[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence suggest that prostate cancer has a hormonal etiology. We evaluated factors known to modulate the endocrine system, including alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity, and obesity as risk factors for prostate cancer.
Cancer-free controls who participated in a population-based case-control study from 1986-1989 (81% response rate) were followed through 1995 for cancer incidence by linkage to the Iowa Cancer Registry; 101 incident prostate cancers were identified.
Compared with non-users of alcohol, men who consumed <22 grams alcohol per week (relative risk [RR] = 1.1; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.6-2.1), 22-96 grams alcohol per week (RR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4. 6) and >96 grams alcohol per week (RR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.3) were at increased risk of prostate cancer after adjustment for age, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, total energy, and intake of carbohydrate, linoleic acid, lycopene, retinol, and red meat (p for trend < 0.0001). The respective RRs were similar when assessing type of alcohol consumed (beer, wine or liquor) or when well-differentiated, localized tumors were excluded. Body mass index was only weakly and positively associated with prostate cancer after adjustment for age, but this association strengthened after multivariate adjustment and exclusion of well-differentiated, localized tumors. For the latter tumors, men with a BMI of 24.1-26.6 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2) were at elevated risk compared to men with a BMI <24.1 kg/m(2). Tobacco use (cigarettes, cigar/pipe, chewing tobacco and snuff use), height, weight, and both leisure and occupational physical activity were not associated with risk of prostate cancer in this cohort.
These data suggest that in white men obesity is a risk factor for more clinically significant prostate cancer and confirm limited previous reports showing that alcohol consumption is positively associated with prostate cancer and that this risk is not limited to any specific type of alcohol.
Annals of Epidemiology 08/2000; 10(6):361-9. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that tea may be protective against cancers of the urinary tract. The authors examined the association between usual adult tea consumption and risk of bladder and kidney cancers in a population-based case-control study that included 1,452 bladder cancer cases, 406 kidney cancer cases, and 2,434 controls. For bladder cancer, the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) referent to nonusers of tea were 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) for <1.0 cup/day, 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) for 1.0-2.6 cups/day, and 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) for >2.6 cups/day (cutpoints for users based on the tertile distribution among controls). When more extreme cutpoints were used, persons who consumed >5 cups/day (>90th percentile) had a suggestive decreased risk (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5, 1.0), but there was no evidence of a dose-response relation. In analyses stratified by median total beverage intake (2.6 liters/day), there was an inverse association with tea use among persons who consumed less than the median (OR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3, 0.8) but no association for persons who consumed at or above the median. In contrast, for kidney cancer, there was no association with tea use. Adjustment for site-specific risk factors did not alter these results. This study offers only minimal support for an inverse association between tea consumption and bladder or kidney cancer risk.
American Journal of Epidemiology 02/2000; 151(4):377-83. · 4.98 Impact Factor