R.E. Jackson

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom

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Publications (8)10.71 Total impact

  • J E Kent, R E Jackson, V Molony, B D Hosie
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    ABSTRACT: Lesions were produced by castration and tail docking of two-day-old Dorset-cross lambs with elastrator rings with (RRla) and without (RR) local anaesthetic or after destruction of the innervation by crushing close to the ring (Brr). The lesions were monitored twice weekly for six weeks and the behaviour of handled controls (H), RR and RRla lambs was recorded for two 3 h periods 10, 20, 31 and 41 days after treatment. There was no significant effect of castration and tail docking, with or without pain reduction methods, on daily liveweight gain. In the Brr lambs, the dead tails were cast 10 days earlier than from RR and RRla lambs. The time taken for the scrotal lesion to reach maximum severity was halved in Brr and RRla lambs, although the maximum severity of the lesion was unaffected by the methods of pain reduction. During the four 6 h behavioural observation periods, RR lambs showed a significant increase in the mean (+/- sd) frequency of foot stamping (RR13 +/- 13; H2 +/- 2.5), tail wagging (61 +/- 26; 15 +/- 6), head turning to the scrotum and inside hind-leg (12 +/- 10; 1 +/- 1). Less abnormal behaviour was found after RRla than after RR treatment. This unexpected finding may be evidence of long-lasting increases in pain sensitivity after an episode of intense acute pain in young animals.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2000; 160(1):33-41. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a novel lairage environment on the ability of sheep to recover from 16 h of transport was investigated. Sheep were transported from grass paddocks to either novel outside paddocks or inside pens, and housed groups were transported to either familiar or novel inside pens. During transport, sheep from outside paddocks lay down less than those from inside pens. In sheep transported to inside pens, those from outside paddocks spent more time lying and spent less time eating; hay and water intakes during the first 12 h post-transport were lower than those previously kept inside. There was no obvious effect of a novel environment post-transport on blood biochemistry, suggesting that the lower post-transport feed and water intakes in a novel environment did not have a significant effect on the ability of the sheep to recover from the feed and water deprivation associated with transport.
    The Veterinary Journal 04/2000; 159(2):139-46. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a 2x2 factorial design, (n=6) sheep were either transported by road for 15h or kept in their home pens, and then either starved for 12h with access to water or offered hay and libitum, with access to water. All groups were offered hay and water 12h after transport. Behavioural observations and measurements of dehydration and feed restriction were made before, during, and for 24h post-transport, to evaluate the implications of these procedures for the welfare of sheep.After the journey, the immediate priority for the sheep was to eat. Consumption of hay increased water intake and reduced the time spent lying down. The plasma cortisol concentration was greater in sheep which had been starved during the 12h post-transport period, than in those offered hay during this time; and the plasma free fatty acid concentration was greater in sheep which had been transported than in those which had not. Although transported sheep kept without hay during the first 12h post-transport drank more water than those which had not been transported, the mean time before they drank was greater than 7h. During the transport period, there was less lying behaviour in transported sheep than in non-transported sheep but transported sheep did not lie down more post-transport than non-transported ones. This work suggests that sheep should be offered both feed and water after a 15h journey. However, when feed was not available after a 15h journey, drinking and resting did not appear to be immediate priorities.
    Animal welfare (South Mimms, England) 04/1999; 8(2):135-148. · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • R.E. Jackson, N.K. Waran, M.S. Cockram
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of food restriction on the welfare of sheep are as yet unclear. An operant crate and a push-door were used to measure feeding motivation in sheep after 0h, 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h without food. In experiment1, sheep had to push a panel with their noses to obtain a food reward. In experiment 2, sheep had to run a race and push through a weighted door to reach food; the time taken to reach various points was recorded and the work performed to push through the door was calculated.In experiment 1, 3 out of 12 sheep became trained to push the panel and there was a difference in the mean number of rewards/session obtained by each animal (P < 0.05). There was no effect of treatment on the number of panel presses performed. In experiment 2, 10 out of 14 sheep were successfully trained. More sheep went through the push-door when deprived of food (P < 0.05), and they were quicker to enter the race, reach the push-door, and reach the food than those which had not been deprived (P < 0.0001). They also spent less time pushing the door than non-deprived sheep (P < 0.0001).The push-door was a more appropriate method of measuring motivation to feed in sheep, as more sheep learned the task in less time than for the operant crate. As measured by the time taken to enter the race, reach the push-door, push through the door and reach the food there was an increase in feeding motivation after only 6h without food.
    Animal welfare (South Mimms, England) 01/1999; 8(1):53-63. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects on the behavioural and physiological responses of sheep of providing rest, food and water (lairage) during 24 h of either road transport or stationary confinement (treatment) were investigated. Twenty-four hours of continuous treatment was compared with 12 h of treatment followed by either 12 h of lairage, 3 h of lairage or 3 h of food and water on the vehicle, followed by a second 12 h of treatment. A further group of sheep was kept as controls. The plasma cortisol concentration was increased at the start of the journey and after 24 h of continuous transport it was still greater than that in controls (P < 0·05). Apart from a mobilization of body energy reserves as indicated by raised plasma concentrations offree fatty acids after 12 h and β-hydroxybutyrate after 24 h there was no evidence that the welfare of the sheep during the journey was compromised after a particular time. During the lairage and immediately after the second 12-h transport period, the sheep appeared to be hungry. Although sheep transported for 24 h without lairage drank more post transport than controls, there was no biochemical evidence of dehydration during the journey. The sheep lay down during the journey and there was no apparent difference between lairage treatments in the proportion of scans spent lying down during either the second 12-h treatment period or during the first 12 h post treatment. There were fewer potentially traumatic events during the second 22 h of the 24-h journey than during the first 12 h of the journey and no apparent effect of lairage during the journey on the frequency of potentially traumatic events during the second 12-h period of transport.There was evidence to suggest that a period of lairage during a 24-h journey can be beneficial in providing sheep with an opportunity to eat, drink and avoid the stressors associated with transport. However, providing hay and water on the vehicle during a 3-h stationary period as compared with unloading into a lairage cannot be recommended. Although sheep readily ate hay on the vehicle, they did not drink sufficient water. This resulted in dehydration and a greater plasma cortisol concentration during the remainder of the journey than in those that had been lairaged for 12 h and a greater water intake post transport than in those given either no lairage or 12 h of lairage.
    Animal Science. 11/1997; 65(03):391 - 402.
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science 07/1996; 49(1):98-98. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited information on the behavioural and physiological responses of sheep to the components of road transport. Behavioural observations and physiological measurements of ‘stress’, injury and dehydration were made on weaned lambs (35 kg) before, during and after either stationary confinement or transport for 22 h at four space allowances (0·22, 0·27, 0·31 and 0·41 m2 per sheep). Two groups were not loaded (a control group with access to food and water, and a group with no food and no water for 12 h). During the confinement and transport period, the proportion of scans spent lying and the proportion of scans spent ruminating was significantly less than that before treatment (P < 0·01). After 3 h of transport, the proportion of scans spent lying was significantly less at the 0·22 m2 per sheep space allowance than at the other space allowances. The proportion of scans spent lying down was only significantly greater during confinement compared with transport at the 0·22 m2 per sheep space allowance and during the first 6 h at the 0·31 m2 per sheep space allowance. During transport, the heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration were greater than during stationary confinement (P < 0·05), indicating that some aspect of the journey was acting as a stressor. During transport the frequency of losses of balance and the frequency of slips was less at the 0·22 m2 per sheep space allowance than at the 0·27 and 0·41 m2 per sheep space allowances. However, there was no effect of space allowance on either plasma cortisol concentration or biochemical measures of injury. The median frequency of potentially traumatic events during transport was <5 per h and there was little evidence to suggest that increasing space allowance increased the risk of traumatic injury. During the first 12 h after treatment, the proportion of scans spent eating was greater and the proportion of scans spent lying were less than those spent before treatment (P < 0·001). Post-treatment, water intake and packed cell volume were greater in transported sheep than in control sheep (P < 0·05). However, there was no significant effect of 12 h without water on total plasma protein concentration and plasma vasopressin concentration (P > 0·05). Under the conditions of this study, sheep with a live weight of 35 kg can be transported for 12 h at space allowances of between 0·22 and 0·41 m2 per sheep without showing major physiological changes indicative of injury and dehydration. However, the sheep appeared to be hungry after 12 h without food and showed a cortisol and heart rate response to transport, indicating that some aspect of transport was acting as a stressor. A space allowance of 0·22 m2 per sheep cannot be recommended for 35 kg sheep as there is insufficient space for most of the sheep to lie down during transport. Whereas a space allowance of at least 0·27 m2 per sheep does allow most sheep sufficient space to lie down.
    Animal Science. 05/1996; 62(03):461 - 477.
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    ABSTRACT: Groups of sheep were observed in a slaughterhouse lairage in order to investigate the factors affecting their ability to rest. Thirty-four groups were observed using a video-camera and recorder from arrival to dusk (evening) and from dawn to removal (morning). Nineteen groups were transported by road to the slaughterhouse direct from farms and 15 groups were from markets. Continuous direct observations of focal sheep from 34 groups were made during their first 2 h in the lairage. Sixteen of these groups were transported by road to the slaughterhouse direct from farms and 18 groups were from markets. Sheep kept on wooden slats did lie down and rest during overnight lairage. During the evening period almost half of the time was spent with greater than one-third lying down. Movement by the group as a whole represented a small proportion of the time during the evening and morning periods. During the first 2 h in the lairage, sheep from markets lay down at a faster rate than those direct from farms (between 1.75 and 2.00 h after arrival in the lairage the proportion of scans at which focal sheep from markets and those from farms were observed lying down was 0.41 and 0.15, respectively). Most of the sheep lay down for most of the time during the morning period (mean proportion of time when more than two-thirds of the group were lying down was 0.59). Within the group and pen sizes studied, a space allowance of greater than 1 m2 per sheep was required before most of the sheep within a group lay down. However, the provision of greater than 1 m2 per sheep did not always result in greater than two-thirds of the sheep within a group lying down. During the first 2 h in the lairage, the mean proportion of scans at which focal sheep from markets were observed eating (0.06) was greater than those direct from farms (0.01), the mean number of drinking events in market sheep (2.95 h−1) was greater than those in sheep direct from farms (0.45 h−1). The presence of humans in the passageway was associated with head alert reactions, movement and decreased lying behaviour in the sheep.
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 04/1994; 40(1):45–54. · 1.50 Impact Factor