[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, neonatal positive calcium balance is required for adequate growth. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in this process mainly through its action on the distal nephron. We studied the effect of PTH on cytosolic calcium in distal segments from neonatal rat kidney. PTH elicited a concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium in neonatal distal nephron (EC(50)=0.5 nM) but not in proximal tubules. At similar PTH concentrations the response was higher in the neonatal than in the adult tubules. The response was associated with protein kinase C (PKC), since phorbol myristate acetate (100 nM) increased [Ca(2+)]i, and staurosporin, an inhibitor of PKC, decreased (10 nM) or suppressed (100 nM) the PTH effect. cAMP analogues did not change [Ca(2+)]i. The response was diminished in low external calcium (0.1 mM) and absent at zero calcium, indicating dependency on external calcium. Resting calcium decreased from 80+/-10.8 to 28.6+/-2.6 nM at zero [Ca(2+)]e. PTH and nifedipine increased cytosolic calcium in an additive fashion. We show for the first time that PTH increased cytosolic calcium in the distal nephron of neonatal kidney, in a concentration-dependent pattern and in association with PKC activation. Higher sensitivity of the neonatal tubule might facilitate absorption of this cation during the neonatal period, when growth requires a positive balance of calcium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize Ca(2+) transport in newborn rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, we used nifedipine, which in adult rat distal tubules inhibits the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase in response to hormonal activation. We found that the dihydropyridine (DHP) nifedipine (20 microM) produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) from 87.6 +/- 3.3 nM to 389.9 +/- 29.0 nM in 65% of the cells. Similar effects of other DHP (BAY K 8644, isradipine) were also observed. Conversely, DHPs did not induce any increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in cells obtained from proximal convoluted tubule. In CCD cells, neither verapamil nor diltiazem induced any rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Experiments in the presence of EGTA showed that external Ca(2+) was required for the nifedipine effect, while lanthanum (20 microM), gadolinium (100 microM), and diltiazem (20 microM) inhibited the effect. Experiments done in the presence of valinomycin resulted in the same nifedipine effect, showing that K(+) channels were not involved in the nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. H(2)O(2) also triggered [Ca(2+)](i) rise. However, nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was not affected by protamine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that 1) primary cultures of cells from terminal nephron of newborn rats are a useful tool for investigating Ca(2+) transport mechanisms during growth, and 2) newborn rat CCD cells in primary culture exhibit a new apical nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) channel of capacitive type (either transient receptor potential or leak channel).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of thrombin (Thr) on cytosolic calcium [Ca2]+i and intracellular pH [pH]i in human and murine platelets. Rich-platelet suspensions from both species were loaded with Fura-2 (2 microM) or BCECF (0.75 microM) by incubation with their respective acetoxymethyl esters to measure cytosolic calcium [Ca2+]i or intracellular pH [pH]i, respectively. Suspensions were challenged with increasing concentrations of Thr, from 0.1 to 10 IU/ml. Basal [Ca2+]i in human platelets was 98 +/- 6 and 99.1 +/- 9 nM in rat platelets (n = 20). Thr increased [Ca2+]i, EC50 was 1.1 +/- 0.04 in human and 0.97 +/- 0.06 IU/ml in rat platelets (n = 7). Extracellular Mg2+ (4 or 8 mM) abolished Thr response on [Ca2+]i. [pH]i in human was 7.09 +/- 0.08 and 7.11 +/- 0.04 in rat platelets. Thr induced alkalinization of platelets in both species. Our results indicate that the potency of Thr to change [Ca2+]i and [pH]i was similar in both species, allowing for comparisons between human and murine platelets and to extrapolate results from an animal model to human pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tight junctions play a critical role in tubular function. In mammalian kidney, the transepithelial electrical resistance and the complexity of the tight junction increase from the proximal to the collecting tubule. The differential expression of three tight junction proteins, ZO-1, ZO-2, and occludin, along isolated rabbit renal tubules is examined in this article.
Microdissected rabbit renal tubules were processed for immunofluorescence detection of ZO-1, ZO-2, and occludin. The quantitation of these proteins was done by Western blot determinations in Percoll isolated tubules.
ZO-1 stained cell boundaries independently of the identity of the tubule. However, the amount found in distal segments was significantly higher than that expressed in proximal regions. ZO-2 in the proximal region was found diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, with faint staining at cell borders, while a clear signal at cell perimeters was detectable from the Henle's loop to collecting tubules. Nuclear staining of ZO-2 was found along the whole nephron. The presence of occludin at the proximal region was faint and discontinuous, while its expression in the more distant portions was conspicuous. The quantity of ZO-2 and occludin present at the distal region was significantly higher compared with the proximal segment.
The distribution of ZO-1, ZO-2, and occludin follows the increase in junction complexity encountered in renal tubules. The amount of the three proteins found in proximal and distal segments is significantly higher in the latter.
Kidney International 07/2000; 57(6):2386-402. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00098.x · 8.56 Impact Factor