[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neocarya macrophylla belongs to the Chrysobalanaceae family and is extensively used in folk medicine as an antibacterial, antivenin, antiasthmatic, anticancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. This study was aimed at isolation and characterization of compounds from the stem bark of Neocarya macrophylla. Pulverized plant material was exhaustively extracted with methanol using maceration method and concentrated invacuo with the aid of rotary evaporator at 40oC to afford a reddish brown crude methanol extract (ME). The methanol extract was successively partitioned into hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. Stigmasterol was isolated from the hexane fraction and a catechin glycoside, Bis-(5,7-diacetyl-catechin-4’-α- rhamnopyranoside) was isolated from the ethylacetate soluble fraction using a combination of silica gel column, gel filtration (sephadex LH-20) and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of chemical tests, spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with reference spectral data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methanol stem bark extract of Neocarya macrophylla was screened for its analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and formalin-induced pain in rats. The results of the study showed that the extract (60mg/kg, i.p.) decreased writhing response with 63.9% inhibition. The methanol extract also exhibited significant analgesic effect (P<0.05) in the formalin test which is in the same order of magnitude as that observed after administration of pentazocine (10mg/kg, i.p.) the standard drug. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol extract of N. macrophylla was found to be 283mg/kg in mice suggesting the plant is fairly toxic. The results of the study have shown that the methanol extract of N. macrophylla possesses analgesic activity which rationalizes the traditional use of the plant in the management of pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial effect of the crude methanol leaf extract of Ochna kibbiensis obtained through maceration technique was evaluated against pathogenic microorganisms which include Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter fetus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas flourescens, Candida tropicalis and Candida stellatoidea. Agar Disc diffusion and Nutrient Broth dilution techniques were employed. Susceptibility test results showed that the extract (400µg) inhibited the growth of all the test organisms (bacteria and fungi) with a mean zone of inhibition range of 18-27mm, with the exception of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori and Pseudomonas flourescens. The standard antibacterial drug, Sparfloxacin (5ug/ml) had inhibitory activity against all the organisms except H. pylori, P. flourescens, C. tropicalis and C. stellatoidea while Fluconazole, the standard anti-fungal drug showed activity only on the two fungi species tested C. tropicalis and C. stellatoidea. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC) range for the extract was 5-20mg/ml and 10-40mg/ml, respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids/terpenes, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids in the extract. The results of this study suggest that the leaves extract of the plant O. kibbiensis contains bioactive constituent(s) with good antibacterial and antifungal activity and, lends credence to its folkloric use in wound healing and other microbial infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An assessment of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial studies of the methanol stem bark extract of Neocarya macrophylla was carried out. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard procedures and the antimicrobial property of the extract was evaluated against clinical isolates including Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococus feacalis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Candida albicans and Candida krusei using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The result of the preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and triterpenes. Susceptibility test (at 2mg) showed inhibition range of 22-34mm against S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, B. cereus, E. coli, C. albicans. No activity was observed against S. feacalis, C. krusei and P. fluorescence. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) range was 2.5-5.0mg/ml and the Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) range was 5-20mg/ml against the sensitive organisms. The findings of this research indicate that the crude methanol stem bark extract of N. macrophylla contains bioactive components that have antifungal and broad spectrum antibacterial properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminalia catappa Linn (Combretaceae), a tree commonly found in the tropics is used in Hausa ethnomedicine in the treatment of liver diseases, diabetes, asthma, diarrhoea and typhoid fever. In the latter case however, only the dried fallen leaves are used. Comparative preliminary phytochemical screening of the fresh and dried fallen leaves extractsrevealed the presence of saponins, steroids and triterpenes, fatty acids, tannins and glycosides in both types of the leaves. Alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the dried fallen leaves. The antibacterial assay of both the fresh and dried fallen leaves extracts indicated higher activity against Salmonella typhii (clinical isolates) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) by extracts of dried fallen leaves
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial activity of the acetone and methanol extracts of the leaves of Ochna schweinfurthiana F Hoffm (Ochnaceae) obtained through maceration was evaluated using disc diffusion and Nutrient broth dilution techniques. The microorganisms tested were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 021001, Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236, Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Salmonella typhi ATCC19430, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6750, Candida albicans ATCC 10231; local hospital isolates: Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Neisseria gonorrhoea and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Susceptibility test results showed that both extracts (600 �g/disc) inhibited growth with a mean zone of inhibition range of 15 - 21 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, S. typhi, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa; no activity was however observed against methicillin resistant S. aureus, N. gonorrhea, C. ulcerans, B. subtilis, E. coli and the only fungus, C. albicans. Sparfloxacin (100 �g/disc) a standard antibiotic inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested with the exception of C. albicans. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins and steroids/terpenes. The results suggest that the plant contains bioactive constituent(s) with modest antimicrobial activity and validates the ethno-medical use in wound dressing and other forms of bacterial infections.
African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 02/2010; 4(2). · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of the methanol extract of Indigofera pulchra Willd. (Papillionaceae) was investigated against castor oil induced diarrheoa. Its effects on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum were also evaluated. The extract produced a dose-dependent protection against the castor oil-induced diarrheoa in mice with the highest protection (100%), obtained at 200 mgkg-1 comparable to that of loperamide (5 mgkg-1), a standard antidiarrhoeal drug. The extract (0.4 - 6.4 mgml-1) produced a concentration relaxation of the rabbit jejunum. However, no observable effect was noticed when the guinea pig ileum was treated. The extract blocked the contractile effect of acetylcholine (2 × 10-8 gml-1) and histamine (4 × 10-7 gml-1) on both rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) value for the extract was found to be 2154.0 mgkg-1. The results obtained revealed that the extract possesses pharmacologically active compounds with gastrointestinal relaxant and antidiarrhoeal activities and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (p<0.05) against acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2007; 5(1):92-6. DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v5i1.31261 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zizyphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) grows wild in tropical Africa and Asia and can be domesticated. It has folkloric usage in pain related ailments throughout these regions. In view of the claimed therapeutic potentials, investigation of the plant’s root bark was initiated in our laboratory. The plant material was first sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol, and in this report, a fraction (numbered) ZS-4D from the methanol extract eluted with 70:30% (chloroform : methanol) using flash column chromatography was apparently traced to be responsible for its main analgesic, and in addition, anti-inflammatory activities. The fraction (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested on chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin), mechanical (analgesymeter) and thermal (tail-flick) analgesic tests with the aim of elucidating both central and peripherally mediated action in rats and mice. Its anti-inflammatory action against egg albumin-induced hind paw oedema was also tested in rats. Results show that the fraction has some levels of dose related effect on all the models except the tail-flick test in which the activity was not statistically significant.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 11/2006; 6(11). · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The n-butanol soluble part and four chromatographic fractions of the aqueous ethanolic extract of the leaves of Daniellia oliveri were investigated for antimicrobial properties. All fractions showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. A chromatographic fraction showed significant activity against the fungus Tricophyton rubrum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two phospholipase enzymes NN1 and NN2 were purified from the venom of Naja nigricolis nigricolis Reinhardt to apparent homogeneity. NN1 was purified by a two-step anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column while NN2 was purified by a combination of anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration on Sephadex G-150. The enzyme NN1 moved homogenously on acrylamide gel as a monomer with a molecular weight of 65 kDa while NN2 was a dimer of 71 kDa. Both enzymes were clearly separated. Both enzymes hydrolyzed L-alpha-phosphatidyl choline with activities of 345.5 for NN1 and 727.8 micromol min(-1) x mg(-1) for NN2. The dimeric 71-kDa enzyme has a higher haemolytic and anticoagulant activity than the monomeric 65-kDa enzyme. It is apparent that the dimeric enzyme has a more pronounced activity than the monomer has, thus toxic activity may be related to the hydrolysis of phospholipids.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 01/2003; 17(1):53-8. DOI:10.1002/jbt.10060 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The single oral dose pharmacokinetics of paracetamol was studied alone and after coadministration with NIPRISAN In rats. Paracetamol concentrations were measured in rat plasma using UV-spectrophotometer and the data were fitted into an open two-compartment pharmacokinetic model using the computer program (STATIS Version 3.0). Results indicated no significant difference in the absorption of paracetamol between study and control groups but a significant reduction (p < 0.05) at some sampling time as the dose of NIPRISAN was increased double-fold. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed only 1.51 and 7.19% reduction in AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax respectively for paracetamol (20 mg/kg) + NIPRISAN (500 mg/kg). It was thus concluded that the gastric presence of NIPRISAN did not significantly reduce the absorption of paracetamol in rats.
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 09/2001; 26(3):201-4. DOI:10.1007/BF03190397 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The larvicidal activity of light petroleum and ethanolic extracts from leaves of Steganotaenia araliacea (Umbclliferae), a plant traditionally used in pest control in northern Nigeria, was evaluated against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinqaefasciatus Say. The repellent and antifeedant properties of the plant were evaluated on adult forms of Triholium casteneum Hbst. (red flour beetle). Significant (P < 0.05) repellent and antifeedant effects were noted in wheat powder treated with extract as compared with controls. The results provide sufficient justification for the folkloric usage of the plant in pest control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyperus articulatus is an insect repellant plant commonly found in Northern Nigeria and used traditionally in pest control. The light petroleum and methanol extracts of the plant's rhizome were evaluated against Tribolium casteneum Hbst (the red flour beetle) using standard techniques. The methanol extract showed more antifeedant property than the light petroleum extract, while both the extracts were observed to have similar repellant actions.
Phytotherapy Research 07/2000; 14(4):281-3. DOI:10.1002/1099-1573(200006)14:43.3.CO;2-3 · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extract of the leaves of Guiera senegalensis was found to detoxify (in vitro) venom from two common northern Nigerian snake species, Echis carinatus and Naja nigricollis, in separate experiments. There was a remarkable reduction in the mortality of albino mice after intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of reconstituted venom incubated with the extract, when compared to those challenged with the venom only. The survival of the animals exposed to the venom incubated with the different concentrations of the extract was used as the in vitro detoxification parameter.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 04/2000; 69(3):253-7. DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00128-2 · 3.00 Impact Factor