R. Chornock

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (411)996.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet imaging of the host galaxies of 16 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), including 11 events from the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey. Taking advantage of the superb angular resolution of HST, we characterize the galaxies' morphological properties, sizes and star formation rate densities. We determine the SN locations within the host galaxies through precise astrometric matching, and measure physical and host-normalized offsets, as well as the SN positions within the cumulative distribution of UV light pixel brightness. We find that the host galaxies of H-poor SLSNe are irregular, compact dwarf galaxies, with a median half-light radius of just 0.9 kpc. The UV-derived star formation rate densities are high ( ~ 0.1 M_sun/yr/kpc^2), suggesting that SLSNe form in overdense environments. Their locations trace the UV light of their host galaxies, with a distribution intermediate between that of LGRBs (which are strongly clustered on the brightest regions of their hosts) and a uniform distribution (characteristic of normal core-collapse SNe). Taken together, this strengthens the picture that SLSN progenitors require different conditions than those of ordinary core-collapse SNe to form, and that they explode in broadly similar galaxies as do LGRBs. However, the locations of SLSNe are less clustered on the brightest regions than are LGRBs, suggesting a different and potentially lower-mass progenitor population for SLSNe than LGRBs.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention -- both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ~15-25Mo range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterised by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyze the multi-band light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Halpha absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong OI 7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose as a defining photometric characteristic the decline in the V band: SNe II-L seem to decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in 4 photometric bands.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3-sigma limits of Fnu(222 GHz)<33 microJy and Fnu(3.6 micron)<81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp220, and comparable to the local starburst M82. Comparing to model spectral energy distributions we place a limit on the IR luminosity of L_IR(8-1000 micron)<3e10 Lsun, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR_IR<5 Msun/yr; for comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV observations is SFR_UV<1 Msun/yr. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of <5e7 Msun (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z>4 (Lyman break galaxies, Ly-alpha emitters, and submillimeter galaxies), and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z>4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ~19,000 km s–1). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (~8-9 M ☉) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 790(2):120. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t=-8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He~I 5876 at a velocity of ~19,000 km s{-1}). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] 6300 and 6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (~ 8--9 Msun) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O~I] 6300 and Mg~I] 4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery and subsequent spectroscopy with Gemini-North of the optical afterglow of the Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) 140515A. The spectrum exhibits a well-detected continuum at wavelengths longer than 8915 Angs with a steep decrement to zero flux blueward of 8910 Angs due to Ly-alpha absorption at redshift z~6.33. Some transmission through the Lyman-alpha forest is present at 5.2<z<5.733, but none is detected at higher redshift, consistent with previous measurements from quasars and GRB 130606A. We model the red damping wing of Lyman-alpha in three ways that provide equally good fits to the data: (a) a single host galaxy absorber at z=6.327 with log(N_HI)=18.62+/-0.08; (b) pure intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption from z=6.0 to z=6.328 with a constant neutral hydrogen fraction of x_HI=0.056+0.011-0.027; and (c) a hybrid model with a host absorber located within an ionized bubble of radius 10 comoving Mpc in an IGM with x_HI=0.12+/-0.05 (x_HI<0.21 at the 2-sigma level). Regardless of the model, the sharpness of the dropoff in transmission is inconsistent with a substantial neutral fraction in the IGM at this redshift. No narrow absorption lines from the host galaxy are detected, indicating a host metallicity of [Z/H]<~ -0.8. Even if we assume that all of the hydrogen absorption is due to the host galaxy, the column is unusually low for a GRB sightline, similar to two out of the other three highest-redshift bursts with measured log(N_HI). This is possible evidence that the escape fraction of ionizing photons from normal star-forming galaxies increases at z>~6.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, several rapidly-evolving transients have been discovered whose timescales and luminosities are not easily explained by traditional supernovae (SN) models. The sample size of these objects has remained small due, at least in part, to the challenge of detecting short timescale transients with traditional survey cadences. Here we present the results from a search within the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1-MDS) for rapidly-evolving and luminous transients. We identify 10 new transients with a time above half-maximum of less than 12 days and -16.5 > M > -20 mag. This increases the number of known events in this region of SN phase space by roughly a factor of three. The median redshift of the PS1-MDS sample is z=0.275 and they all exploded in star forming galaxies. In general, the transients possess faster rise than decline timescale and blue colors at maximum light (g - r < -0.2). Best fit blackbodies reveal photospheric temperatures/radii that expand/cool with time and explosion spectra taken near maximum light are dominated by a blue continuum, consistent with a hot, optically thick, ejecta. We find it difficult to reconcile the short timescale, high peak luminosity (L > 10^43 erg/s), and lack of UV line blanketing observed in many of these transients with an explosion powered mainly by the radioactive decay of Ni-56. Rather, we find that many are consistent with either (1) cooling envelope emission from the explosion of a star with a low-mass extended envelope which ejected very little (<0.03 M_sun) radioactive material, or (2) a shock breakout within a dense, optically thick, wind surrounding the progenitor star. After calculating the detection efficiency for objects with rapid timescales in the PS1-MDS we find a volumetric rate of 3000 - 5500 events/yr/Gpc^3 (1-6% of the core-collapse SN rate at z=0.2).
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the advent of wide-field sky surveys which obtain deep multi-band imaging has presented a new path for indirectly characterizing the progenitor populations of core-collapse supernovae (SN): systematic light curve studies. We assemble a set of 76 grizy-band Type IIP SN light curves from Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), obtained over a constant survey program of 4 years and classified using both spectroscopy and machine learning-based photometric techniques. We develop and apply a new Bayesian model for the full multi-band evolution of each light curve in the sample. We find no evidence for the existence of a discontinuous sub-population of fast-declining explosions (historically referred to as "Type IIL" SNe). However, we identify a highly significant continuous relation between the plateau phase decay rate and peak luminosity among our SNe IIP. These results argue in favor of a single predominant explosion parameter, likely determined by initial stellar mass, controlling the most significant observational outcomes of red supergiant explosions. We compare each light curve to physical models from hydrodynamic simulations to estimate progenitor initial masses and other properties of the PS1 Type IIP SN sample. We show that correction of certain systematic discrepancies between modeled and observed SN IIP light curve properties, and an expanded grid of progenitor mass and explosion energy ranges, are needed to enable robust progenitor inferences from multi-band light curve samples of this kind. This work will serve as a pathfinder for photometric studies of core-collapse SNe to be conducted through future wide field transient searches.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study a sample of 23 Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), all observed with the same set of instruments. Analysis of their photometric evolution confirms that their typical plateau duration is 100 days with little scatter, showing a tendency to get shorter for more energetic SNe. The rise time from explosion to plateau does not seem to correlate with luminosity. We analyze their spectra, measuring typical ejecta velocities, and confirm that they follow a well behaved power-law decline. We find indications of high-velocity material in the spectra of six of our SNe. We test different dust extinction correction methods by asking the following - does the uniformity of the sample increase after the application of a given method? A reasonably behaved underlying distribution should become tighter after correction. No method we tested made a significant improvement.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present follow-up optical imaging and spectroscopy of one of the light echoes of $\eta$ Carinae's 19th-century Great Eruption discovered by Rest et al. (2012). By obtaining images and spectra at the same light echo position between 2011 and 2014, we follow the evolution of the Great Eruption on a three-year timescale. We find remarkable changes in the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the echo light. The $i$-band light curve shows a decline of $\sim 0.9$ mag in $\sim 1$ year after the peak observed in early 2011 and a flattening at later times. The spectra show a pure-absorption early G-type stellar spectrum at peak, but a few months after peak the lines of the [Ca II] triplet develop strong P-Cygni profiles and we see the appearance of [Ca II] 7291,7324 doublet in emission. These emission features and their evolution in time resemble the spectra of some Type IIn supernovae and supernova impostors. Most surprisingly, starting $\sim 300$ days after peak brightness, the spectra show strong molecular transitions of CN at $\gtrsim 6800$ \AA. The appearance of these CN features can be explained if the ejecta are strongly Nitrogen enhanced, as it is observed in modern spectroscopic studies of the bipolar Homunculus nebula. Given the spectroscopic evolution of the light echo, velocities of the main features, and detection of strong CN, we are likely seeing ejecta that contributes directly to the Homunculus nebula.
    03/2014; 787(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained a low-resolution optical spectrum of PSN J07562525+2700488 on 2014 March 21.2 UT using the FAST spectrograph mounted on the F.L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The spectrum was obtained during an observing trip to FLWO as part of the Harvard Astronomy 100 ("Observational Methods") undergraduate course.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) survey has obtained imaging in 5 bands (grizy_P1) over 10 Medium Deep Survey (MDS) fields covering a total of 70 square degrees. This paper describes the search for apparently hostless supernovae (SNe) within the first year of PS1 MDS data with an aim of discovering new superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). A total of 249 hostless transients were discovered down to a limiting magnitude of M_AB ~ 23.5, of which 75 were classified as Type Ia SNe. There were 58 SNe with complete light curves that are likely core-collapse SNe (CCSNe) or SLSNe and 13 of these have had spectra taken. Of these 13 hostless, non-Type Ia SNe, 9 were SLSNe of Type I at redshifts between 0.5-1.4. Thus one can maximise the discovery rate of Type I SLSNe by concentrating on hostless transients and removing normal SNe Ia. We present data for three new possible SLSNe; PS1-10pm (z = 1.206), PS1-10ahf (z = 1.16) and PS1-11acn (z ~ 0.61), and estimate the rate of SLSNe-I to be between 0.6pm0.3 * 10^-4 and 1.0pm0.3 * 10^-4 of the CCSNe rate within 0.3 <= z <= 1.4 by applying a Monte-Carlo technique. The rate of slowly evolving, SN2007bi-like explosions is estimated as a factor of 10 lower than this range.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze HST and ground based observations of the luminous Type IIn SN 2010jl from 26 to 1128 days. At maximum the bolometric luminosity was 3x10^{43} erg/s and even at ~ 850 days exceeds 10^{42} erg/s. An emission excess in the NIR, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the CSM. The observed total radiated energy is at least 6.5x10^{50} ergs. The spectral lines display two distinct components, one broad, due to electron scattering, and one narrow. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity, but becomes blueshifted after ~50 days. We find that dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and attribute this instead to radiative acceleration by the SN radiation. From the lines, and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large scale asymmetries in the circumstellar medium. The narrow line component suggests an expansion velocity of ~100 km/s for the CSM. The UV spectrum shows strong low and high ionization lines, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. From the narrow UV lines we find large N/C and N/O ratios, indicative of CNO processing in the progenitor. The luminosity evolution is consistent with a radiative shock in an r^{-2} CSM and indicates a mass loss rate of ~ 0.1 M_O/yr for a 100 km/s wind. The total mass lost is at least ~3 Msun. The mass loss rate, wind velocity, density and CNO enrichment are consistent with the SN expanding into a dense CSM characteristic of that of an LBV progenitor. Even in the last full spectrum at 850 days we do not see any indication of debris processed in a core collapse SN. We attribute this to the extremely dense CSM, which is still opaque to electron scattering. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these UV spectra for detecting Type IIn supernovae in high redshift surveys.
    12/2013;
  • 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a broadband study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 091024A within the context of other ultra-long-duration GRBs. An unusually long burst detected by Konus-Wind, Swift, and Fermi, GRB 091024A has prompt emission episodes covering ~1300 s, accompanied by bright and highly structured optical emission captured by various rapid-response facilities, including the 2-m autonomous robotic Faulkes North and Liverpool Telescopes, KAIT, S-LOTIS, and SRO. We also observed the burst with 8- and 10-m class telescopes and determine the redshift to be z = 1.0924 \pm 0.0004. We find no correlation between the optical and gamma-ray peaks and interpret the optical light curve as being of external origin, caused by the reverse and forward shock of a highly magnetized jet (R_B ~ 100-200). Low-level emission is detected throughout the near-background quiescent period between the first two emission episodes of the Konus-Wind data, suggesting continued central-engine activity; we discuss the implications of this ongoing emission and its impact on the afterglow evolution and predictions. We summarize the varied sample of historical GRBs with exceptionally long durations in gamma-rays (>~ 1000 s) and discuss the likelihood of these events being from a separate population; we suggest ultra-long GRBs represent the tail of the duration distribution of the long GRB population.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 778(1):54. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical spectroscopy and optical/near-IR photometry of 31 host galaxies of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), including 15 events from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. Our sample spans the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.6 and is the first comprehensive host galaxy study of this specific subclass of cosmic explosions. Combining the multi-band photometry and emission-line measurements, we determine the luminosities, stellar masses, star formation rates and metallicities. We find that as a whole, the hosts of SLSNe are a low-luminosity ( ~ -17.3 mag), low stellar mass (<M_*> ~ 2 x 10^8 Msun) population, with a high median specific star formation rate ( ~ 2 Gyr^{-1}). The median metallicity of our spectroscopic sample is low, 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.35 ~ 0.45 Z_sun, although at least one host galaxy has solar metallicity. The host galaxies of H-poor SLSNe are statistically distinct from the hosts of GOODS core-collapse SNe (which cover a similar redshift range), but resemble the host galaxies of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) in terms of stellar mass, SFR, sSFR and metallicity. This result indicates that the environmental causes leading to massive stars forming either SLSNe or LGRBs are similar, and in particular that SLSNe are more effectively formed in low metallicity environments. We speculate that the key ingredient is large core angular momentum, leading to a rapidly spinning magnetar in SLSNe and an accreting black hole in LGRBs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 787(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10(44) ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of (56)Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to (56)Fe via (56)Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.
    Nature 10/2013; 502(7471):346-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) PS1-11ap, discovered with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey at z = 0.524. This intrinsically blue transient rose slowly to reach a peak magnitude of M_u = -21.4 mag and bolometric luminosity of 8 x 10^43 ergs^-1 before settling onto a relatively shallow gradient of decline. The observed decline is significantly slower than those of the superluminous type Ic SNe which have been the focus of much recent attention. Spectroscopic similarities with the lower redshift SN2007bi and a decline rate similar to 56Co decay timescale initially indicated that this transient could be a candidate for a pair instability supernova (PISN) explosion. Overall the transient appears quite similar to SN2007bi and the lower redshift object PTF12dam. The extensive data set, from 30 days before peak to 230 days after, allows a detailed and quantitative comparison with published models of PISN explosions. We find that the PS1-11ap data do not match these model explosion parameters well, supporting the recent claim that these SNe are not pair instability explosions. We show that PS1-11ap has many features in common with the faster declining superluminous Ic supernovae and the lightcurve evolution can also be quantitatively explained by the magnetar spin down model. At a redshift of z = 0.524 the observer frame optical coverage provides comprehensive restframe UV data and allows us to compare it with the superluminous SNe recently found at high redshifts between z = 2-4. While these high-z explosions are still plausible PISN candidates, they match the photometric evolution of PS1-11ap and hence could be counterparts to this lower redshift transient.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 437(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present griz light curves of 146 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia Supernovae (0.03<z<0.65) discovered during the first 1.5 years of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The Pan-STARRS1 natural photometric system is determined by a combination of on-site measurements of the instrument response function and observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. We have investigated spatial and time variations in the photometry, and we find that the systematic uncertainties in the photometric system are currently 1.2% without accounting for the uncertainty in the HST Calspec definition of the AB system. We discuss our efforts to minimize the systematic uncertainties in the photometry. A Hubble diagram is constructed with a subset of 112 SNe Ia (out of the 146) that pass our light curve quality cuts. The cosmological fit to 313 SNe Ia (112 PS1 SNe Ia + 201 low-z SNe Ia), using only SNe and assuming a constant dark energy equation of state and flatness, yields w = -1.015^{+0.319}_{-0.201}(Stat)+{0.164}_{-0.122}(Sys). When combined with BAO+CMB(Planck)+H0, the analysis yields \Omega_M = 0.277^{+0.010}_{-0.012} and w = -1.186^{+0.076}_{-0.065} including all identified systematics, as spelled out in the companion paper by Scolnic et al. (2013a). The value of w is inconsistent with the cosmological constant value of -1 at the 2.4 sigma level. This tension has been seen in other high-z SN surveys and endures after removing either the BAO or the H0 constraint. If we include WMAP9 CMB constraints instead of those from Planck, we find w = -1.142^{+0.076}_{-0.087}, which diminishes the discord to <2 sigma. We cannot conclude whether the tension with flat CDM is a feature of dark energy, new physics, or a combination of chance and systematic errors. The full Pan-STARRS1 supernova sample will be 3 times as large as this initial sample, which should provide more conclusive results.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We probe the systematic uncertainties from 112 Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) sample along with 201 SN Ia from a combination of low-redshift surveys. The companion paper by Rest et al. (2013) describes the photometric measurements and cosmological inferences from the PS1 sample. The largest systematic uncertainty stems from the photometric calibration of the PS1 and low-z samples. We increase the sample of observed Calspec standards from 7 to 10 used to define the PS1 calibration system. The PS1 and SDSS-II calibration systems are compared and discrepancies up to ~0.02 mag are recovered. We find uncertainties in the proper way to treat intrinsic colors and reddening produce differences in the recovered value of w up to 3%. We estimate masses of host galaxies of PS1 supernovae and detect an insignificant difference in distance residuals of the full sample of 0.040\pm0.031 mag for host galaxies with high and low masses. Assuming flatness in our analysis of only SNe measurements, we find w = -1.015^{+0.319}_{-0.201} (Stat) ^{+0.164}_{-0.122) (Sys). With additional constraints from BAO, CMB(Planck) and H0 measurements, we find w = -1.186^{+0.076}_{-0.065} and \Omega_M= 0.277^{+0.010}_{-0.012} (statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature). One of the largest total systematic uncertainties when combining measurements from different cosmological probes is the choice of CMB data to include in the analysis. Using WMAP9 data instead of Planck, we see a shift of \Delta w = +0.044.
    10/2013;

Publication Stats

4k Citations
996.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2013
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Theoretical Astrophysics Center
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2008
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2002
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel