Lawrence Price

National Microbiology Laboratory, Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (14)43.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. We present a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni, biotype II, heat stable serotype O:19. A 46-year-old Caucasian man developed acute motor neuropathy 10 days after mild intestinal infection. The proximal and distal muscle weakness of his upper and lower extremities was associated with serum antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to ganglioside GM1. The electromyographic signs of neuropathic muscle action potentials with almost normal nerve conduction velocities indicated axonal neuropathy. Our patient's clinical and electrophysiological features fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of an acute motor axonal neuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. As this is the first case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni reported from the Balkan area, the present findings indicate the need for systematic studies and further clinical, epidemiological and microbiological investigations on the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and its heat stable serotypes in the etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other post-infectious sequelae.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 03/2010; 4:101.
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. Although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. Serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several O serotypes. Strains of C. jejuni and C. coli were serotyped based on heat stable (HS) and heat labile (HL) antigens, as well as biotypes to determine strain diversity. Campylobacter spp. was isolated using selective blood media with antibiotics. Differentiation to the species level was done by a combination of biotyping tests and by a PCR-based RFLP test. The isolates were characterised by Penner and Lior serotyping methods. The serotypes showed diversity without predominant serotypes. 24 HS serotypes were detected among 29 C. jejuni strains, and seven serotypes among nine C. coli strains. HL serotyping method successfully typed 62.5% of strains. Among 16 C.jejuni strains 14 serotypes were detected, and three among four C. coli strains. A C.jejuni strain associated with a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome was typed as biotype II, O:19. The biotyping and serotyping results have indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains in the region of Nis, Serbia are diverse and could be probably of unrelated sources of origin or reservoirs. The strain associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome patient was serotype O:19, one of the most common in this post-infective complication.
    Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 01/2010; 138(11-12):721-5. · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. GBS cases (n = 133) were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374). A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. Most (63.3%) cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa) = 1.69, P = 0.03), to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001), and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001). Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02) was associated with GBS. Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.
    PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(11):e3674. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A robust method for the identification of Campylobacter spp. based on direct sequencing of PCR-amplified partial cpn60 sequences and comparison of these to a reference database of cpn60 sequences is reported. A total of 53 Campylobacter isolates, representing 15 species, were identified and distinguished from phenotypically similar Helicobacter and Arcobacter strains. Pairwise cpn60 sequence identities between Campylobacter spp. ranged from 71 to 92 %, with most between 71 and 79 %, making discrimination of these species obvious. The method described overcomes limitations of existing PCR-based methods, which require time-consuming and complex post-amplification steps such as the cloning of amplification products. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for use of the reference chaperonin sequence database, cpnDB, as a tool for identification of bacterial isolates based on cpn60 sequences amplified with universal primers.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 05/2006; 55(Pt 4):393-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. We therefore investigated possible risk factors associated with diarrhea due to epidemic C. jejuni. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified four epidemic clones which accounted for almost 60% of the infections. One hundred six cases were included in a case-control study. Infections with epidemic clones were more frequently observed in specific districts in Willemstad, the capital of Curaçao. One of these clones caused infections during the rainy season only and was associated with the presence of a deep well around the house. Two out of three GBS-related C. jejuni isolates belonged to an epidemic clone. The observations presented point toward water as a possible source of Campylobacter infections.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2004; 41(12):5588-92. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    Emerging infectious diseases 11/2003; 9(10):1232-41. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of pediatric diarrhea in developing countries-free-ranging chickens are presumed to be a common source. Campylobacter strains from monthly surveillance and diarrhea cases were compared by means of restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), rapid amplified polymorphic DNA, and Lior serotyping. RFLP analysis of 156 human and 682 avian strains demonstrated identical strains in chickens and humans in 29 (70.7%) of 41 families, and 35%-39% of human isolates from diarrhea and nondiarrhea cases were identical to a household chicken isolate. Isolation of the same RFLP type from a household chicken and a human within 1 month was highly protective against diarrhea (odds ratio, 0.07; P<.005). Campylobacter strains from symptomatic humans were unlikely to be identical to strains recently carried by household chickens, limiting the potential benefits from household-based control measures.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2003; 187(2):260-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multiplex PCR assay was used to simultaneously detect genes from the five major clinically relevant Campylobacter spp. Those genes selected were hipO and 23S rRNA from Campylobacter jejuni; glyA from each of C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis; and sapB2 from C. fetus subsp. fetus. The assay was evaluated with 137 clinical and environmental isolates and was found to be rapid and easy to perform and had a high sensitivity and specificity for characterizing isolates, even in mixed cultures.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2003; 40(12):4744-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) are correlated with prior infection by Campylobacter jejuni in up to 40% of cases. Nucleotide sequence-based typing of 25 C. jejuni isolates associated with neuropathy permitted robust comparisons with equivalent data from approximately 800 C. jejuni isolates not associated with neuropathy. A total of 13 genetic lineages and 20 flaA short variable region nucleotide sequences were present among the 25 isolates. A minority of isolates (4 of 25) had the flaA short variable region nucleotide sequences that were previously proposed as a marker for GBS-associated isolates. These 4 isolates probably represented the Penner serotype 19 lineage, which has been proposed to have an association with GBS.
    Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 02/2002; 7(1):68 - 68. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background.Helicobacter pullorum, first detected in the liver and intestinal contents of poultry, was defined as a new species in 1994. This organism has since been isolated from humans with gastroenteritis. Phenotypic as well as genotypic methods have been used to identify H. pullorum associated with cases of human disease.Materials and Methods. Clinical isolates were submitted for identification to the National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens by Provincial Public Health Laboratories within Canada. Phenotypic characterization was conducted using a variety of growth and biochemical tests including oxidase, catalase, indoxyl acetate, H2S production in triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and fatty acid analysis. Genotypic identification was performed using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment–length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of a 1-kb fragment of the Helicobacter 16S rRNA gene.Results. During the last 7 years (1993–1999) a total of 11 isolates of H. pullorum were detected from patients with gastroenteritis for inclusion in this study. Typically, these isolates were oxidase and catalase positive, produced optimal growth at 42°C, and produced H2S in TSI. Of these 11 isolates, 1 showed DNase activity, while another did not produce H2S in TSI, and only 2 showed tolerance to 1% bile. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays indicated that 6 of the 11 strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The fatty acid profiles of the isolates were similar to each other and provided a distinguishing profile from the other related species. Genetically identical and distinct species-specific restriction fragment–length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns were produced using the restriction enzymes Bsr I and Dde I.Conclusion. Phenotypic and genotypic procedures were used to identify H. pullorum. Interspecies phenotypic variability was apparent and supported the use of a polyphasic approach for identification. Similarities to the more prominent human pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. lari were also noted. The use of a combination of phenotypic and, in particular, genotypic markers for H. pullorum should prove valuable both for epidemiological investigations and for the diagnosis of disease related to this emerging human pathogen.
    Helicobacter 12/2001; 5(3):142 - 147. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) are correlated with prior infection by Campylobacter jejuni in up to 40% of cases. Nucleotide sequence-based typing of 25 C. jejuni isolates associated with neuropathy permitted robust comparisons with equivalent data from approximately 800 C. jejuni isolates not associated with neuropathy. A total of 13 genetic lineages and 20 flaA short variable region nucleotide sequences were present among the 25 isolates. A minority of isolates (4 of 25) had the flaA short variable region nucleotide sequences that were previously proposed as a marker for GBS-associated isolates. These 4 isolates probably represented the Penner serotype 19 lineage, which has been proposed to have an association with GBS.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2001; 39(9):3346-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pullorum, first detected in the liver and intestinal contents of poultry, was defined as a new species in 1994. This organism has since been isolated from humans with gastroenteritis. Phenotypic as well as genotypic methods have been used to identify H. pullorum associated with cases of human disease. Clinical isolates were submitted for identification to the National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens by Provincial Public Health Laboratories within Canada. Phenotypic characterization was conducted using a variety of growth and biochemical tests including oxidase, catalase, indoxyl acetate, H2S production in triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and fatty acid analysis. Genotypic identification was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of a 1-kb fragment of the Helicobacter 16S rRNA gene. During the last 7 years (1993-1999) a total of 11 isolates of H. pullorum were detected from patients with gastroenteritis for inclusion in this study. Typically, these isolates were oxidase and catalase positive, produced optimal growth at 42 degrees C, and produced H2S in TSI. Of these 11 isolates, 1 showed DNase activity, while another did not produce H2S in TSI, and only 2 showed tolerance to 1% bile. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays indicated that 6 of the 11 strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The fatty acid profiles of the isolates were similar to each other and provided a distinguishing profile from the other related species. Genetically identical and distinct species-specific restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns were produced using the restriction enzymes Bsr I and Dde I. Phenotypic and genotypic procedures were used to identify H. pullorum. Interspecies phenotypic variability was apparent and supported the use of a polyphasic approach for identification. Similarities to the more prominent human pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. lari were also noted. The use of a combination of phenotypic and, in particular, genotypic markers for H. pullorum should prove valuable both for epidemiological investigations and for the diagnosis of disease related to this emerging human pathogen.
    Helicobacter 10/2000; 5(3):142-7. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as the predominant cause of antecedent infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The risk of developing GBS or MFS may be higher after infection with specific C. jejuni types. To investigate the putative clonality, 18 GBS- or MFS-related C. jejuni strains from The Netherlands and Belgium and 17 control strains were analyzed by serotyping (Penner and Lior), restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR products of the flaA gene, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Serotyping revealed 10 different O serotypes and 7 different Lior serotypes, thereby indicating a lack of serotype clustering. Two new O serotypes, O:35 and O:13/65, not previously associated with GBS or MFS were found. Serotype O:19 was encountered in 2 of 18 strains, and none was of serotype O:41. The results of all genotypic methods also demonstrated substantial heterogeneity. No clustering of GBS- or MFS-related strains occurred and no molecular marker capable of separating pathogenic GBS or MFS from non-GBS- or non-MFS-related enteritis strains could be identified in this study. Sialic-acid-containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are thought to be involved in the triggering of GBS or MFS through molecular mimicry with gangliosides in human peripheral nerves. Therefore, further characterization of GBS- or MFS-related C. jejuni should target the genes involved in the synthesis of LPS and the incorporation of sialic acid.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/2000; 38(6):2297-301. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    Journal clinical microbiology 38, 2000, 2297-2301. - ISSN 1080-6040.