Roger R. Stough

George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, United States

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Publications (120)41.63 Total impact

  • Tüzin Baycan, Roger R. Stough
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates a new emerging phenomenon in the debate of knowledge-based economic growth called “bridging knowledge to commercialization”. The paper considers commercialization of knowledge as a complex and a multi-faceted phenomenon and aims to highlight “the good”, “the bad” and “the challenging” in commercialization of knowledge from a taxonomic perspective. The paper has four objectives: (1) to examine the emerging concepts in bridging knowledge to commercialization while addressing related issues in the literature and to offer a conceptual framework on the basis of a typology of metaphores for knowledge; (2) to highlight the societal benefits of commercialization of knowledge in a regional development context; (3) to underline the value conflicts and differences in culture and perspectives in the valuation of knowledge in order to better understand the commercialization process; and (4) to highlight the challenges for academia, industry and government while describing the critical framework conditions that are needed to effectively foster commercialization of knowledge. While addressing the academic, societal, spatial, cultural and ethical implications of knowledge commercialization, the paper highlights retrospects and prospects from regional development perspective.
    The Annals of Regional Science 01/2013; 50(2). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    Tüzin Baycan, Roger R. Stough
    The Annals of Regional Science 01/2013; 50(2). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Online social networks and the Web 2.0 technologies embedded in these sites are creating an environment in which individuals can communicate and share information in ways that were previously not possible. Such websites are providing an unprecedented and growing collection of data on individual behavior that is very rich in detail. This includes information on with whom, when and where people interact, and more generally, what their activity patterns look like in time and space, and even what their sentiment or preferences are at specific moments and locations. Knowledge Gaps: There is a burgeoning body of literature that draws upon social media data and more broadly information collected via mobile communications devices (e.g., cell phone trajectories) to model and understand particular aspects of human behavior, including mobility patterns and social and spatio-temporal interaction. Yet, very little of this research has examined how and to what extent the spatio-temporal activity patterns revealed by these new forms of data vary across metropolitan areas, especially after controlling for relevant city-specific characteristics such as the size, density, composition or demographic profile of a city. While we recognize that the study of space-time activity patterns itself is not new, there are some gaps in the literature that should be noted. First, most analyses have been confined to a select set of cities – i.e., those that have conducted travel diaries or activity-based surveys. Due to inconsistencies in the format and type of information collected from such surveys, comparative analyses are problematic. Second, few studies have looked explicitly at the simultaneous integration of space, time and social (inclusive of cyber socialization) interaction, and the complex mobility patterns that arise from this behavior. Lastly, unlike location sharing services data, the information provided by travel behavior surveys tend to capture only mobility patterns arising from the primary residents of a city and not the behavior of transient visitors to that location. Study Objectives: The primary objectives of this study are to 1). understand how and to what extent location sharing services data approximate regional spatio-temporal activity patterns 2). develop a set of network-based metrics for characterizing the centrality and disorder of such activities in a region, and, 3). conduct a cross-city comparison using these metrics and related indicators of mobility.Data: To carry out the proposed research, we intend to use location services data collected over a five month period in 2010-11 (Cheng et al., 2011). This data provides information on user check-ins, or more specifically, where individuals indicate they are at different times of the day and week. Additional details on each individual’s status within the social networks that they belong are also included in the dataset. Methodology: The study methodology draws heavily on techniques from social network analysis, although concepts form landscape ecology, physics and geography are also utilized to capture different aspects of regional activity patterns. To gain an understanding of the types of activities that location sharing services data capture, we first conduct a correlation analysis using sector-based establishment data from the U.S. Census County Business Patterns. Correlations are examined at the zip code level. Second, using a space-time bipartite network topology, we derive a set of measures that characterize the centrality and disorder (entropy) of activities in a region, and that further can be decomposed to examine the spatial distribution of these characteristics. With individual location data aggregated to grid cells and summarized according to regular time intervals, we apply the technique to two U.S. metropolitan areas: Atlanta and Chicago.Significance: Implications for travel demand forecasting, epidemiological and information diffusion modelling and abnormal crowd detection (e.g., through “burstiness” analysis) will be drawn from the study.
    01/2012;
  • Haifeng Qian, Roger R. Stough
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses two measures of Social Diversity that have appeared in the literature, the gay index and the Country of Birth (CoB) index, and compares their effects on regional innovative activity. We distinguish social diversity from tolerance or openness and argue that the gay index can be considered as a proxy for tolerance or openness, whereas the CoB index can better represent social diversity. According to our regression results, it is the CoB index (i.e., social diversity), not the gay index (i.e., tolerance or openness), that presents a significant and positive effect on innovation. Nevertheless, innovative activity in regions is still dominantly determined by local stocks of R&D capital and doctoral scientists and engineers.
    International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy 05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we explore how satellite images of global night lights from the years 2001 to 2007 can be used to estimate economic activity at the sub-regional level in the U.S., India and China. The night lights based estimates of economic activity are then spatially analyzed and compared with sub-regional economic indicators where available for selected years. For this purpose we have extended the standard bi-variate LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation) to include bi-directional analysis. This bi-directional bi-variate analysis helps to identify those jurisdictions where night lights intensity can be used as a proxy for measuring sub-regional economic growth. We also briefly discuss two theoretical models that shed light on the geospatial patterns reflected by the night light data. The results are presented with a series of maps, charts and tables.
    03/2011;
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    Mediha Sahin, Peter Nijkamp, Roger Stough
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies on ethnic entrepreneurship have pointed at an increasing share of migrants in urban small- and medium-sized entrepreneurial businesses. These migrant activities are crucial to the urban economy in many countries, as they employ a significant part of the workforce. The main objective of our study is to identify success conditions of ethnic entrepreneurship by using concepts from social capital and human capital from the literature on empirical factors that are responsible for successful ethnic entrepreneurship. The empirical part of the paper is based on a survey questionnaire among migrant entrepreneurs in the city of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and in Fairfax, County in the state of Virginia in the US. We present an overview of cultural, ethno-psychological and motivational aspects that contribute to the understanding of similarities and differences between ethnic entrepreneurs in both locations. The analysis is structured around several dimensions of social and human capital including personal and business characteristics, and network participation for improving business performance. The findings of the two studies are compared to explore a possible correspondence in business performance patterns. The research tool used to assess performance is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a technique for comparative efficiency analysis in various types of corporate organizations. Finally, concluding remarks are presented and possible extensions of the analysis are suggested. JEL ClassificationL26–R11
    The Annals of Regional Science 01/2011; 46(3):661-689. · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • R Stough, Robert J. Stimson
    01/2011;
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    R. Stimson, R. Stough, P. Aroca
    01/2011;
  • R. J. Stimson, R Stough
    01/2011;
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    Zuoquan Zhao, Roger R. Stough, Dunjiang Song
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    ABSTRACT: This article develops and tests an algorithm of spatial congruence based on geometric congruity of two spatial areal objects in the Euclidean plane. Spatial congruence is defined and thus evaluated as an increasing continuous function of congruity in the position, orientation, size, and shape of spatial objects, dependent upon scaling, translation, and rotation. Expansion-based geometric matching is used to seek the best match between the two objects of interest for the examination and differentiation of the congruence effects of their spatial and geometric properties, while the expansion-inflated size effect is deflated or filtered out accordingly. The use of both expansion and deflation not only allows for a trade-off between size and position, both of which are found substitutable for each other in congruence measurement, but also enables the congruence algorithm to be highly sensitive to differences or changes in these properties. Three geographical objects (the states of Texas, Mississippi, and Louisiana) are used to show how trade-offs among the four properties are manipulated by the congruence algorithm in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, ArcGIS®. In addition, three regular geometric objects are used to demonstrate how the congruence algorithm is sensitive even to small changes in each of the four properties of objects. The results show that the proposed congruence algorithm is capable of quantifying the extent of congruity between two spatial objects regardless of how they are related as described in topological relations.
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science 01/2011; 25:113-130. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    Ryan C. Sutter, Roger R. Stough
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    ABSTRACT: Investigation of the determinants of entrepreneurship has been extensively pursued by academics in many disciplines. Two dominant but alternative approaches to understanding these determinants have been used. The first systematically studies individual entrepreneurs in an effort to identify characteristics or tendencies common to successful entrepreneurs. The second examines the role of various hypothesized structural attributes and conditions across regions in an effort to explain variation in levels of entrepreneurial activities. Both approaches reveal considerable insight into how and why entrepreneurial activities emerge, yet much remains unanswered as no study exists to confirm or refute the evidence pertaining to the manifestation of the psychological characteristics found at the individual-level at the meso or regional level.
    12/2010: pages 245-269;
  • Roger R. Stough, Robert J. Stimson, Peter Nijkamp
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades or so the emphasis in regional economic development theory has shifted from a focus primarily on exogenous factors to an increasing focus on endogenous factors. Traditional regional economic development approaches were erected on neo-classical economic growth theory, based largely on the Solow (1956, 2000) growth model. The new approach – while recognizing that development is framed by exogenous factors – attributes a much more significant role for endogenous forces. In this context, a suite of models and arguments that broadly convey the new growth theory have been directed towards endogenous factors and processes (see, e.g., Johansson et al. 2001).
    12/2010: pages 3-20;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we explore how satellite images of global night lights from year 1992 to 2003 can be used to estimate economic activity at the sub-regional level in the U.S. and China. The night lights based estimates of economic activity are then spatially analyzed and compared with sub-regional economic indicators where available for selected years. We also briefly discuss two theoretical models that shed light on the geospatial patterns reflected by the night light data. The results are presented with a series of maps, charts and tables
    Regional Science Policy & Practice 11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we develop an exploratory non-parametric clustering model of spatial and/or spatio-temporal phenomena based on Kolmogorov entropy. The methodology will be tested using quarterly HPI (Housing Price Index) data for 350 plus cities in the US from the Federal Financing and Housing Administration (FHFA), an agency of HUD (US Dept of Housing and Urban Development). This multivariate data will be also analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques to identify key regions involved in creating the housing bubble and its spread to the rest of cities.
    04/2010;
  • Roger R. Stough
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    ABSTRACT: Leadership and institutions have long been considered important elements in regional economic growth and change, but because they are for the most part latent variables in the more traditional methods of modelling economic growth and development, they have received limited attention of scholars in the field. This paper presents a theory of leadership and institutional grounded economic development and examines its efficacy through the presentation of a variety of case study material of regions that have experienced successful (and unsuccessful) economic development through leadership-directed change. Case studies are from various parts of the world. The contingency theory of leadership forms the core of the theoretical leadership element. The case studies illustrate the diversity of and therefore creative approaches taken to adapt economies to rapid change and disequilibrium conditions
    European Planning Studies 04/2010; 18(4):613-627. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From the 2nd quarter of 2007 onwards through much of the 2008, U.S. consumers experienced an unprecedented hike in gasoline prices. It is believed that this may have changed the travel demand behaviour resulting in less vehicular travel traffic. For eg., the U.S. DoT’s monthly statistics at the state and national level have shown a net decline of more than 100 billion Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT) in 2008 compared to 2007. However, the U.S. DoT statistic is based on just a few thousand locations spread across more than tens of thousands miles of road network. In other words, while such sparsely located measurements may not be representative of the actual travel behaviour across the U.S., it is difficult to gauge any changes in VMTs at the regional and sub-regional level. We propose a novel approach to study regional and sub-regional changes in VMTs based on changes in regional gasoline prices using Granger causality tests. For this purpose we use weekly traffic counts on major traffic corridors in a region as a proxy for the VMTs. The weekly traffic counts are computed based on actual vehicle counts collected at vehicle sensors throughout the year on major corridors in the Northern Virginia road network. The study results are presented through a series of charts and maps.
    02/2010;
  • Junbo Yu, Roger R. Stough, Peter Nijkamp
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    ABSTRACT: What is the real driver of China’s technological entrepreneurship? Are the United States’ science parks the most efficient model for achieving a successful government policy regarding high-technology research, development, and commercialization? This essay sheds light on the important role that central governments play and highlights limitations within each system. It also looks to the future, considering the newly evolving governance model for China’s innovation strategy.
    Public Administration Review 11/2009; 69:S95 - S100. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we explore the development of a parameter free region classifier based on Kolmogorov complexity. Given a set of regions described by unlimited but fixed number of attributes for each region, the region classifier will be able to build a classification tree which will help identify which regions are similar/dissimilar to each other based on a relative distance measure derived from Kolmogorov complexity. The region classifier is tested with the block level US Census demographics data as well as hitech establishment data for a subset of metropolitan regions. Preliminary results are presented for the census data as well as for the hitech sector for three different time periods.
    11/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The development of economic theory after World War II has focused on clarifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an idealized general equilibrium. Debreu (1956), Arrow and Hahn (1971), and Scarf and Hansen (1973) established these conditions, building on earlier attempts by Cassel (1917) and Wald (1933–34, 1934–35). A key assumption in the formulation and proofs of the existence of a general equilibrium of a competitive economy is a large (or even infinite) number of buyers and sellers (Aumann 1964), which ensures anonymous markets and mutual independence of agents. Another assumption is the convexity of preference and production technology sets (Uzawa 1962). A third assumption is flexible pricing of goods and production factors.
    07/2009: pages 1-33;
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic nature of traffic flows on urban freeways is self-evident. The plots of workday traffic on segments of major roads against time of day display the familiar contours of lumpy, peaked curves. Over the years the peaks have become blunt and the valleys filled, suggesting nearly day long high-volume traffic. At the same time that the average travel speed on congested freeways has gone up, average commute time has either remained steady or increased marginally and the number of accidents per 100 million VMTs has gone down or remained constant (Gordon et al. 1991; BTS 2006). Traffic at high volumes and high speeds or under designed roads should result in more accidents and slower travel times. This has not occurred but traffic has continued to increase. Congested traffic patterns suggest an inherent disorder or randomness. Could it be that there is a hidden order in the congested traffic patterns? It would be helpful to analyze and understand these linear spatial patterns to see the degree to which order/disorder associated with these patterns can be determined.
    07/2009: pages 143-159;