[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We here report a molecular basis for downregulation of interferon (IFN)-beta production by V and C proteins of Sendai virus (SeV). The infection of HeLa cells with SeV poorly induced IFN-beta even if the expression of C/C' was disrupted. In contrast, when the expression of C/C'/Y1/Y2 or V/W was disrupted, SeV infection strongly induced IFN-beta production and significantly activated the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 pathway. The independent expression of C or V inhibited the double-stranded (ds) RNA- or Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-induced activation of IRF-3 and NF-kappa B, as well as the IFN-beta promoter. This inhibitory effect was also observed when Y1, Y2, or a C-terminal half fragment (aa 85-204) of C was independently expressed. Phosphorylation and homodimer formation of IRF-3 were suppressed not only in cells infected with SeV capable of expressing both C/C'/Y1/Y2 (or Y1/Y2) and V/W, but also in HeLa cells constitutively expressing Y1. These results suggest that C, Y1, Y2, and V block signaling pathways leading to IRF-3 activation to downregulate IFN-beta production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sendai virus C protein associates with the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and inhibits the interferon (IFN) response. We report a molecular basis for the anti-IFN-gamma mechanism of Sendai virus. The C-terminal half-fragment of the C protein (D1) retains both the STAT1-binding and the anti-IFN-gamma abilities comparable to those of the full-size C. IFN-gamma stimulation generates phosphorylated-STAT1 even in the presence of the C or the D1. The phosphorylated-STAT1 generated in the D1-expressing cells forms an aberrant complex, which does not bind to a gamma-activated sequence (GAS) probe. Purified D1, indeed, inhibits in vitro the binding of the phosphorylated-STAT1 dimer to the GAS probe. The D1, however, binds to the STAT1 N-terminal domain, but not the DNA binding domain. These results suggest the possibility that the C protein prevents the gamma-activated factor from binding to GAS elements through its interaction with the STAT1 N-terminal domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sendai virus (SeV) C protein functions as an interferon (IFN) antagonist and renders cells unresponsive to both alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) and IFN-gamma. We have recently found the physical association of the C protein with signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in infected cells. However, involvement of the C-STAT1 interaction in the blockade of IFN signaling has remained unclear. We generated here a series of C mutant proteins that retained or lost the STAT1-binding capacity and examined their effects on IFN-alpha signaling. All of the C mutant proteins with no STAT1-binding capacity lost the ability to inhibit the IFN-alpha response. In contrast, the C mutant proteins retaining the STAT1-binding capacity suppressed IFN-alpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of both STAT2 and STAT1 to various degrees. Remarkably, their anti-IFN-alpha capacities correlated well with the inhibitory effect on phosphorylation of STAT2 rather than STAT1. In infected cells, the levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated (pY) STAT2 were below the detection level irrespective of duration of IFN-alpha stimulation, whereas the levels of pY-STAT1 strikingly increased after long-term IFN-alpha stimulation. These results suggest that the STAT2 activation process is a crucial target for the blockade of IFN-alpha signaling. An in vitro binding assay with extracts from (STAT1-deficient) U3A and (STAT1-expressing) U3A-ST1 cells suggested the requirement of STAT1 for the C-STAT2 interaction. Furthermore, expression of STAT1 enhanced the inhibitory effect of the C protein on STAT2 activation in U3A cells. The C protein thus appears to participate in the inhibitory process for STAT2 activation through the STAT1 interaction.
Journal of Virology 04/2003; 77(6):3360-70. DOI:10.1128/JVI.77.6.3360-3370.2003 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two genera, the Respirovirus (Sendai virus (SeV) and human parainfluenza virus (hPIV3) and the Rubulavirus (simian virus (SV) 5, SV41, mumps virus and hPIV2), of the three in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae inhibit interferon (IFN) signalling to circumvent the IFN response. The viral protein responsible for the inhibition is the C protein for respirovirus SeV and the V protein for the rubulaviruses, both of which are multifunctional accessory proteins expressed from the P gene. SeV suppresses IFN-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) at an early phase of infection and further inhibits the downstream signalling without degrading any of the signalling components in most cell lines. On the contrary, the Rubulavirus V protein targets Stat1 or Stat2 for degradation. Proteasome-mediated degradation appears to be involved in most cases. Studies on the molecular mechanisms by which paramyxoviruses evade the IFN response will offer important information for modulating the JAK-STAT pathway, designing novel antiviral drugs and recombinant live vaccines, and improving paramyxovirus expression vectors for gene therapy.
Reviews in Medical Virology 11/2002; 12(6):337-57. DOI:10.1002/rmv.357 · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sendai virus expresses C protein that blocks interferon (IFN) signaling. We previously reported suppression of IFN-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stats) in infected cells. However this conclusion has remained controversial. To settle it, we re-examined the effect of C protein expression on phosphorylation of Stat1 in detail. IFN-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1 was doubtlessly suppressed early in infection, but the suppression was incomplete, suggesting the importance of the unknown blocking mechanism that inactivates the tyrosine-phosphorylated (pY)-Stat1 generated as the signaling leak. Interestingly, the dephosphorylation process of pY-Stat1 was also impaired. These effects on both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation processes were attributable to the function of the C protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The P/C gene of the Sendai virus (SeV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, encodes C protein, which plays a crucial role in counteracting the antiviral effect of interferon (IFN). The C protein blocks IFN signalling to prevent the activation of IFN stimulated genes. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be defined.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) is a critical component of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signalling. We found that both unphosphorylated Stat1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated (pY) Stat1 were present in a form of aberrant high molecular weight complexes (HMWCs) of over 2 MDa in infected cell extracts under low-salt conditions. Of recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying each SeV gene, only those expressing the C gene induced Stat1-HMWC. SeV infected cell extracts further displayed an in vitro ability to convert the pY-Stat1 homodimer to pY-Stat1-HMWC. This cell extract activity was not seen after removal of the C protein from the extracts. C protein was therefore involved in the formation of HMWCs. The HMWCs decomposed into smaller complexes in a high-salt buffer, and under this stringent (high-salt) condition, as well as a physiological (isotonic) condition, both unphosphorylated Stat1 and pY-Stat1 were co-precipitated with anti-C antibody.
The C protein physically associates with Stat1. This suggests that SeV C protein directly targets Stat1 for inhibitory control on the transcriptional activation of IFN stimulated genes.
Genes to Cells 07/2001; 6(6):545-57. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00442.x · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new role of the Paramyxovirus accessory proteins has been uncovered. The P gene of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae encodes accessory proteins including the V and/or C protein by means of pseudotemplated nucleotide addition (RNA editing) or by overlapping open reading frame. The Respirovirus (Sendai virus and human parainfluenza virus (hPIV)3) and Rubulavirus (simian virus (SV)5, SV41, mumps virus and hPIV2) circumvent the interferon (IFN) response by inhibiting IFN signaling. The responsible genes were mapped to the C gene for SeV and the V gene for rubulaviruses. On the other hand, wild type measles viruses isolated from clinical specimens suppress production of IFN, although responsible viral factors remain to be identified. Both human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) counteract the antiviral effect of IFN with inhibiting neither IFN signaling nor IFN production. Bovine RSV NS1 and NS2 proteins cooperatively antagonize the antiviral effect of IFN. Studies on the molecular mechanism by which viruses circumvent the host IFN response will not only illustrate co-evolution of virus strategies of immune evasion but also provide basic information useful for engineering novel antiviral drugs as well as recombinant live vaccine.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2001; 45(12):787-800. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2001.tb01315.x · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate here that Sendai virus (SeV) blocks alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) signaling to signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in HeLa cells. IFN-alpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of STATs and subsequent formation of the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 transcription complex were inhibited in SeV-infected cells, resulting in inefficient induction of IFN-stimulated gene products. None of the components of the signaling pathway-type I IFN receptor subunits Jak1, Tyk2, Stat1, Stat2, and p48-was degraded. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 in response to IFN-alpha was unaffected at the early phase of infection, suggesting that oligomerization of the receptor subunits proceeded normally. In contrast to Jak1, IFN-alpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Tyk2 was partially inhibited. Therefore, this partial inhibition of activation of Tyk2 probably contributes to the subsequent failure in the activation of STATs.
Journal of Virology 04/2000; 74(5):2477-80. DOI:10.1128/JVI.74.5.2477-2480.2000 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sendai virus (SeV) renders cells unresponsive to interferon (IFN)-alpha. To identify viral factors involved in this process, we examined whether recombinant SeVs, which could not express V protein, subsets of C proteins (C, C', Y1 and Y2) or any of four C proteins, retained the capability of impeding IFN-alpha-mediated responses. Among these viruses, only the 4C knockout virus completely lost the ability to suppress the induction of IFN-alpha-stimulated gene products and the subsequent establishment of an anti-viral state. These findings reveal crucial roles of the SeV C proteins in blocking IFN-alpha-mediated responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered baby hamster kidney (BHK-R) cells, which were established by serial passage of BHK cells in the presence of Sendai virus (SeV), allowed vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to replicate despite treatment with type I interferon (IFN). We have analyzed here mechanisms of the unresponsiveness to IFN. BHK-R cells cultured in the absence of SeV for 10 days under the conditions of no cell division (BHK-R10D) became sensitive to IFN. Studies on induction of unresponsiveness to IFN in BHK-R10D cells revealed that entry of SeV nucleocapsids into a cell was essential. Interestingly, even UV-inactivated SeV but not Newcastle disease virus was found to be able to confer resistance to IFN on HeLa or BHK cells as well as on BHK-R10D cells, suggesting that the IFN-resistance resulted from functions of SeV independent of replication of the viral genome but not from mutations of the cellular genome. Furthermore immunofluorescent experiments demonstrated that UV-inactivated SeV could rescue VSV replication from the antiviral action of IFN without expression of SeV antigens, confirming that the secondary transcription resulting in synthesis of large amounts of viral proteins was dispensable for the IFN-resistance. Thus we have revealed a unique strategy of SeV against the antiviral action of IFN.
Archives of Virology 02/1999; 144(6):1043-55. DOI:10.1007/s007050050568 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tissue distribution of Klebsiella pneumoniae O3 lipopolysaccharide (KO3 LPS) was studied in mice injected subcutaneously (s.c.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125I-labeled KO3 LPS. Marked retention of KO3 LPS radioactivity could be found at the site of s.c. injection for several weeks. On the other hand, about 85% of the radioactivity rapidly disappeared from the peritoneal cavity within 6 h after i.p. injection. The long-term presence of KO3 LPS at the injection site was also supported by experiments with 51Cr-labeled KO3 LPS and immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining methods. The R-form LPS lacking the O-specific polysaccharide chain of KO3 LPS and the lipid A fraction of KO3 LPS seemed to remain at the site in larger amounts and for longer times than KO3 LPS. There were no marked differences in the retention pattern at the injection site among KO3 LPS, Escherichia coli LPS, Salmonella typhosa LPS, and Salmonella enteritidis LPS. However, much less radioactivity accumulated in the livers and spleens of mice injected with either KO3 LPS or S. typhosa LPS compared with the other LPS preparations. It was suggested that retention of LPS at the site of s.c. injection may play an important role in the development of various biological actions of s.c. injected LPS.
Infection and Immunity 07/1989; 57(6):1786-91. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered baby hamster kidney (BHK-R) cells which were subcultured in the continuous presence of HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan--the Sendai strain of parainfluenza 1 virus) showed a high susceptibility to natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity, although BHK-R cells are not transiently or persistently infected with HVJ but contain the restricted amount of sialic acid. By repeated subcultivation of BHK-R cells in growth medium free of HVJ, the sensitivity to natural killer cytotoxicity decreased to the level of normal BHK cells with a counter increase of cellular sialic acid, and the subsequent treatment of the cells with neuraminidase caused a loss of proper sialic acid residues, once again resulting in a significant enhancement of lysis by natural killer cells. In the BHK-R cell system which exhibits a reversible resistance to the interferon action, the enhancing effect induced by interferon on target cell susceptibility to natural killer activity became more pronounced in accord with the recovery of sensitivity to the antiviral action of interferon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered baby hamster kidney (BHK-R) cells were serially cultured in the continuous presence of hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). These cells showed a distinct resistance to superinfection with the homologous HVJ. This resistance of BHK-R cells gradually disappeared after serial passages in the presence of ultraviolet-irradiated HVJ particles which lost infectivity but still preserved hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities. When BHK-R cells were serially cultured in the presence of a temperature-sensitive mutant of HVJ at non-permissive temperature, the cells also lost the resistance. The resistance of BHK-R cells remained unchanged, even after prolonged incubation in virus-free maintenance medium under the conditions of no cell division. It was suggested that killing of virus-sensitive cells, which were generated during cell proliferation, was required for maintenance of the resistance.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/1987; 31(2):139-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.1987.tb03077.x · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mutant cell line of porcine kidney cells that resists the cytopathic effect of influenza virus has been obtained and characterized. These cells, designated ESK-R, were originally obtained by prolonged cultivation of cells surviving influenza B/Kanagawa/73 virus infection. No infectious virus was recovered from ESK-R cells, and no evidence for the presence of virus antigens in the cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescent staining. ESK-R cells also showed a distinct resistance to various other strains of both types A and B influenza viruses. The growth of mumps, Sendai, or Newcastle disease virus was considerably restricted, but the cell line normally supported the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. ESK-R cells were found to lack specific receptors for influenza virus as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses. The membrane barrier of ESK-R cells was successfully overcome by nonspecific endocytosis of calcium-coprecipitated virus particles followed by production of an appreciable amount of progeny virus.
Journal of Virology 04/1985; 53(3):980-3. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary Altered baby hamster kidney (BHK-R) cells which were subcultured in the continuous presence of HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan — the Sendai strain of parainfluenza 1 virus) showed a resistance to the antiviral action of both type I and II interferons. No evidence for a direct inactivation of interferon molecules during incubation of BHK-R cells was obtained. After serial subculture of BHK-R cells in growth medium free of HVJ, surface membranes with the proper sialic acid residues were restored and the cells became susceptible to the interferon action. It is suggested that binding sites for interferons might be ranked above HVJ receptors in the “receptor gradient”.
Archives of Virology 09/1984; 82(3):241-246. DOI:10.1007/BF01311167 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered baby hamster kidney (BHK-R) cells which were subcultured in the continuous presence of HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan--the Sendai strain of parainfluenza 1 virus) showed a resistance to the antiviral action of both type I and II interferons. No evidence for a direct inactivation of interferon molecules during incubation of BHK-R cells was obtained. After serial subculture of BHK-R cells in growth medium free of HVJ, surface membranes with the proper sialic acid residues were restored and the cells became susceptible to the interferon action. It is suggested that binding sites for interferons might be ranked above HVJ receptors in the "receptor gradient".
Archives of Virology 02/1984; 82(3-4):241-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor