disrupted dwarf galaxy in which NGC1851 was originally embedded.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 442(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1099 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present four new light curves of transiting exoplanets WASP-1b and HAT-P-20b, observed within the TASTE (The Asiago Search for Transit timing variations of Exoplanets) project. We re-analyzed light curves from the literature in a homogeneous way, calculating a refined ephemeris and orbital-physical parameters for both objects. WASP-1b does not show any significant Transit Timing Variation signal at the 120 s-level. As for HAT-P-20b, we detected a deviation from our re-estimated linear ephemeris that could be ascribed to the presence of a perturber or, more probably, to a previously unnoticed high level of stellar activity. The rotational period of HAT-P-20 A we obtained from archival data (P_rot ~ 14.5 days), combined with its optical variability and strong emission of CaII H&K lines, is consistent with a young stellar age (< 1 Gyr) and support the hypothesis that stellar activity may be responsible of the measured deviations of the transit times.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 05/2014; 335(8). DOI:10.1002/asna.201412072 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a photometric search for variable stars in the core of the Galactic globular cluster M4. The input data are a large and unprecedented set of deep Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images (large program GO-12911; 120 orbits allocated), primarily aimed at probing binaries with massive companions by detecting their astrometric wobbles. Though these data were not optimised to carry out a time-resolved photometric survey, their exquisite precision, spatial resolution and dynamic range enabled us to firmly detect 38 variable stars, of which 20 were previously unpublished. They include 19 cluster-member eclipsing binaries (confirming the large binary fraction of M4), RR Lyrae, and objects with known X-ray counterparts. We improved and revised the parameters of some among published variables.
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    ABSTRACT: We present four new light curves of transiting exoplanets WASP-1b and HAT-P-20b, observed within the TASTE (The Asiago Search for Transit timing variations of Exoplanets) project. We re-analyzed light curves from the literature in a homogeneous way, calculating a refined ephemeris and orbital-physical parameters for both objects. WASP-1b does not show any significant Transit Timing Variation signal at the 120 s-level. As for HAT-P-20b, we detected a deviation from our re-estimated linear ephemeris that could be ascribed to the presence of a perturber or, more probably, to a previously unnoticed high level of stellar activity. The rotational period of HAT-P-20 A we obtained from archival data (P_rot ~ 14.5 days), combined with its optical variability and strong emission of CaII H&K; lines, is consistent with a young stellar age (< 1 Gyr) and support the hypothesis that stellar activity may be responsible of the measured deviations of the transit times.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a photometric search for variable stars in the core of the Galactic globular cluster M4. The input data are a large and unprecedented set of deep Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images (large program GO-12911; 120 orbits allocated), primarily aimed at probing binaries with massive companions by detecting their astrometric wobbles. Though these data were not optimised to carry out a time-resolved photometric survey, their exquisite precision, spatial resolution and dynamic range enabled us to firmly detect 38 variable stars, of which 20 were previously unpublished. They include 19 cluster-member eclipsing binaries (confirming the large binary fraction of M4), RR Lyrae, and objects with known X-ray counterparts. We improved and revised the parameters of some among published variables.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu930 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is mainly determined by metallicity. However, the fact that GCs with almost the same metallicity exhibit different HB morphologies demonstrates that at least one more parameter is needed to explain the HB morphology. It has been suggested that one of these should be a global parameter that varies from GC to GC and the other a nonglobal parameter that varies within the GC. In this study we provide empirical evidence corroborating this idea. We used the photometric catalogs obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope and analyze the color-magnitude diagrams of 74 GCs. The HB morphology of our sample of GCs has been investigated on the basis of the two new parameters L1 and L2 that measure the distance between the red giant branch and the coolest part of the HB and the color extension of the HB, respectively. We find that L1 correlates with both metallicity and age, whereas L2 most strongly correlates with the mass of the hosting GC. The range of helium abundance among the stars in a GC, characterized by ?Y and associated with the presence of multiple stellar populations, has been estimated in a few GCs to date. In these GCs we find a close relationship among ?Y, GC mass, and L2. We conclude that age and metallicity are the main global parameters, while the range of helium abundance within a GC is the main nonglobal parameter defining the HB morphology of Galactic GCs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 785(1):21. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/785/1/21 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the past six years we have carried out a search for massive planets around main sequence and evolved stars in the open cluster (OC) M67, using radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with HARPS at ESO (La Silla), SOPHIE at OHP and HRS at HET. Additional RV data come from CORALIE at the Euler Swiss Telescope. We aim to perform a long-term study on giant planet formation in open clusters and determine how it depends on stellar mass and chemical composition. We report the detection of three new extrasolar planets: two in orbit around the two G dwarfs YBP1194 and YBP1514, and one around the evolved star S364. The orbital solution for YBP1194 yields a period of 6.9 days, an eccentricity of 0.24, and a minimum mass of 0.34 Mj. YBP1514 shows periodic RV variations of 5.1 days, a minimum mass of 0.40 Mj, and an eccentricity of 0.39. The best Keplerian solution for S364 yields a period of 121.7 days, an eccentricity of 0.35 and a minimum mass of 1.54 Mj. An analysis of H_alpha core flux measurements as well as of the line bisectors spans revealed no correlation with the RV periods, indicating that the RV variations are best explained by the presence of a planetary companion. Remarkably, YBP1194 is one of the best solar twins identified so far, and YBP1194b is the first planet found around a solar twin that belongs to a stellar cluster. In contrast with early reports and in agreement with recent findings, our results show that massive planets around stars of open clusters are as frequent as those around field stars.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2014; 561. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322584 · 4.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
425.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Australian National University
      • Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2010–2015
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2011–2013
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2008–2012
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy "Galileo Galilei"
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2007–2008
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany