[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxygen free radicals (OFR) play a primary role in ischemia-reperfusion-mediated vascular dysfunction and this is paralleled by a loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. The authors tested whether a direct exposure to OFR may affect vascular relaxation by altering nitric oxide (NO) release. Effects of electrolysis(EL)-generated OFR on basal and agonist-evoked NO release were monitored in isolated rat hearts by oxyhemoglobin assay. Electrolysis-induced changes were compared with those obtained after 30 min perfusion with NOS and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM) and indomethacin (INDO, 1 m M). Electrolysis-generated hydroxyl radical (.OH) formed by.O2-and H2O2 via the Fenton reaction as revealed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). After EL, basal NO release declined by 60% and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) increased by approximately 70%. L-NAME/INDO perfusion similarly lowered NO release (-63%) but increased CPP less than EL (56+/-3%P<0.03 v post-EL). In presence of excess substrates and cofactors eNOS activity was not affected by EL. Both acetylcholine (ACh; 1 microM) and bradykinin (BK; 10 n M) had minimal effect in reversing EL-induced vasoconstriction, whereas both partially reversed L -NAME/INDO-mediated constriction. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 microM) completely reversed L-NAME/INDO constriction and partly countered that after EL (-38+/-2.5, P<0.001). Acetylcholine-evoked NO release was nearly abolished by both treatments whereas BK still elicited partial NO release after eNOS/cyclooxygenase inhibition (P<0.001) but not after EL. In conclusion, OFR severely impair NO-mediated coronary vasorelaxation affecting both basal and agonist-evoked NO release but not eNOS activity. However, EL also significantly blunts NOS/COX-independent vasodilation suggesting alteration of other vasodilatative pathways.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2001; 33(4):671-9. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a central mechanism of oxidative injury as occurs following ischemia. During the early period of reperfusion, both nitric oxide (NO(*)) and superoxide (O-*(2)) generation are increased leading to the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)); however, questions remain regarding the presence and nature of the interactions of NO(*) or ONOO(-) with XO and the role of this process in regulating oxidant generation. Therefore, we determined the dose-dependent effects of NO(*) and ONOO(-) on the O-*(2) generation and enzyme activity of XO, respectively, by EPR spin trapping of O-*(2) using 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and spectrophotometric assay. ONOO(-) markedly inhibited both O-*(2) generation and XO activity in dose-dependent manner, while NO(*) from NO(*) gas in concentrations up to 200 microM had no effect. Furthermore, we observed that NO(*) donors such as NOR-1 also inhibited O-*(2) generation and XO activity; however, these effects were O-*(2)-dependent and blocked by superoxide dismutase or ONOO(-) scavengers. Finally, we found that ONOO(-) totally abolished the Mo(V) EPR spectrum. These changes were irreversible, suggesting oxidative disruption of the critical molybdenum center of the catalytic site. Thus, ONOO(-) formed in biological systems can feedback and down-regulate XO activity and O-*(2) generation, which in turn may serve to limit further ONOO(-) formation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2000; 275(13):9369-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor