R. J. Ivison

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (714)2773.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present new, high-angular resolution interferometric observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of $^{12}$CO $J=1-0$ line emission and 4-8 GHz continuum emission in the strongly lensed, $z=2.3$ submillimetre galaxy, SMM J21352-0102. Using these data, we identify and probe the conditions in $\sim 100$pc clumps within this galaxy, which we consider to be potential giant molecular cloud complexes, containing up to half of the total molecular gas in this system. In combination with far-infrared and submillimetre data, we investigate the far-infrared/radio correlation, measuring $q_{IR} = 2.39 \pm 0.17$ across SMM J21352. We search for variations in the properties of the interstellar medium throughout the galaxy by measuring the spatially-resolved $q_{IR}$ and radio spectral index, ${\alpha}_{\rm radio}$, finding ranges $q_{IR} = [2.1, 2.6]$ and ${\alpha}_{\rm radio} = [-1.5, -0.7]$. We argue that these ranges in ${\alpha}_{\rm radio}$ and $q_{IR}$ may reflect variations in the age of the ISM material. Using multi-$J$ $^{12}$CO data, we quantitatively test a recent theoretical model relating the star-formation rate surface density to the excitation of $^{12}$CO, finding good agreement between the model and the data. Lastly, we study the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, both integrated across the system and within the individual clumps. We find small offsets between SMM J21352 and its clumps relative to other star-forming galaxy populations on the Schmidt-Kennicutt plot - such offsets have previously been interpreted as evidence for a bi-modal star-formation law, but we argue that they can be equally-well explained as arising due to a combination of observational uncertainties and systematic biases in the choice of model used to interpret the data.
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the blind detection of 12CO emission from a Distant Red Galaxy, HS1700.DRG55. We have used the IRAM PdBI-WIDEX, with its 3.6GHz of instantaneous dual-polarization bandwidth, to target 12CO(3--2) from galaxies lying in the proto-cluster at z=2.300 in the field HS1700+64. If indeed this line in DRG55 is 12CO(3--2), it's detection at 104.9GHz indicates a z_CO=2.296. None of the other eight known z~2.30 proto-cluster galaxies lying within the primary beam (PB) are detected in 12CO, although the limits are ~2x worse towards the edge of the PB where several lie. The optical/near-IR magnitudes of DRG55 (R_AB>27, K_AB=22.3) mean that optical spectroscopic redshifts are difficult with 10m-class telescopes, but near-IR redshifts would be feasible. The 24um-implied SFR (210 M_odot yr-1), stellar mass (~10^11 M-odot) and 12CO line luminosity (3.6x10^10 K km s-1 pc^2) are comparable to other normal 12CO-detected star forming galaxies in the literature, although the galaxy is some ~2 mag (~6x) fainter in the rest-frame UV than 12CO-detected galaxies at z>2. The detection of DRG55 in 12CO complements three other 12CO detected UV-bright galaxies in this proto-cluster from previous studies, and suggests that many optically faint galaxies in the proto-cluster may host substantial molecular gas reservoirs, and a full blind census of 12CO in this overdense environment is warranted.
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy observations of the Herschel-selected gravitationally-lensed starburst galaxy HATLASJ1429-0028. The lensing system consists of an edge-on foreground disk galaxy at $z=0.218$ with a nearly complete Einstein ring of the infrared luminous galaxy at $z=1.027$. The WFC3 spectroscopy with G102 and G141 grisms, covering the wavelength range of 0.8 to 1.7 $\mu$m, resulted in detections of H$\alpha$+[NII], H$\beta$, [SII], and [OIII] for the background galaxy from which we measure line fluxes and ratios. The Balmer line ratio H$\alpha$/H$\beta$ of 7.5 $\pm$ 4.4, when corrected for [NII], results in an extinction for the starburst galaxy of E(B-V)=0.8 $\pm$ 0.5. The H$\alpha$ based star-formation rate, when corrected for extinction, is 100 $\pm$ 80 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, lower than the instantaneous star-formation rate of 390 $\pm$ 90 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ from the total IR luminosity. We also compare the nebular line ratios of HATLASJ1429-0028 with other star-forming and sub-mm bright galaxies. The nebular line ratios are consistent with an intrinsic ultra-luminous infrared galaxy with no evidence for excitation by an active galactic nuclei (AGN). We estimate the metallicity, 12 + log(O/H), of HATLASJ1429-0028 to be 8.49 $\pm$ 0.16. This value is below the average relations for stellar mass vs. metallicity of galaxies at $z \sim 1$ for a galaxy with stellar mass of 1.1 $\pm$ 0.4 $\times$ 10^11 M$_{\odot}$. The high stellar mass, lack of AGN indicators, low metallicity, and high star-formation rate of HATLASJ1429-0028 suggests that this galaxy is currently undergoing a rapid formation.
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic phenomena in the Universe; believed to result from the collapse and subsequent explosion of massive stars. Even though it has profound consequences for our understanding of their nature and selection biases, little is known about the dust properties of the galaxies hosting GRBs. We present analysis of the far-infrared properties of an unbiased sample of 21 GRB host galaxies (at an average redshift of $z\,=\,3.1$) located in the {\it Herschel} Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), the {\it Herschel} Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS), the {\it Herschel} Fornax Cluster Survey (HeFoCS), the {\it Herschel} Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) and the {\it Herschel} Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), totalling $880$ deg$^2$, or $\sim 3$\% of the sky in total. Our sample selection is serendipitous, based only on whether the X-ray position of a GRB lies within a large-scale {\it Herschel} survey -- therefore our sample can be considered completely unbiased. Using deep data at wavelengths of 100\,--\,500$\,\mu$m, we tentatively detected 1 out of 20 GRB hosts located in these fields. We constrain their dust masses and star formation rates, and discuss these in the context of recent measurements of submillimetre galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The average far-infrared flux of our sample gives an upper limit on star formation rate of $<114$ M$_{\sun}\,$yr$^{-1}$. The detection rate of GRB hosts is consistent with that predicted assuming that GRBs trace the cosmic star formation rate density in an unbiased way, i.e. that the fraction of GRB hosts with $\mbox{SFR}>500\,{\rm M}_\odot\,\mbox{yr}^{-1}$ is consistent with the contribution of such luminous galaxies to the cosmic star-formation density.
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The broad spectral bandwidth at mm and cm-wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48, through the detection of CO(1-0) line emission in the COLDz survey, through a sensitive, Ka-band (31 to 39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 square arcminute region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ~570 +/- 80 km/s) is most likely to be CO(1-0) at z=2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z = 3.2 +/- 0.4. The CO(1-0) line luminosity is L'_CO = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10^{10} K km/s pc^2, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M_gas ~ (2 - 8)x10^{10}M_solar depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio alpha_CO. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L_IR = 2.5x10^{12} L_solar and the star-formation rate is ~250 M_solar/yr, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ~114+/-19 L_solar/(K km/s pc^2), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse HST WFC3/$H_{160}$-band observations of a sample of 48 ALMA-detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79$\pm$17% of the SMGs in the $H_{160}$-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the non-detections are SMGs with 870$\mu$m fluxes of $S_{870} < $3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of $\mu_H \sim $26 mag arcsec$^{-2}$, we find that 82$\pm$9% of the $H_{160}$-band detected SMGs at $z =$ 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a S\'ersic fit to the $H_{160}$ surface-brightness profiles we derive a median S\'ersic index of $n = $1.2$\pm$0.3 and a median half-light radius of $r_e = $4.4$^{+1.1}_{-0.5}$ kpc for our SMGs at $z = $1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the $H_{160}$-component and 870$\mu$m emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty star-burst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not co-located. We find significant differences in the sizes and the S\'ersic index between our $z = $2-3 SMGs and $z \sim $2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead $z\sim$2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the $z = $2-3 SMGs with $S_{870} \gtrsim $2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Herschel photometric and spectroscopic observations of Supernova 1987A, carried out in 2012. Our dedicated photometric measurements provide new 70 micron data and improved imaging quality at 100 and 160 micron compared to previous observations in 2010. Our Herschel spectra show only weak CO line emission, and provide an upper limit for the 63 micron [O I] line flux, eliminating the possibility that line contaminations distort the previously estimated dust mass. The far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is well fitted by thermal emission from cold dust. The newly measured 70 micron flux constrains the dust temperature, limiting it to nearly a single temperature. The far-infrared emission can be fitted by 0.5+-0.1 Msun of amorphous carbon, about a factor of two larger than the current nucleosynthetic mass prediction for carbon. The observation of SiO molecules at early and late phases suggests that silicates may also have formed and we could fit the SED with a combination of 0.3 Msun of amorphous carbon and 0.5 Msun of silicates, totalling 0.8 Msun of dust. Our analysis thus supports the presence of a large dust reservoir in the ejecta of SN 1987A. The inferred dust mass suggests that supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar medium, from local to high-redshift galaxies.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) believed to lie at z_photo ~ 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star-formation rates (SFR) are L_IR ~ 2-6 x 10^12 L_sun and ~ 200-500 M_sun yr-1, respectively. The size of z ~ 3-6 SMGs ranges from 0''.10 to 0''.38 with a median of 0''.22 (FWHM), corresponding to a median effective radius (Re) of ~ 0.8 kpc, comparable to the typical size of the stellar component measured in compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (cQGs) --- R ~ 1 kpc. The surface SFR density of our z ~ 3-6 SMGs is 160+610-82 M_sun yr-1 kpc-2, comparable to that seen in local merger-driven (U)LIRGs, which implies that these SMGs are also likely to be merger-driven. The discovery of compact starbursts in z >~ 3 SMGs strongly supports a massive galaxy formation scenario wherein z ~ 3-6 SMGs evolve into the compact stellar components of z ~ 2 cQGs. These cQGs are then thought to evolve into the most massive ellipticals in the local Universe, mostly via dry mergers. Our results thus suggest that z >~ 3 SMGs are the likely progenitors of massive local ellipticals, via cQGs, meaning that we can now trace the evolutionary path of the most massive galaxies over a period encompassing ~ 90% of the age of the Universe.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution (0.3'') ALMA 870um imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field and investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM=0.30$\pm$0.04'' for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4$\pm$0.2kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at an SNR <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870um-bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ~250um sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved 12CO (J=3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes of SMGs are around four times larger than the sub-millimeter sizes, indicating that the star formation in these galaxies is compact relative to the pre-existing stellar distribution. The size of the starburst region in SMGs is consistent with the majority of the star formation occurring in a central region, a few kpc in extent, with a median star formation rate surface density of 90$\pm$30Msol/yr/kpc$^2$, which may suggest that we are witnessing an intense period of bulge growth in these galaxies.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In our series of papers presenting the Herschel imaging of evolved planetary nebulae, we present images of the dust distribution in the Helix nebula (NGC 7293). Images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron were obtained with the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel satellite. The broadband maps show the dust distribution over the main Helix nebula to be clumpy and predominantly present in the barrel wall. We determined the spectral energy distribution of the main nebula in a consistent way using Herschel, IRAS, and Planck flux values. The emissivity index of 0.99 +/- 0.09, in combination with the carbon rich molecular chemistry of the nebula, indicates that the dust consists mainly of amorphous carbon. The dust excess emission from the central star disk is detected at 70 micron and the flux measurement agree with previous measurement. We present the temperature and dust column density maps. The total dust mass across the Helix nebula (without its halo) is determined to be 0.0035 solar mass at a distance of 216 pc. The temperature map shows dust temperatures between 22 and 42 K, which is similar to the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas, strengthening the fact that the dust and gas co-exist in high density clumps. Archived images are used to compare the location of the dust emission in the far infrared (Herschel) with the ionized (GALEX, Hbeta) and molecular hydrogen component. The different emission components are consistent with the Helix consisting of a thick walled barrel-like structure inclined to the line of sight. The radiation field decreases rapidly through the barrel wall.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 574. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We study the evolution of the radio spectral index and far-infrared/radio correlation (FRC) across the star-formation rate-stellar masse (i.e. SFR-M*) plane up to z 2. We start from a M*-selected sample of galaxies with reliable SFR and redshift estimates. We then grid the SFR-M* plane in several redshift ranges and measure the infrared luminosity, radio luminosity, radio spectral index, and ultimately the FRC index (i.e. qFIR) of each SFR-M*-z bin. The infrared luminosities of our SFR-M*-z bins are estimated using their stacked far-infrared flux densities inferred from observations obtained with Herschel. Their radio luminosities and radio spectral indices (i.e. alpha, where Snu nu^-alpha) are estimated using their stacked 1.4GHz and 610MHz flux densities from the VLA and GMRT, respectively. Our far-infrared and radio observations include the most widely studied blank extragalactic fields -GOODS-N/S, ECDFS, and COSMOS- covering a sky area of 2deg^2. Using this methodology, we constrain the radio spectral index and FRC index of star-forming galaxies with M*>10^10Msun and 0<z<2.3. We find that alpha^1.4GHz_610MHz does not evolve significantly with redshift or with the distance of a galaxy with respect to the main sequence (MS) of the SFR-M* plane (i.e. Delta_log(SSFR)_MS=log[SSFR(galaxy)/SSFR_MS(M*,z)]). Instead, star-forming galaxies have a radio spectral index consistent with a canonical value of 0.8, which suggests that their radio spectra are dominated by non-thermal optically thin synchrotron emission. We find that qFIR displays a moderate but statistically significant redshift evolution as qFIR(z)=(2.35+/-0.08)*(1+z)^(-0.12+/-0.04), consistent with some previous literature. Finally, we find no significant correlation between qFIR and Delta_log(SSFR)_MS, though a weak positive trend, as observed in one of our redshift bins, cannot be firmly ruled out using our dataset.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2014; 573. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first measurement of the correlation between the map of the CMB lensing potential derived from the Planck nominal mission data and $z >1.5$ galaxies detected by the Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey covering about $600\,\hbox{deg}^2$, i.e. about 1.4% of the sky. A highly significant ($20\,\sigma$) correlation is found, substantially stronger than expected. The result was checked by performing a number of null tests. The galaxy bias parameter, $b$, derived from a joint analysis of the cross-power spectrum and of the auto-power spectrum of the galaxy density contrast is found to be $b=2.80^{+0.12}_{-0.11}$, consistent with earlier estimates for H-ATLAS galaxies at similar redshifts. On the other hand, the amplitude of the cross-correlation is found to be a factor $1.62 \pm 0.16$ higher than expected from the standard model and also found by cross-correlation analyses with other tracers of the large-scale structure. The enhancement due to lensing magnification can account for only a fraction of the excess cross-correlation signal. We suggest that most of it may be due to an incomplete removal of the contamination of the CIB, that includes the H-ATLAS sources we are cross-correlating with. In any case, the highly significant detection reported here using a catalog covering only 1.4% of the sky demonstrates the potential of CMB lensing correlations with sub-mm surveys.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates. While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-$z$, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15--500\,$\mu$m in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of {\it Herschel} imaging, and a rich dataset on local galaxies, we find a empirical variation in the relationship between rest-frame UV slope ($\beta$) and ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission ($L_{\rm IR}/L_{\rm UV}\equiv\,IRX$) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total star formation rate, SFR. Both locally and at high-$z$, galaxies above SFR$\gt$50\,M$_\odot$\,yr$^{-1}$ deviate from the nominal $IRX-\beta$ relation towards bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-$z$ dropout searches of $\ll1$\%\ at $z\lt4-10$, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in LBG searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g. galaxies with $>50$\,M$_\odot$\,yr$^{-1}$, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at $z\sim2$ exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 796(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201014586. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a derivation of the star formation rate per comoving volume of quasar host galaxies, derived from stacking analyses of far-infrared to mm-wave photometry of quasars with redshifts 0 ensuremath< ensuremath zensuremath<?iensuremath> ensuremath< 6 and absolute ensuremath Iensuremath<?iensuremath>-band magnitudes -22 ensuremath> ensuremath Iensuremath<?iensuremath>ensuremath ABensuremath<?subensuremath> ensuremath> -32 We use the science demonstration observations of the first textttchar12616 degensuremath 2ensuremath<?supensuremath> from the ensuremath Herschelensuremath<?iensuremath> Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) in which there are 240 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and a further 171 from the 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO (2SLAQ) survey. We supplement this data with a compilation of data from IRAS, ISO, ensuremath Spitzerensuremath<?iensuremath>, SCUBA and MAMBO. H-ATLAS alone statistically detects the quasars in its survey area at ensuremath>5ensuremath ensuremathsigmaensuremath<?iensuremath> at 250,350 and 500 ensuremath ensuremathmuensuremath<?iensuremath>m. From the compilation as a whole we find striking evidence of downsizing in quasar host galaxy formation: low-luminosity quasars with absolute magnitudes in the range -22 ensuremath> ensuremath Iensuremath<?iensuremath>ensuremath ABensuremath<?subensuremath> ensuremath> -24 have a comoving star formation rate (derived from 100 ensuremath ensuremathmuensuremath<?iensuremath>m rest-frame luminosities) peaking between redshifts of ensuremath 1ensuremath<?iensuremath> and ensuremath 2ensuremath<?iensuremath>, while high-luminosity quasars with ensuremath Iensuremath<?iensuremath>ensuremath ABensuremath<?subensuremath> ensuremath< -26 have a maximum contribution to the star formation density at ensuremath zensuremath<?iensuremath> textttchar126 3. The volume-averaged star formation rate of -22 ensuremath> ensuremath Iensuremath<?iensuremath>ensuremath ABensuremath<?subensuremath> ensuremath> -24 quasars evolves as (1 ? ensuremath zensuremath<?iensuremath>)ensuremath 2.3$pm$0.7ensuremath<?supensuremath> at ensuremath zensuremath<?iensuremath> ensuremath< 2, but the evolution at higher luminosities is much faster reaching (1 ? ensuremath zensuremath<?iensuremath>)ensuremath 10$pm$1ensuremath<?supensuremath> at -26 ensuremath> ensuremath Iensuremath<?iensuremath>ensuremath ABensuremath<?subensuremath> ensuremath> -28. We tentatively interpret this as a combination of a declining major merger rate with time and gas consumption reducing fuel for both black hole accretion and star formation.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics. 09/2014; 518:L7?1-L7?5.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular gas constitutes the dominant mass component of protoplanetary discs. To date, these sources have not been studied comprehensively at the longest far-infrared and shortest submillimetre wavelengths. This paper presents Herschel SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations toward 18 protoplanetary discs, covering the entire 450-1540 GHz (666-195 $\mu$m) range at R~400-1300. The spectra reveal clear detections of the dust continuum and, in six targets, a significant amount of spectral line emission primarily attributable to $^{12}$CO rotational lines. Other targets exhibit little to no detectable spectral lines. Low signal-to-noise detections also include signatures from $^{13}$CO, [CI] and HCN. For completeness, we present upper limits of non-detected lines in all targets, including low-energy transitions of H2O and CH$^+$ molecules. The ten $^{12}$CO lines that fall within the SPIRE FTS bands trace energy levels of ~50-500 K. Combined with lower and higher energy lines from the literature, we compare the CO rotational line energy distribution with detailed physical-chemical models, for sources where these are available and published. Our 13CO line detections in the disc around Herbig Be star HD 100546 exceed, by factors of ~10-30, the values predicted by a model that matches a wealth of other observational constraints, including the SPIRE $^{12}$CO ladder. To explain the observed $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO ratio, it may be necessary to consider the combined effects of optical depth and isotope selective (photo)chemical processes. Considering the full sample of 18 objects, we find that the strongest line emission is observed in discs around Herbig Ae/Be stars, although not all show line emission. In addition, two of the six T Tauri objects exhibit detectable $^{12}$CO lines in the SPIRE range.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: $\tau$ Ceti is a nearby, mature G-type star very similar to our Sun, with a massive Kuiper Belt analogue (Greaves et al. 2004) and possible multiplanet system (Tuomi et al. 2013) that has been compared to our Solar System. We present Herschel Space Observatory images of the debris disk, finding the disk is resolved at 70 and 160 microns, and marginally resolved at 250 microns. The Herschel images and infrared photometry from the literature are best modelled using a wide dust annulus with an inner edge between 1-10 AU and an outer edge at ~55 AU, inclined from face-on by 35$\pm$10 degrees, and with no significant azimuthal structure. We model the proposed tightly-packed planetary system of five super-Earths and find that the innermost dynamically stable disk orbits are consistent with the inner edge found by the observations. The photometric modelling, however, cannot rule out a disk inner edge as close to the star as 1 AU, though larger distances produce a better fit to the data. Dynamical modelling shows that the 5 planet system is stable with the addition of a Neptune or smaller mass planet on an orbit outside 5 AU, where the Tuomi et al. analysis would not have detected a planet of this mass.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 444(3). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Far-infrared Herschel images of the Eridani system, seen at a fifth of the Sun's present age, resolve two belts of debris emission. Fits to the 160 μm PACS image yield radial spans for these belts of 12-16 and 54-68 AU. The south end of the outer belt is 10% brighter than the north end in the PACS+SPIRE images at 160, 250, and 350 μm, indicating a pericenter glow attributable to a planet "c." From this asymmetry and an upper bound on the offset of the belt center, this second planet should be mildly eccentric (ec 0.03-0.3). Compared to the asteroid and Kuiper Belts of the young Sun, the Eri belts are intermediate in brightness and more similar to each other, with up to 20 km sized collisional fragments in the inner belt totaling 5% of an Earth mass. This reservoir may feed the hot dust close to the star and could send many impactors through the Habitable Zone, especially if it is being perturbed by the suspected planet Eri b, at semi-major axis 3 AU.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2014; 791(1):L11. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present statistically significant detections at 850um of the Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) population at z=3, 4, and 5 using data from the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS) in the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Ultra Deep Survey (UKIDSS-UDS) field. We employ a stacking technique to probe beneath the survey limit to measure the average 850um flux density of LBGs at z=3, 4, and 5 with typical ultraviolet luminosities of L(1700A)~10^29 erg/s/Hz. We measure 850um flux densities of (0.25 +/- 0.03, (0.41 +/- 0.06), and (0.88 +/- 0.23) mJy respectively, and find that they contribute at most 20 per cent to the cosmic far-infrared background at 850um. Fitting an appropriate range of spectral energy distributions to the z=3, 4, and 5 LBG stacked 24-850um fluxes, we derive infrared (IR) luminosities of L(8-1000um)~3.2, 5.5, and 11.0x10^11 Lsun (corresponding to star formation rates of ~50-200 Msun/yr) respectively. We find that the evolution in the IR luminosity density of LBGs is broadly consistent with model predictions for the expected contribution of luminous IR galaxy (LIRG) to ultraluminous IR galaxy (ULIRG) type systems at these epochs. We also see a strong positive correlation between stellar mass and IR luminosity. Our data are consistent with the main sequence of star formation showing little or no evolution from z=3 to 5. We have also confirmed that, for a fixed mass, the reddest LBGs (UV slope Beta -> 0) are indeed redder due to dust extinction, with SFR(IR)/SFR(UV) increasing by approximately an order of magnitude over -2<Beta<0 such that SFR(IR)/SFR(UV)~20 for the reddest LBGs. Furthermore, the most massive LBGs also tend to have higher obscured-to-unobscured ratio, hinting at a variation in the obscuration properties across the mass range.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report an unexpected variation in the positional offset distributions between Herschel-ATLAS sub-millimetre (submm) sources and their optical associations, depending on both 250-{\mu}m signal-to-noise ratio and 250/350-{\mu}m colour. We show that redder and brighter submm sources have optical associations with a broader distribution of positional offsets than would be expected if these offsets were due to random positional errors in the source extraction. The observation can be explained by two possible effects: either red submm sources trace a more clustered population than blue ones, and their positional errors are increased by confusion; or red submm sources are generally at high redshifts and are frequently associated with low-redshift lensing structures which are identified as false counterparts. We perform various analyses of the data, including the multiplicity of optical associations, the redshift and magnitude distributions in H-ATLAS in comparison to HerMES, and simulations of weak lensing, and we conclude that the effects are most likely to be explained by widespread weak lensing of Herschel-SPIRE sources by foreground structures. This has important consequences for counterpart identification and derived redshift distributions and luminosity functions of submm surveys.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(2). · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
2,773.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2015
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      • • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2014
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM)
      • School of Astronomy
      Tehrān, Ostan-e Tehran, Iran
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001–2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2011–2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • • Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy
      • • Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1998–2012
    • University College London
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • The Open University (UK)
      • Department of Physical Sciences
      Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2007–2010
    • Scottish Universities Physics Alliance
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2009
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institute for Astro-and Particle Physics
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2005
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1993
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom