[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrograde (anal) exploration of the canine small intestine by conventional endoscopy is restricted to the ileum, but double balloon endoscopy (DBE) has recently been validated using the oral approach. In this study, anal DBE was performed on nine healthy dogs to characterize the efficiency, exploration dynamics and safety of the technique. DBE was successful in all dogs; the average estimated insertion depth of the endoscope was about 2m and took approximately 1h to achieve. No complications or related adverse clinical effects were observed, and pancreatitis did not occur following the procedure. Anal DBE is viable and safe in the dog within the limits of the study, and has the potential to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, not only in portions of the colon and ileum, but also in portions of the distal jejunum.
The Veterinary Journal 06/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of CO(2) during double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in an experimental animal model study. In this study, insufflation with room air and with CO(2) was compared.
Twenty healthy swines were used. The animals were randomly allocated to two groups. The room air-DBE group was insufflated with room air, whereas the CO(2) -DBE group was insufflated with CO(2) . Endoscopy duration was 90 min. The following parameters were measured during the study (basal, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min): invasive hemodynamic parameters, ventilatory parameters, arterial blood gases, exploration depth, as well as biochemical tests. Residual gas was evaluated at the end of DBE, at 180 min and 24 h after DBE.
During the endoscopic exploration none of the animals showed hemodynamic, ventilatory or arterial blood gas alterations in the normal reference range for the swine species. The CO(2) group showed statistically significant differences over the room air group with lower post-procedure residual gas and greater depth of the small bowel explored.
The use of CO(2) for insufflation during DBE was safe and no complications associated with CO(2) were observed. In addition, the use of CO(2) offers benefits over the use of room air for insufflation during DBE.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forces exerted by fibrous structures on the medial aspect of the canine elbow joint have been reported to be involved in elbow pathology. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationships of the ligamentous and muscular structures of this region of the canine elbow joint, and how they relate to the medial coronoid process. Six cadavers of adult German shepherd cross-breed dogs were used in this study to make intra-articular and vascular injections of this region. Some joints were dissected and some were frozen to saw sagittal or dorsal cryosections to assess the relationships of the myotendinous structures. The brachialis muscle tendon passed through the division of the bicipital tendon of insertion which formed a fibrous tendon sheath that was reinforced by the oblique ligament. The biceps' brachii's main insertion is the radial tuberosity where it inserts along with the cranial branch of the oblique ligament and the cranial branch of the medial collateral ligament. Rotational and compression forces exerted by the insertion of the biceps brachii-brachialis tendon complex onto the ulna might influence medial coronoid disease. Therefore, sectioning these tendons could be considered as a treatment for medial coronoid disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) on pancreas histology and levels of pancreatic enzymes.
Conventional upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed on five control pigs. Oral DBE was performed with an EN-450T5 enteroscope on 20 pigs. Two experimental groups (10 pigs each) were defined according to DBE duration: 90 min for Group 1 and 140 min for Group 2. During oral insertion, the balloons were not inflated in the descending part of the duodenum to avoid the minor duodenal papilla. Serum amylase, lipase and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were monitored before the procedure and repeated every 30 min until the exploration was finished, as well as 24 h and 7 d after. After the procedure and for a total of 7 d, the pigs were observed twice a day for signs of decreased activity, irritability, vomiting or anorexia. Gross and microscopic examination of the pancreas was performed on day 7.
All animals tolerated DBE without clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis. Experimental groups had higher levels of enzymes than the control group at 24 h. Throughout the exploration, the amylase levels increased significantly above the baseline 24 h after DBE, although the increase was not statistically significant and did not reach 20% of the baseline. An increase in lipase and CRP was observed at 24 h after the procedure, although by day 7, all enzymatic levels had returned to baseline. No differences between Groups 1 and 2 were found for any enzyme and sampling site during and after the procedure. Similarly, no correlation between insertion depth and enzyme levels was observed. Direct in situ and post-removal inspection of the pancreas did not show any evidence of fluid collection, abscesses or hemorrhage. Histological examination of the pancreas from Groups 1 and 2 revealed the existence of focal areas (0.14-0.26 mm(2)) of ischemic necrosis in 47.4% of the animals. In the pigs with damaged pancreas, the left lobe (tail) was always affected. However, this only happened in 83.3% of the samples from the right lobe (head) and in 33.3% of the samples from the body of the pancreas. Significant differences were found between the left lobe (tail) and the body for the percentage of affected pancreas. Both the size of the lesions and the percentage of affected pancreas were higher in the left pancreatic lobe (tail). The presence of the lesions was not related to the exploration length.
The increase in pancreatic enzymes after DBE could be related to focal points of pancreatic ischemic necrosis due to mechanical stress.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; 18(37):5181-7. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The minute anatomy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is of great clinical relevance in cats owing to a high number of lesions involving this articulation. However, the precise anatomy is poorly documented in textbooks and scientific articles. The aim of this study was to describe, in detail, the TMJ anatomy and its relationship with other adjacent anatomical structures in the cat. Different anatomical preparations, including vascular and articular injection, microdissection, cryosection and plastination, were performed in 12 cadaveric cats. All TMJ anatomical structures were identified and described in detail. A thorough understanding of the TMJ anatomy is essential to understand the clinical signs associated with TMJ disorders, to locate lesions precisely and to accurately interpret the results in all diagnostic imaging techniques.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exploration of the canine small intestine using conventional endoscopy is restricted to the duodenum and/or the ileum. Double balloon endoscopy (DBE) is a 'push and pull' technique that has been described in humans and permits a complete exploration of the small intestine. In this study, oral DBE was performed on 12 healthy dogs (10-34kg) to characterize for the first time the efficiency, exploration dynamics and safety of the technique. DBE was successful in 83% of dogs; the average estimated insertion depth of the endoscope was 287±36cm, and the average duration of the exploration was 84±8min. No complications or relevant adverse clinical effects were observed, and there was no indication of post-procedure pancreatitis based on serology of two specific markers of pancreatitis (amylase and lipase) and the immediate nonspecific inflammatory mediator C-reactive protein. The study showed that oral DBE is viable and safe in the dog, allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases deep in the small intestine to an extent that has not previously been possible using conventional endoscopy.
The Veterinary Journal 07/2012; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histology of the canine intestine has not been accurately defined. To establish the precise thickness of its different layers, whole wall samples of the small intestine were removed from 41 cadavers at five standardised sampling sites (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum). The total thickness was estimated by morphometry, as was the thickness of the mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa and muscularis externa. In addition, the size of the lymphoid aggregates in the submucosa and the thickness of the circular and longitudinal layers within both the muscularis mucosae and the muscularis externa were estimated. The total intestinal thickness depended very much upon the thickness of the mucosa and submucosa. The mucosa decreased progressively from proximal to distal parts of the small intestine (47% reduction). The thickness of the submucosa, however, changed little from the duodenum to the distal jejunum, but increased significantly in the ileum; this change was positively correlated with the amount of lymphoid tissue. Sex influenced the thickness of the intestinal wall, with males displaying higher thickness values along the small intestine. Conversely, no correlation between bodyweight and intestinal thickness was found for any of the five sampling sites. This study gives absolute and relative values for the thickness of the layers of the dog intestine which might help in the diagnosis of small intestinal pathology from postmortem samples and/or endoscopic biopsies.
The Veterinary Journal 11/2011; 192(3):498-502. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to compare plastinated sections of the canine heart with corresponding two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic images. Thirteen dog hearts were fixed by dilation and then processed by the S10 silicon plastination method (Biodur). Two dogs without evidence of cardiac disease were imaged using 2D echocardiography so as to obtain a complete series of the standard right and left parasternal images, which were compared with corresponding plastinated slices obtained by knife sectioning of the hearts. The plastinated slices revealed the internal anatomy of the heart with great detail and were particularly useful to display the spatial relationship between complex anatomic structures. The plastinated slices corresponded accurately with the echocardiographic images. Because of the dilation of the right heart during the fixation process, it was not possible to obtain plastinated specimens in ventricular systole. This paper may be a reference atlas for assisting 2D echocardiography interpretation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double balloon endoscopy (DBE) enables the diagnosis and treatment of small intestinal disease. The dog is a potential animal model for DBE training and also a candidate for the clinical application of this technique. However, the anatomy of the canine small intestine may limit the use of DBE by restricting the push-and-pull manoeuvres required for DBE. To establish what these limitations are, the length and width of different portions of the small intestine as well as the mesenteric dependences were measured in 55 dogs. Several external parameters related to body size plus the age, weight, sex and breed were recorded. Potential restriction of the progress of the enteroscope due to narrow intestinal diameter is expected in the jejunum of mid- and small size dogs.
The Veterinary Journal 10/2010; 190(1):113-8. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supernumerary nostril is an extremely rare congenital anomaly as a result of aberrant embryological development. Frequently it leads to a narrow cavity; in the end, opening into the nearest nasal cavity or just stops blindly after a short course. It can appear isolated or in association with other anomalies. Treatment is always surgical. We present a case of a triple nostril, associated to a congenital auricular hypoplasia and we also review the existing literature.
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española 03/2004; 55(2):93-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a source of controversy with respect to therapy because of the many therapeutic modalities that exist, such as classic surgical techniques and newer techniques like nasal endoscopic surgery, which have emerged with the advent of new and better diagnostic techniques. Endoscopic surgery is less aggressive and produces less morbidity, but its use often depends on the size and extension of the tumor. A clinical case is presented with the subsequent diagnostic steps and surgical treatment. Rigid endoscopy was used for double cynoacrylate embolization, by angiography before operation and intratumoral injection during surgery.
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española 05/2000; 51(3):259-62.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supernumerary nostril is an extremely rare congenital anomaly as a result of aberrant embryological development. Frequently it leads to a narrow cavity; in the end, opening into the nearest nasal cavity or just stops blindly after a short course. It can appear isolated or in association with other anomalies. Treatment is always surgical. We present a case of a triple nostril, associated to a congenital auricular hypoplasia and we also review the existing literature