[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) appear to be at lower risk of endocrinopathies and cardiac dysfunction than those with thalassemia major (TM). Circulating redox active iron is lower in these patients, possibly due to increased systemic inflammation and circulating cytokines. Hepcidin synthesis is upregulated during chronic inflammation, reducing intestinal iron absorption and promoting retention of iron in the reticuloendothelial cells. Hence, we hypothesized that livers of patients with SCD would exhibit greater iron deposition in sinusoidal spaces relative to hepatocytes and less in portal tracts when compared to patients with TM. To test this hypothesis, iron scoring analysis was performed on 70 clinically indicated liver biopsy specimens from children and young adults with the two syndromes. Sinusoidal scores were lower in around 1 of 4 patients with TM but the relative iron loading in hepatocytes, and portal tracts was identical in both diseases. Sinusoidal iron burdens saturated at low hepatic iron concentration (HIC) while hepatocyte and portal iron depots increased proportionally to HIC. Liver fibrosis was increased in patients with TM regardless of their chronic hepatitis status. Overall, liver iron distribution was relatively insensitive to differences in disease type and to the presence or absence of hepatitis.
American Journal of Hematology 06/2009; 84(8):480-3. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is life saving, transfusion therapy has resulted in the majority of sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients being at risk for hemosiderosis-induced organ damage. It is unknown whether the complications of iron overload are affected by the underlying disease. In order to address this problem, we compared the prevalence of organ dysfunction in both groups of patients receiving chronic transfusion therapy (beta thalassemia, N = 30; sickle cell anemia, N = 43). Both groups had similar quantitative liver iron. Thalassemia patients had greater cardiac disease (20% vs. 0%), growth failure (27% vs. 9%), and endocrine failure (37% vs. 0%). The strongest predictors of combined endocrine and cardiac disease in multivariate analysis were duration of chronic transfusion (P = 0.03) and diagnosis (P = 0.03). Quantitative liver iron concentration on a single liver biopsy was not predictive of cardiac or endocrine injury. Viral hepatitis is the strongest predictor of hepatocellular damage (P = 0.009), while the development of liver fibrosis is more closely related to liver iron concentration (P = 0.04). In conclusion, sickle cell anemia and thalassemia differ in the prevalence of organ injury. This difference is related to the duration of iron exposure and the specific hemoglobinopathy. A prospective study with a larger number of subjects is needed to confirm the relationships between specific diagnosis, liver iron concentration over time, and organ dysfunction.
American Journal of Hematology 10/2005; 80(1):70-4. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme-N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulphatase (ASB). Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human ASB (rhASB) has been studied in a randomized, double-blind, two-dose (0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg/week) phase I/II study (n = 7) followed by an open-label single dose (1.0 mg/kg/week) extension study. We report the pharmacokinetic profile of rhASB and the impact of antibody development.
Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed at weeks 1, 2, 12, 24, 83, 84 and 96. Infusions were administered over 4 hours using a ramp-up protocol. Plasma ASB and rhASB antibody concentrations and urine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations were determined.
The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) for the high-dose group increased from week 1 to week 2, but remained unchanged at weeks 12 and 24. A large difference in mean AUC(0-t) was observed between the low- and high-dose groups. Pharmacokinetic results at weeks 83, 84 and 96 were similar to those at week 24. Six patients developed antibodies to rhASB. One patient developed high antibody levels in combination with a high ASB concentration, while a second patient also developed high antibody levels with undetectable ASB concentrations. Antibodies from the second patient blocked detection of ASB. By week 72, antibody levels had decreased in all patients. The high-dose rhASB produced a more rapid and greater percentage reduction in urinary GAG concentrations than the lower dose (70% versus 55% at 24 weeks). Antibody levels did not appear to influence urinary GAG concentrations.
Pharmacokinetic parameters appear to be independent of the duration of treatment and are not linear between the 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg/week doses. Antibodies to rhASB develop in most patients, but their concentration decreases over time. Antibody formation may influence pharmacokinetic parameters during the early phases of treatment, although it appears to have limited impact on biochemical efficacy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the general population has improved over the last decade. Patients treated with peginterferon alfa (PegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy demonstrate overall 50-55% sustained viral response (SVR) with rates as high as 80% in patients with genotypes 2 and 3. Because RBV induces hemolysis and subsequently increases blood transfusion requirements, combination therapy has been considered contraindicated for hemoglobinopathies. This report reviews the response to interferon alfa and RBV (IFN/RBV) and PegIFN/RBV combination therapies in patients treated in the Northern California Comprehensive Thalassemia Center. A total of six thalassemia major patients were treated with IFN/RBV (n = 5; age: 4-38 years) or with PegIFN/RBV (n = 1; age: 26 years). Quantitative HCV RNA polymerase chain reaction and liver iron level assessment were completed. Transfusion volumes were obtained from patients' medical records. On IFN/RBV combination, four of five patients demonstrated SVR. The one patient on PegIFN/RBV showed end-treatment viral response after 6 months of therapy (genotype 3), but subsequently relapsed. Liver iron pretreatment level ranged from 0.2 to 22 mg/g dry weight, with a mean +/- SD of 7.9 +/- 7.7. Transfusion requirement increased by a median of 43.5% (range: 32-137%). Five of the six patients had liver iron measurements within 1 year following completion of treatment, with quantitative liver iron increasing in two patients by 2.5 mg/g dry weight, decreasing in two patients by 3 and 14 mg/g dry weight, and remaining unchanged in one patient. All patients were able to complete combination therapy, although dose reductions were required. Patients with thalassemia and high iron overload can obtain SVR after combination therapy with rates similar to those in the general population and without significant complications. Although transfusion requirements increased in most patients, iron burden was not necessarily increased.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/2005; 1054:290-9. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with sickle cell disease or beta-thalassemia receiving RBC transfusions for a long period, a precise knowledge of the liver iron concentration (LIC) is essential for treatment. Patients underwent LIC and liver pathology assessment by duplicate biopsies in 2 passes from the same local liver site. Fresh tissue cores in trace element-free containers and tissues from dissolved paraffin-embedded cores were analyzed. LIC measurements in each of 2 paraffin-embedded cores did not differ significantly (median, 12,455 vs 12,153 microg/g dry weight; n = 29). A significant difference was observed when 1 fresh tissue sample and 1 paraffin-embedded core were analyzed (median, 11,716 vs 12,864 microg/g dry weight; n = 16; P < .001) with a median disagreement between LIC measurements of 23.0%. We found high agreement in LICs between liver biopsy specimens processed by the paraffin-embedding technique but overestimation of LICs in comparison with desiccated fresh tissue samples.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2005; 123(1):146-52. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of weekly treatment with human recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (rhASB) in humans with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI).
An ongoing Phase I/II, randomized, two-dose, double-blind study. Patients were randomized to weekly infusions of either high (1.0 mg/kg) or low (0.2 mg/kg) doses of rhASB. Six patients (3 male, 3 female; age 7-16 years) completed at least 24 weeks of treatment, five of this group have completed at least 48 weeks.
No drug-related serious adverse events, significant laboratory abnormalities, or allergic reactions were observed in the study. The high-dose group experienced a more rapid and larger relative reduction in urinary glycosaminoglycan that was sustained through week 48. Improvements in the 6-minute walk test were observed in all patients with dramatic gains in those walking <100 meters at baseline. Shoulder range of motion improved in all patients at week 48 and joint pain improved in patients with significant pain at baseline.
rhASB treatment was well-tolerated and reduced lysosomal storage as evidenced by a dose-dependent reduction in urinary glycosaminoglycan. Clinical responses were present in all patients, but the largest gains occurred in patients with advanced disease receiving high-dose rhASB.
Journal of Pediatrics 06/2004; 144(5):574-80. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, anemia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has received more attention as our understanding of the significance of anemia in this population has grown and more emphasis is placed on the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS. Although the diagnosis and treatment of anemia in HIV disease has been discussed in great detail, the prevalence and pathophysiology of the two most common forms of anemia, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and the anemia of chronic disease (ACD), have not received much attention despite the difficulty and importance of differentiating between these two anemias. In addition, little attention has been given to iron overload, which has serious implications in individuals with HIV disease. This article proposes a model of altered iron metabolism in HIV disease as a basis for explaining the pathophysiology and implications of IDA, ACD, and iron overload in this population. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 01/2004; 15(6):31-45. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic transfusion therapy is being used more frequently to prevent and treat the complications of sickle cell disease. Previous studies have shown that the iron overload that results from such therapy in other patient populations is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the extent of iron overload as well as the presence of liver injury and the predictive value of ferritin in estimating iron overload in children with sickle cell disease who receive chronic red blood cell transfusions. A poor correlation was observed between serum ferritin and the quantitative iron on liver biopsy (mean 13.68 +/- 6.64 mg/g dry weight; R = 0.350, P =.142). Quantitative iron was highly correlated with the months of transfusion (R = 0.795, P <.001), but serum ferritin at biopsy did not correlate with months of transfusion (R = 0.308, P =.200). Sixteen patients had abnormal biopsies showing mild to moderate changes on evaluation of inflammation or fibrosis. Liver iron was correlated with fibrosis score (R = 0.50, P =.042). No complications were associated with the liver biopsy. Our data suggest that, in patients with sickle cell disease, ferritin is a poor marker for accurately assessing iron overload and should not be used to direct long-term chelation therapy. Despite high levels of liver iron, the associated liver injury was not severe.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter reviews relationships between nutritional deficiencies and anaemia, and discusses responsible mechanisms. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of deficiencies in vitamin A, pyridoxine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E, dietary protein, iron, and copper are discussed.
Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical applications.