Publications (2)2.47 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: The output of a nebulizer is generally defined as its weight loss during 1 min of nebulization. This mass output includes the weight loss due to evaporation of the solution required to moisten the dry air that is fed through the nebulizer. In order to compare results obtained from studies using different nebulizers we introduce the salt output as the amount of the solution that actually leaves the liquid phase as droplets and not by evaporation. The performance characteristics of a standard jet nebulizer (MA2) and a Sidestream jet neublizer were compared. Mass output was determined at different methacholine concentrations. Salt output was assessed by analysing the remaining salt in the nebulizers after 1 min of nebulization. Overall system performance in terms of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) reduction after 1 min of exposure to individually selected concentrations of methacholine were studied in 15 healthy, non-smoking subjects. Both nebulizer types showed a moderate linear increase of mass output with methacholine concentration. The efficiency coefficient, the quotient between salt output and mass output, was found to be 0.93 and 0.75 for the MA2 and Sidestream nebulizer respectively. These findings were explained by differences in airflow through, and temperature inside, the nebulizers. The salt output of the nebulizers proved to be better correlated to the FEV1-reduction following methacholine inhalation than did the mass output. The relative amount of the salt output that adhered to the acrylic walls of the Sidestream nebulizer drying tower was found to be 9%. We conclude that it is more appropriate to use salt output than mass output as a nebulizer performance descriptor. The study also shows the importance of determining nebulizer system performance under conditions as similar to true provocations as possible.Respiratory Medicine 03/2000; 94(2):139-44. · 2.47 Impact Factor
Article: Exposure to Microorganisms, Airway Inflammatory Changes and Immune Reactions in Asymptomatic Dairy Farmers[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lung function, bronchial reactivity, serum antibody levels, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the magnitude of exposure to airborne microorganisms during farm work were studied in 10 healthy farmers with no respiratory symptoms. Lung function and bronchial reactivity were not altered. An increase in the amount of antibodies against several microorganisms could be demonstrated but precipitating antibodies were observed only in two subjects. In the BAL fluid the nonsmoking farmers had elevated proportion of lymphocytes and elevated levels of albumin, fibronectin and angiotensin-converting enzyme while the levels of hyaluronan and procollagen III N-terminal peptide were within normal limits. The lung function, bronchial reactivity, serum antibody levels and BAL findings were not correlated with the exposure to airborne microorganisms. We conclude that healthy farmers, exposed to mold dust, may exhibit signs of alveolitis including albumin leakage, accumulation of inflammatory cells and alveolar macrophage activation.International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 08/1970; 87(2):127-133.