R. J. Ivison

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (756)3139.78 Total impact

  • I. Oteo · M. A. Zwaan · R. J. Ivison · I. Smail · A. D. Biggs
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    ABSTRACT: We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide and deep submm survey, ALMACAL. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. Gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analysed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of $\sim 25 \, {\rm \mu Jy \, beam^{-1}}$ at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on $\geq 5 \sigma$ detections, we have found eight and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities $S_{\rm 1.2 mm} \geq 0.2 \, {\rm mJy}$. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest \emph{Herschel} surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 $\mu$m and 1.2 mm, from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least $2\times$. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs, with redshifts determined via detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows morphological studies of very faint DSFGs - representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies (SMGs) - in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a complete census of all 263 Herschel-detected sources within the HST Frontier Fields (HFF), a deep multi-filter HST programme covering six massive lensing clusters. We provide a robust legacy catalogue of Herschel fluxes, primarily based on imaging from the Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) and PEP/HerMES Key Programmes. Photometry is derived via a simultaneous PSF-fit using priors from archival Spitzer imaging. We optimally combine Herschel, Spitzer and WISE infrared (IR) photometry with data from HST, VLA and ground-based observatories, identifying optical counterparts to gain source redshifts. Hence for each Herschel-detected source we also present magnification factor (mu), intrinsic IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature, providing a comprehensive view of dust-obscured star formation within the HFF. We demonstrate the utility of our catalogues through an exploratory overview of HST morphologies for the IR-bright population. In particular we briefly describe the highest redshift (z>2.5) and most magnified (mu>4) sources in the gravitationally lensed background.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed multiwavelength study (from rest-frame ultraviolet to far-infrared) of narrow-band selected, star-forming (SF) Hα emitters (HAEs) at z ∼ 2.23 taken from the High-Redshift(Z) Emission Line Survey (HiZELS). We find that HAEs have similar properties and colours derived from spectral energy distributions as sBzK galaxies, and probe a well-defined portion of the SF population at z ∼ 2. This is not true for Lyα emitters (LAEs), which are strongly biased towards blue, less massive galaxies (missing a significant percentage of the SF population). Combining our Hα observations with matched, existing Lyα data, we determine that the Lyα escape fraction ( f esc ) is low (only ∼4.5 per cent of HAEs show Lyα emission) and decreases with increasing dust attenuation, ultraviolet continuum slope, stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR). This suggests that Lyα preferentially escapes from blue galaxies with low dust attenuation. However, a small population of red and massive LAEs is also present, in agreement with previous works and indicating that dust and Lyα are not mutually exclusive. Using different and completely independent measures of the total SFR, we show that the Hα emission is an excellent tracer of star formation at z ∼ 2 with deviations typically lower than 0.3 dex for individual galaxies. We find that the slope and zero-point of the HAE main sequence at z ∼ 2 strongly depend on the dust-correction method used to recover the SFR, although they are consistent with previous works when similar assumptions are made.
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the relationship between star formation and AGN activity by constructing matched samples of local ($0<z<0.6$) radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN in the $\textit{Herschel}$-ATLAS fields. Radio-loud AGN are classified as high-excitation and low-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs, LERGs) using their emission lines and $\textit{WISE}$ 22-$\mu$m luminosity. AGN accretion and jet powers in these active galaxies are traced by [OIII] emission-line and radio luminosity, respectively. Star formation rates (SFRs) and specific star formation rates (SSFRs) were derived using $\textit{Herschel}$ 250-$\mu$m luminosity and stellar mass measurements from the SDSS$-$MPA-JHU catalogue. In the past, star formation studies of AGN have mostly focused on high-redshift sources to observe the thermal dust emission that peaks in the far-infrared, which limited the samples to powerful objects. However, with $\textit{Herschel}$ we can expand this to low redshifts. Our stacking analyses show that SFRs and SSFRs of both radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN increase with increasing AGN power but that radio-loud AGN tend to have lower SFR. Additionally, radio-quiet AGN are found to have approximately an order of magnitude higher SSFRs than radio-loud AGN for a given level of AGN power. The difference between the star formation properties of radio-loud and -quiet AGN is also seen in samples matched in stellar mass.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2015; 452(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1502 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly project, we show that, for galaxy masses above approximately 1.0e8 solar masses, 51% of the stellar mass-density in the local Universe is in early-type galaxies (ETGs: Sersic n > 2.5) while 89% of the rate of production of stellar mass-density is occurring in late-type galaxies (LTGs: Sersic n < 2.5). From this zero-redshift benchmark, we have used a calorimetric technique to quantify the importance of the morphological transformation of galaxies over the history of the Universe. The extragalactic background radiation contains all the energy generated by nuclear fusion in stars since the Big Bang. By resolving this background radiation into individual galaxies using the deepest far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and using measurements of the Sersic index of these galaxies derived from the HST images, we estimate that approximately 83% of the stellar mass-density formed over the history of the Universe occurred in LTGs. The difference between this and the fraction of the stellar mass-density that is in LTGs today implies there must have been a major transformation of LTGs into ETGs after the formation of most of the stars.
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit long baseline ALMA submillimeter observations of the lensed star-forming galaxy SDP 81 at z = 3.042 to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) on scales of 50-100 pc. The kinematics of the 12CO gas within this system are well described by a rotationally supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, = 320 ± 20 km s−1, and a dynamical mass of = (3.5 ± 1.0)× 1010 within a radius of 1.5 kpc. The disk is gas-rich and unstable, with a Toomre parameter, Q = 0.30 ± 0.10, and so into star-forming regions with Jeans length 130 pc. We identify five star-forming regions within the ISM on these scales and show that their scaling relations between luminosity, line widths, and sizes are significantly offset from those typical of molecular clouds in local galaxies (Larson's relations). These offsets are likely to be caused by the high external hydrostatic pressure for the ISM, /× 107 K cm−3, which is ~104× higher than the typical ISM pressure in the Milky Way. The physical conditions of the star-forming ISM and giant molecular clouds appear to be similar to those found in the densest environments in the local universe, such as those in the Galactic center.
    06/2015; 806(1):L17. DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/806/1/L17
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed multi-wavelength study (from rest-frame UV to far-IR) of narrow-band (NB) selected, star-forming (SF) H$\alpha$ emitters (HAEs) at $z \sim 2.23$ taken from the High Redshift(Z) Emission Line Survey (HiZELS). We find that HAEs have similar SED-derived properties and colors to $sBzK$ galaxies and probe a well-defined portion of the SF population at $z \sim 2$. This is not true for Ly$\alpha$ emitters (LAEs), which are strongly biased towards blue, less massive galaxies (missing a significant percentage of the SF population). Combining our H$\alpha$ observations with matched, existing Ly$\alpha$ data we determine that the Ly$\alpha$ escape fraction ($f_{\rm esc}$) is low (only $\sim$ 4.5\% of HAEs show Ly$\alpha$ emission) and decreases with increasing dust attenuation, UV continuum slope, stellar mass, and star formation rate (SFR). This suggests that Ly$\alpha$ preferentially escapes from blue galaxies with low dust attenuation. However, a small population of red and massive LAEs is also present in agreement with previous works. This indicates that dust and Ly$\alpha$ are not mutually exclusive. Using different and completely independent measures of the total SFR we show that the H$\alpha$ emission is an excellent tracer of star formation at $z \sim 2$ with deviations typically lower than 0.3 dex for individual galaxies. We find that the slope and zero-point of the HAE main-sequence (MS) at $z \sim 2$ strongly depend on the dust correction method used to recover SFR, although they are consistent with previous works when similar assumptions are made.
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Space Observatory has had a tremendous impact on the study of extragalactic dust. Specifically, early-type galaxies (ETG) have been the focus of several studies. In this paper we combine results from two Herschel studies - a Virgo cluster study HeViCS and a broader, low-redshift H-ATLAS/GAMA study - and contrast the dust and associated properties for similar mass galaxies. This comparison is motivated by differences in results exhibited between multiple Herschel studies of early-type galaxies. A comparison between consistent modified blackbody derived dust mass is carried out, revealing strong differences between the two samples in both dust mass and dust-to-stellar mass ratio. In particular, the HeViCS sample lacks massive ETG with as high a specific dust content as found in H-ATLAS. This is most likely connected with the difference in environment for the two samples. We calculate nearest neighbour environment densities in a consistent way, showing that H-ATLAS ETG occupy sparser regions of the local Universe, whereas HeViCS ETG occupy dense regions. This is also true for ETG that are not Herschel-detected but are in the Virgo and GAMA parent samples. Spectral energy distributions are fit to the panchromatic data. From these we find that in H-ATLAS the specific star formation rate anticorrelates with stellar mass and reaches values as high as in our Galaxy. On the other hand HeViCS ETG appear to have little star formation. Based on the trends found here, H-ATLAS ETG are thought to have more extended star formation histories and a younger stellar population than HeViCS ETG.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2015; 451(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1191 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies, and their companions, at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly-available UltraVISTA catalog, and maps at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m from Herschel/SPIRE, we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that correlated sources will bias stacked flux densities if the resolution of the image is poor; i.e., we intentionally smooth the image - in effect degrading the angular resolution - before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in K_S ~ 23.4) sources that are physically associated with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 +- 0.78, 5.77 +- 0.43, and 2.32 +- 0.19 nWm^-2/sr at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m at 300 arcsec full width half maximum. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 +- 0.23, 1.07 +- 0.31, and 0.97 +- 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/Msun) > 8.5 can account for the entire measured total intensities, and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z > 4.
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    ABSTRACT: We exploit long-baseline ALMA sub-mm observations of the lensed star-forming galaxy SDP 81 at z=3.042 to investigate the properties of inter-stellar medium on scales of 50-100pc. The kinematics of the CO gas within this system are well described by a rotationally-supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v=320+/-20km/s and a dynamical mass of M=(3.5+/-1.0)x10^10Mo within a radius of 1.5 kpc. The disk is gas rich and unstable, with a Toomre parameter, Q=0.30+/-0.10 and so should collapse in to star-forming regions with Jeans length L_J~130pc. We identify five star-forming regions within the ISM on these scales and show that their scaling relations between luminosity, line-widths and sizes are significantly offset from those typical of molecular clouds in local Galaxies (Larson's relations). These offsets are likely to be caused by the high external hydrostatic pressure for the interstellar medium (ISM), P/kB=(40+/-20)x10^7K/cm3, which is ~10,000x higher than the typical ISM pressure in the Milky Way. The physical conditions of the star-forming ISM and giant molecular clouds appears to be similar to the those found in the densest environments in the local Universe, such as those in the Galactic center.
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA--2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra--Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the counts are well-described by a double power-law with a break at 8.5+/-0.6mJy. The break corresponds to a luminosity of ~6x10^12Lsol or a star-formation rate of ~1000Mo/yr. For the typical sizes of these SMGs, which are resolved in our ALMA data with r=1.2+/-0.1kpc, this yields a limiting SFR density of ~100Msol/yr/kpc2. Finally, the number density of S_870>2mJy SMGs is 80+/-30 times higher than that derived from blank-field counts. An over-abundance of faint SMGs is inconsistent with line-of-sight projections dominating multiplicity in the brightest SMGs, and indicates that a significant proportion of these high-redshift ULIRGs must be physically associated.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 807(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/128 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interstellar dust in galaxies can be traced either through its extinction effects on the star light, or through its thermal emission at infrared wavelengths. Recent radiative transfer studies of several nearby edge-on galaxies have found an apparent inconsistency in the dust energy balance: the radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction underestimate the observed fluxes by an average factor of three. We investigate the dust energy balance for IC4225 and NGC5166, two edge-on spiral galaxies observed by the Herschel Space Observatory in the frame of the H-ATLAS survey. We start from models which were constrained from optical data and extend them to construct the entire spectral energy distribution of our galaxies. These predicted values are subsequently compared to the observed far-infrared fluxes. We find that including a young stellar population in the modelling is necessary as it plays a non-negligible part in the heating of the dust grains. While the modelling approach for both galaxies is nearly identical, we find two very different results. As is often seen in other edge-on spiral galaxies, the far-infrared emission of our radiative transfer model of IC4225 underestimates the observed fluxes by a factor of about three. For NGC5166 on the other hand, we find that both the predicted spectral energy distribution as well as the simulated images match the observations particularly well. We explore possible reasons for this difference and conclude that it is unlikely that one single mechanism is the cause of the dust energy balance problem in spiral galaxies. We discuss the different approaches that can be considered in order to get a conclusive answer on the origin this discrepancy.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2015; 451(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1104 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the long wavelength dust emission in 180 star-forming (SF) galaxies are used to investigate the evolution of ISM masses at z = 1 to 6.4. The ISM masses exhibit strong increases from z = 0 to $\rm $ = 1.15 and further to $\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8, particularly amongst galaxies above the SF galaxy main sequence (MS). The galaxies with highest SFRs at $\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8 have gas masses 100 times that of the Milky Way and gas mass fractions reaching 50 to 80\%, i.e. gas masses 1 - 4$\times$ their stellar masses. For the full sample of galaxies, we find a single, very simple SF law: $\rm SFR \propto M_{\rm ISM}^{0.9}$, i.e. a `linear' dependence on the ISM mass -- on and above the MS. Thus, the galaxies above the MS are converting their larger ISM masses into stars on a timescale similar to those on the MS. At z $> 1$, the entire population of star-forming galaxies has $\sim$5 - 10$\times$ shorter gas depletion times ($\sim0.2$ Gyr) than galaxies at low redshift. These {\bf shorter depletion times are due to a different, dominant mode of SF in the early universe} -- dynamically driven by compressive, high dispersion gas motions and/or galaxy interactions. The dispersive gas motions are a natural consequence of the extraordinarily high gas accretion rates which must occur to maintain the prodigious SF.
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 mJy at 880um and a steep fall off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish sub-mm or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and low projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions and mergers plausibly driving both the prodigious emission from the brightest DSFGs as well as the sharp downturn above S_880 = 8 mJy.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the search for Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) near the sub-millimeter bright starburst galaxy HFLS3 at $z$$=$6.34 and a study on the environment of this massive galaxy during the end of reionization. We performed two independent selections of LBGs on images obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining non-detections in bands blueward of the Lyman-break and color selection. A total of 10 objects fulfilling the LBG selection criteria at $z$$>$5.5 were selected over the 4.54 and 55.5 arcmin$^2$ covered by our HST and GTC images, respectively. The photometric redshift, UV luminosity, and the star-formation rate of these sources were estimated with models of their spectral energy distribution. These $z$$\sim$6 candidates have physical properties and number densities in agreement with previous results. The UV luminosity function of this field at $z$$\sim$6 shows no strong evidence for an overdensity of relatively bright objects (m$_{F105W}$$<$25.9) associated with HFLS3. A Voronoi tessellation analysis also did not allow a detection of an overdensity around HFLS3. However we identified three faint objects at less than three arcseconds from HFLS3 with color consistent with those expected for $z$$\sim$6 galaxies. Deeper data are needed to confirm their redshifts and to study their association with HFLS3 and the galaxy merger that may be responsible for the massive starburst.
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    ABSTRACT: [abridged] The ALESS survey has followed-up a sample of 122 sub-millimeter sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South at 870um with ALMA, allowing to pinpoint the positions of sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) to 0.3'' and to find their precise counterparts at different wavelengths. This enabled the first compilation of the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a statistically reliable survey of SMGs. In this paper, we present a new calibration of the MAGPHYS modelling code that is optimized to fit these UV-to-radio SEDs of z>1 star-forming galaxies using an energy balance technique to connect the emission from stellar populations, dust attenuation and dust emission in a physically consistent way. We derive statistically and physically robust estimates of the photometric redshifts and physical parameters for the ALESS SMGs. We find that they have a median stellar mass $M_\ast=(8.9\pm0.1)\times10^{10} M_\odot$, SFR$=280\pm70 M_\odot$/yr, overall V-band dust attenuation $A_V=1.9\pm0.2$ mag, dust mass $M_\rm{dust}=(5.6\pm1.0)\times10^8 M_\odot$, and average dust temperature Tdust~40 K. The average intrinsic SED of the ALESS SMGs resembles that of local ULIRGs in the IR range, but the stellar emission of our average SMG is brighter and bluer, indicating lower dust attenuation, possibly because they are more extended. We explore how the average SEDs vary with different parameters, and we provide a new set of SMG templates. To put the ALESS SMGs into context, we compare their stellar masses and SFRs with those of less actively star-forming galaxies at the same redshifts. At z~2, about half of the SMGs lie above the star-forming main sequence, while half are at the high-mass end of the sequence. At higher redshifts (z~3.5), the SMGs tend to have higher SFR and Mstar, but the fraction of SMGs that lie significantly above the main sequence decreases to less than a third.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2015; 806(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/110 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new, high-angular resolution interferometric observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 12CO J = 1−0 line emission and 4–8 GHz continuum emission in the strongly lensed, z = 2.3 submillimetre galaxy, SMM J21352-0102. Using these data, we identify and probe the conditions in ∼100 pc clumps within this galaxy, which we consider to be potential giant molecular cloud complexes, containing up to half of the total molecular gas in this system. In combination with far-infrared and submillimetre data, we investigate the far-infrared/radio correlation, measuring qIR = 2.39 ± 0.17 across SMM J21352. We search for variations in the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) throughout the galaxy by measuring the spatially resolved qIR and radio spectral index, αradio, finding ranges qIR =[2.1, 2.6] and αradio = [−1.5, −0.7]. We argue that these ranges in αradio and qIR may reflect variations in the age of the ISM material. Using multi-J 12CO data, we quantitatively test a recent theoretical model relating the star formation rate surface density to the excitation of 12CO, finding good agreement between the model and the data. Lastly, we study the Schmidt–Kennicutt relation, both integrated across the system and within the individual clumps. We find small offsets between SMM J21352 and its clumps relative to other star-forming galaxy populations on the Schmidt–Kennicutt plot – such offsets have previously been interpreted as evidence for a bi-modal star formation law, but we argue that they can be equally well explained as arising due to a combination of observational uncertainties and systematic biases in the choice of model used to interpret the data.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2015; 448(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv118 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of deep \chandra\ imaging of the central region of the Extended Groth Strip, the AEGIS-X Deep (AEGIS-XD) survey. When combined with previous \chandra\ observations of a wider area of the strip, AEGIS-X Wide (AEGIS-XW; Laird et~al. 2009), these provide data to a nominal exposure depth of 800ks in the three central ACIS-I fields, a region of approximately $0.29$~deg$^{2}$. This is currently the third deepest X-ray survey in existence, a factor $\sim 2-3$ shallower than the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs) but over an area $\sim 3$ times greater than each CDF. We present a catalogue of 937 point sources detected in the deep \chandra\ observations. We present identifications of our X-ray sources from deep ground-based, Spitzer, GALEX and HST imaging. Using a likelihood ratio analysis, we associate multi band counterparts for 929/937 of our X-ray sources, with an estimated 95~\% reliability, making the identification completeness approximately 94~\% in a statistical sense. Reliable spectroscopic redshifts for 353 of our X-ray sources are provided predominantly from Keck (DEEP2/3) and MMT Hectospec, so the current spectroscopic completeness is $\sim 38$~per cent. For the remainder of the X-ray sources, we compute photometric redshifts based on multi-band photometry in up to 35 bands from the UV to mid-IR. Particular attention is given to the fact that the vast majority the X-ray sources are AGN and require hybrid templates. Our photometric redshifts have mean accuracy of $\sigma=0.04$ and an outlier fraction of approximately 5\%, reaching $\sigma=0.03$ with less than 4\% outliers in the area covered by CANDELS . The X-ray, multi-wavelength photometry and redshift catalogues are made publicly available.
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    ABSTRACT: We have modelled Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) long baseline imaging of the strong gravitational lens system H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). We have reconstructed the distribution of continuum emission in the z=3.042 source and we have determined its kinematic properties by reconstructing CO line emission. The continuum imaging reveals a highly non-uniform distribution of dust with clumps on scales of ~200pc. In contrast, the CO line emission shows a relatively smooth velocity field which resembles disk-like dynamics. Modelling the velocity field as a rotating disk indicates an inclination angle of (40 +/- 5) degrees, implying an intrinsic asymptotic rotation velocity of 320km/s and a dynamical mass of 3.5x10^{10} M_sol within 1.5kpc. We obtain similar estimates of the total molecular gas mass of 2.7x10^{10} M_sol and 1.4x10^{10} M_sol from the dust continuum emission and CO emission respectively. Our new reconstruction of the lensed HST near-infrared emission shows two objects that appear to be interacting, with the rotating disk of gas and dust revealed by ALMA distinctly offset from the near-infrared emission. The clumpy nature of the dust and the low value of the Toomre parameter of Q~0.2 we measure suggest that the disk is in a state of collapse. From our dynamical measurements, we estimate that the disk is unstable on scales from ~50pc (the Jeans length) to ~700pc (the scale on which the disk should be stabilized by shear). This agrees well with the sizes of the clumps that we observe. We estimate that stars are forming in the disk at a rate of 500 M_sol/yr, and that the star-formation efficiency in the disk is ~65 times greater than in typical low-redshift galaxies. Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that the most infra-red luminous, dust obscured galaxies in the high redshift Universe represent a population of merger induced starbursts.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2015; 452(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1442 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared galaxy (intrinsic LIR ≈ 1013 L⊙) with strong radio emission (intrinsic L1.4 GHz ≈ 1025 W Hz−1) at z = 2.553. The source was identified in the citizen science project Space Warps through the visual inspection of tens of thousands of iJKs colour composite images of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), groups and clusters of galaxies and quasars. Appearing as a partial Einstein ring (re ≈ 3 arcsec) around an LRG at z = 0.2, the galaxy is extremely bright in the sub-millimetre for a cosmological source, with the thermal dust emission approaching 1 Jy at peak. The redshift of the lensed galaxy is determined through the detection of the CO(3→2) molecular emission line with the Large Millimetre Telescope's Redshift Search Receiver and through [O iii] and Hα line detections in the near-infrared from Subaru/Infrared Camera and Spectrograph. We have resolved the radio emission with high-resolution (300–400 mas) eMERLIN L-band and Very Large Array C-band imaging. These observations are used in combination with the near-infrared imaging to construct a lens model, which indicates a lensing magnification of μ ≈ 10. The source reconstruction appears to support a radio morphology comprised of a compact (<250 pc) core and more extended component, perhaps indicative of an active nucleus and jet or lobe.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2015; 452(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1243 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
3,139.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2015
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      • • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2014
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • University of Hertfordshire
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2014
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2012
    • University College London
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2007–2010
    • Scottish Universities Physics Alliance
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2005–2009
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993–2007
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991–2005
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom