C. Gry

Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6, Paris, Ile-de-France, France

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Publications (198)454.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Next year the second generation instrument SPHERE will begin science operations at the Very Large Telecope (ESO). This instrument will be dedicated to the search for exoplanets through the direct imaging techniques, with the new generation extreme adaptive optics. In this poster, we present the performances of one of the focal instruments, the Infra-Red Dual-beam Imaging and Spectroscopy (IRDIS). All the results have been obtained with tests in laboratory, simulating the observing conditions in Paranal. We tested several configurations using the sub-system Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) in parallel and simulating long coronographic exposures on a star, calibrating instrumental ghosts, checking the performance of the adaptive optics system and reducing data with the consortium pipeline. The contrast one can reach with IRDIS is of the order of 2\times 10^{-6}$ at 0.5 arcsec separation from the central star.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: IRDIS filters were designed, manufactured with DIBS technology and tested after integration in the instrument. Spectral and WFE measurements indicated that filters are well within specifications, allowing differential aberrations below 10nm rms.
    Optical Interference Coatings; 06/2013
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    ABSTRACT: IRDIS is one of the science sub-systems of VLT/SPHERE dedicated to the detection and characterization of giant exoplanets at large orbital radii with high-contrast direct imaging. It offers a unique set of observational modes including dual-band imaging (DBI) with very low differential aberrations, and long slit spectroscopy (LSS) coupled with a classical Lyot coronograph that will be used to obtain spectra at low (R = ~50) and medium (R = ~500) resolution. During the past year, IRDIS has been integrated and tested in laboratory in a standalone configuration, and it has recently been integrated on the full SPHERE bench including the calibration unit, the common path optics and the extreme AO system. We present the first analysis of data obtained during laboratory tests of IRDIS in the DBI mode, both in standalone and with the full SPHERE bench, but without simulated seeing and AO correction. We show the first performance estimates of spectral differential imaging with IRDIS in H-band, which is used to attenuate the speckle noise induced by the instrumental aberrations. Similarly, for the LSS mode we present the first application of the spectral deconvolution data analysis method to attenuate the speckle noise on IRDIS data. Finally we compare these results to simulations that were performed during the development phase of the instrument.
    Proc SPIE 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research) is a second generation instrument for the VLT optimized for very high-contrast imaging around bright stars. Its primary science goal is the detection and characterization of giant planets, together with observation of circumstellar environment. The infrared differential imager and spectrograph (IRDIS), one of the three science instruments for SPHERE, provides simultaneous differential imaging in the near infrared, among with long slit spectroscopy, classical imaging and infrared polarimetry. IRDIS is designed to achieve very high contrast with the help of extreme-AO (Strehl < 90%), coronography, exceptional image quality (including non-common-path aberrations compensation), very accurate calibration strategies and very advanced data processing for speckle suppression. In this paper, we report on the latest experimental characterizations of IRDIS performed with SPHERE/SAXO before the preliminary acceptance in Europe.
    Proc SPIE 07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the strategy and results of our radial velocity follow-up campaign with the SOPHIE spectrograph (1.93-m OHP) of four transiting planetary candidates discovered by the Kepler space mission. We discuss the selection of the candidates KOI-428, KOI-410, KOI-552, and KOI-423. KOI-428 was established as a hot Jupiter transiting the largest and the most evolved star discovered so far and is described by Santerne et al. (2011a). KOI-410 does not present radial velocity change greater than 120 m/s, which allows us to exclude at 3 sigma a transiting companion heavier than 3.4 Mjup. KOI-552b appears to be a transiting low-mass star with a mass ratio of 0.15. KOI-423b is a new transiting companion in the overlapping region between massive planets and brown dwarfs. With a radius of 1.22 +- 0.11 Rjup and a mass of 18.0 +- 0.92 Mjup, KOI-423b is orbiting an F7IV star with a period of 21.0874 +- 0.0002 days and an eccentricity of 0.12 +- 0.02. From the four selected Kepler candidates, at least three of them have a Jupiter-size transiting companion, but two of them are not in the mass domain of Jupiter-like planets. KOI-423b and KOI-522b are members of a growing population of known massive companions orbiting close to an F-type star. This population currently appears to be absent around G-type stars, possibly due to their rapid braking and the engulfment of their companions by tidal decay.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2011; 533. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • VizieR Online Data Catalog. 02/2011; 352:89063.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a subgiant star with an orbital period of 6.87 days thanks to public photometric data from the Kepler space mission and new radial velocity observations obtained by the SOPHIE spectrograph. The planet KOI-428b with a radius of 1.17 +/- 0.04 RJup and a mass of 2.2 +/- 0.4MJup, orbits around a F5IV star with R* = 2.13 +/- 0.06Rsun, M* = 1.48 +/- 0.06 Msun and Teff = 6510 +/- 100 K. The star KOI-428 is the largest and the most evolved star discovered so far with a transiting planet.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2010; 528. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory has been used to observe interstellar nitrogen hydrides along the sight-line towards G10.6-0.4 in order to improve our understanding of the interstellar chemistry of nitrogen. We report observations of absorption in NH N=1-0, J=2-1 and ortho-NH2 1_1,1-0_0,0. We also observed ortho-NH3 1_0-0_0, and 2_0-1_0, para-NH3 2_1-1_1, and searched unsuccessfully for NH+. All detections show emission and absorption associated directly with the hot-core source itself as well as absorption by foreground material over a wide range of velocities. All spectra show similar, non-saturated, absorption features, which we attribute to diffuse molecular gas. Total column densities over the velocity range 11-54 km/s are estimated. The similar profiles suggest fairly uniform abundances relative to hydrogen, approximately 6*10^-9, 3*10^-9, and 3*10^-9 for NH, NH2, and NH3, respectively. These abundances are discussed with reference to models of gas-phase and surface chemistry. Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, 2 online pages with 2 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A July 6 (Herschel/HIFI special issue)
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the detection of absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride (HF) along the sight line to the submillimeter continuum sources W49N and W51. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument in dual beam switch mode to observe the 1232.4762 GHz J = 1 - 0 HF transition in the upper sideband of the band 5a receiver. We detected foreground absorption by HF toward both sources over a wide range of velocities. Optically thin absorption components were detected on both sight lines, allowing us to measure - as opposed to obtain a lower limit on - the column density of HF for the first time. As in previous observations of HF toward the source G10.6-0.4, the derived HF column density is typically comparable to that of water vapor, even though the elemental abundance of oxygen is greater than that of fluorine by four orders of magnitude. We used the rather uncertain N(CH)-N(H2) relationship derived previously toward diffuse molecular clouds to infer the molecular hydrogen column density in the clouds exhibiting HF absorption. Within the uncertainties, we find that the abundance of HF with respect to H2 is consistent with the theoretical prediction that HF is the main reservoir of gas-phase fluorine for these clouds. Thus, hydrogen fluoride has the potential to become an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen, and provides a sensitive probe of clouds of small H2 column density. Indeed, the observations of hydrogen fluoride reported here reveal the presence of a low column density diffuse molecular cloud along the W51 sight line, at an LSR velocity of ~ 24kms-1, that had not been identified in molecular absorption line studies prior to the launch of Herschel. Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, A&A Letter special issue, accepted on 07/13/2010
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-H$_2^{16}$O and H$_2^{18}$O in absorption towards Sagittarius~B2(M) and W31C. The ortho/para ratio in water in the foreground clouds on the line of sight towards these bright continuum sources is generally consistent with the statistical high-temperature ratio of 3, within the observational uncertainties. However, somewhat unexpectedly, we derive a low ortho/para ratio of $2.35 \pm 0.35$, corresponding to a spin temperature of $\sim$27~K, towards Sagittarius~B2(M) at velocities of the expanding molecular ring. Water molecules in this region appear to have formed with, or relaxed to, an ortho/para ratio close to the value corresponding to the local temperature of the gas and dust. Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A, HIFI Special Issue; 5 pages, 3 figures
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of absorption by interstellar hydroxyl cations and water cations, along the sight-line to the bright continuum source W49N. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 972 GHz N = 1 - 0 transition of OH+ and the 1115 GHz 1(11) - 0(00) transition of ortho-H2O+. The resultant spectra show absorption by ortho-H2O+, and strong absorption by OH+, in foreground material at velocities in the range 0 to 70 km/s with respect to the local standard of rest. The inferred OH+/H2O+ abundance ratio ranges from ~ 3 to ~ 15, implying that the observed OH+ arises in clouds of small molecular fraction, in the 2 - 8% range. This conclusion is confirmed by the distribution of OH+ and H2O+ in Doppler velocity space, which is similar to that of atomic hydrogen, as observed by means of 21 cm absorption measurements, and dissimilar from that typical of other molecular tracers. The observed OH+/H abundance ratio of a few E-8 suggests a cosmic ray ionization rate for atomic hydrogen of (0.6 - 2.4) E-16 s-1, in good agreement with estimates inferred previously for diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk from observations of interstellar H3+ and other species. Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A Letters
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectrally resolved observations of triatomic carbon (C3) in several ro-vibrational transitions between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy nu2 bending mode at frequencies between 1654-1897 GHz along the sight-lines to the submillimeter continuum sources W31C and W49N, using Herschel's HIFI instrument. We detect C3 in absorption arising from the warm envelope surrounding the hot core, as indicated by the velocity peak position and shape of the line profile. The sensitivity does not allow to detect C3 absorption due to diffuse foreground clouds. From the column densities of the rotational levels in the vibrational ground state probed by the absorption we derive a rotation temperature (T_rot) of ~50--70 K, which is a good measure of the kinetic temperature of the absorbing gas, as radiative transitions within the vibrational ground state are forbidden. It is also in good agreement with the dust temperatures for W31C and W49N. Applying the partition function correction based on the derived T_rot, we get column densities N(C3) ~7-9x10^{14} cm^{-2} and abundance x(C3)~10^{-8} with respect to H2. For W31C, using a radiative transfer model including far-infrared pumping by the dust continuum and a temperature gradient within the source along the line of sight we find that a model with x(C3)=10^{-8}, T_kin=30-50 K, N(C3)=1.5 10^{15} cm^{-2} fits the observations reasonably well and provides parameters in very good agreement with the simple excitation analysis. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics (HIFI first results issue)
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Sh2-104 is a Galactic H ii region with a bubble morphology, detected at optical and radio wavelengths. It is considered the first observational confirmation of the collect-and-collapse model of triggered star-formation. Aims: We aim to analyze the dust and gas properties of the Sh2-104 region to better constrain its effect on local future generations of stars. In addition, we investigate the relationship between the dust emissivity index {\beta} and the dust temperature, T_dust. Methods: Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\mu}m we determine T_dust and {\beta} throughout Sh2-104, fitting the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) obtained from aperture photometry. With the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) we obtained spectra at different positions in the Sh2-104 region. We detect J-ladders of CO and 13CO, with which we derive the gas temperature and column density. We also detect proxies of ionizing flux as the [NII] 3P1-3P0 and [CI] 3P2-3P1 transitions. Results: We find an average value of {\beta} ~ 1.5 throughout Sh2-104, as well as a T dust difference between the photodissociation region (PDR, ~ 25 K) and the interior (~ 40 K) of the bubble. We recover the anti-correlation between {\beta} and dust temperature reported numerous times in the literature. The relative isotopologue abundances of CO appear to be enhanced above the standard ISM values, but the obtained value is very preliminary and is still affected by large uncertainties. Comment: Accepted by A&A, to be published on the Herschel A&A Special Issue. 5 pages, 5 figures.
    05/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present far-infrared spectra and maps of the DR21 molecular cloud core between 196 and 671 ?m, using the Herschel-SPIRE spectrometer. Nineteen molecular lines originating from CO, ensuremath 13ensuremath<?supensuremath>CO, HCOensuremath ?ensuremath<?supensuremath> and Hensuremath 2ensuremath<?subensuremath>O, plus lines of ?N II? and ?CI? were recorded, including several transitions not previously detected. The CO lines are excited in warm gas with Tensuremath kinensuremath<?subensuremath> textttchar126 125 K and nensuremath Hensuremath 2ensuremath<?subensuremath>ensuremath<?subensuremath> textttchar126 7$times$10ensuremath 4ensuremath<?supensuremath> cmensuremath ?3ensuremath<?supensuremath>, CO column density N(CO) textttchar126 3.5$times$10ensuremath 18ensuremath<?supensuremath> cmensuremath ?2ensuremath<?supensuremath> and a filling factor of textttchar12612%, and appear to trace gas associated with an outflow. The rotational temperature analysis incorporating observations from ground-based telescopes reveals an additional lower excitation CO compoment which has a temperature textttchar12678 K and N(CO) textttchar126 4.5$times$10ensuremath 21ensuremath<?supensuremath> cmensuremath ?2ensuremath<?supensuremath>.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics. 05/2010; 518:L114?1-L114?5.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of strong absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride along the sight-line to the submillimeter continuum source G10.6-0.4 (W31C). We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1232.4763 GHz J=1-0 HF transition in the upper sideband of the Band 5a receiver. The resultant spectrum shows weak HF emission from G10.6-0.4 at LSR velocities in the range -10 to -3 km/s, accompanied by strong absorption by foreground material at LSR velocities in the range 15 to 50 km/s. The spectrum is similar to that of the 1113.3430 GHz 1(11)-0(00) transition of para-water, although at some frequencies the HF (hydrogen fluoride) optical depth clearly exceeds that of para-H2O. The optically-thick HF absorption that we have observed places a conservative lower limit of 1.6E+14 cm-2 on the HF column density along the sight-line to G10.6-0.4. Our lower limit on the HF abundance, 6E-9 relative to hydrogen nuclei, implies that hydrogen fluoride accounts for between ~ 30 and 100% of the fluorine nuclei in the gas phase along this sight-line. This observation corroborates theoretical predictions that - because the unique thermochemistry of fluorine permits the exothermic reaction of F atoms with molecular hydrogen - HF will be the dominant reservoir of interstellar fluorine under a wide range of conditions. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Herschel special issue). This revised version corrects a typographic error in the HTML abstract, in which the lower limit on the HF abundance (should be 6E-9) was previously misstated. The abstract in the PDF version is correct and the latter has not been modified
    05/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of absorption lines by the reactive ions OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ along the line of sight to the submillimeter continuum source G10.6$-$0.4 (W31C). We used the Herschel HIFI instrument in dual beam switch mode to observe the ground state rotational transitions of OH+ at 971~GHz, H2O+ at 1115 and 607~GHz, and H3O+ at 984 GHz. The resultant spectra show deep absorption over a broad velocity range that originates in the interstellar matter along the line of sight to G10.6$-$0.4 as well as in the molecular gas directly associated with that source. The OH+ spectrum reaches saturation over most velocities corresponding to the foreground gas, while the opacity of the H2O+ lines remains lower than 1 in the same velocity range, and the H3O+ line shows only weak absorption. For LSR velocities between 7 and 50 kms$^{-1}$ we estimate total column densities of $N$(OH+) $> 2.5 \times 10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, $N$(H2O+) $\sim 6 \times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $N$(H3O+) $\sim 4.0 \times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$. These detections confirm the role of O$^+$ and OH$^+$ in initiating the oxygen chemistry in diffuse molecular gas and strengthen our understanding of the gas phase production of water. The high ratio of the OH+ by the H2O+ column density implies that these species predominantly trace low-density gas with a small fraction of hydrogen in molecular form.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. RCW 120 is a well-studied, nearby Galactic HII region with ongoing star formation in its surroundings. Previous work has shown that it displays a bubble morphology at mid-infrared wavelengths and has a massive layer of collected neutral material seen at sub-mm wavelengths. Given the well-defined photo-dissociation region (PDR) boundary and collected layer, it is an excellent laboratory to study the "collect and collapse" process of triggered star formation. Using Herschel Space Observatory data at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron, in combination with Spitzer and APEX-LABOCA data, we can for the first time map the entire spectral energy distribution of an HII region at high angular resolution. Aims. We seek a better understanding of RCW120 and its local environment by analysing its dust temperature distribution. Additionally, we wish to understand how the dust emissivity index, beta, is related to the dust temperature. Methods. We determine dust temperatures in selected regions of the RCW 120 field by fitting their spectral energy distribution (SED), derived using aperture photometry. Additionally, we fit the SED extracted from a grid of positions to create a temperature map. Results. We find a gradient in dust temperature, ranging from >30 K in the interior of RCW 120, to ~20K for the material collected in the PDR, to ~10K toward local infrared dark clouds and cold filaments. Our results suggest that RCW 120 is in the process of destroying the PDR delineating its bubble morphology. The leaked radiation from its interior may influence the creation of the next generation of stars. We find support for an anti-correlation between the fitted temperature and beta, in rough agreement with what has been found previously. The extended wavelength coverage of the Herschel data greatly increases the reliability of this result.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. RCW 120 is a well-studied, nearby Galactic H ii region with ongoing star formation in its surroundings. Previous work has shown that it displays a bubble morphology at mid-infrared wavelengths, and has a massive layer of collected neutral material seen at sub-mm wavelengths. Given the well-defined photo-dissociation region (PDR) boundary and collected layer, it is an excellent laboratory to study the ``collect and collapse'' process of triggered star formation. Using Herschel Space Observatory data at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 mum, in combination with Spitzer and APEX-LABOCA data, we can for the first time map the entire spectral energy distribution of an H ii region at high angular resolution. Aims: We seek a better understanding of RCW 120 and its local environment by analysing its dust temperature distribution. Additionally, we wish to understand how the dust emissivity index, beta, is related to the dust temperature. Methods: We determine dust temperatures in selected regions of the RCW 120 field by fitting their spectral energy distribution (SED), derived using aperture photometry. Additionally, we fit the SED extracted from a grid of positions to create a temperature map. Results: We find a gradient in dust temperature, ranging from &gap;30 K in the interior of RCW 120, to ~20 K for the material collected in the PDR, to ~10 K toward local infrared dark clouds and cold filaments. There is an additional, hotter (~100 K) component to the dust emission that we do not investigate here. Our results suggest that RCW 120 is in the process of destroying the PDR delineating its bubble morphology. The leaked radiation from its interior may influence the creation of the next generation of stars. We find support for an anti-correlation between the fitted temperature and beta, in rough agreement with what has been found previously. The extended wavelength coverage of the Herschel data greatly increases the reliability of this result. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) on-board the ESA Herschel Space Observatory to analyse the submillimetre spectrum of the Ultra-compact HII region G29.96-0.02. Spectral lines from species including ensuremath 13ensuremath<?supensuremath>CO, CO, ?CI?, and ?NII? are detected. A sparse map of the ?NII? emission shows at least one other HII region neighbouring the clump containing the UCHII. The FTS spectra are combined with ISO SWS and LWS spectra and fluxes from the literature to present a detailed spectrum of the source spanning three orders of magnitude in wavelength. The quality of the spectrum longwards of 100ensuremathmum allows us to fit a single temperature greybody with temperature 80.3$pm$0.6K and dust emissivity index 1.73$pm$0.02, an accuracy rarely obtained with previous instruments.We estimate a mass of 1500 Mensuremath $ødot$ensuremath<?subensuremath> for the clump containing the HII region. The clump's bolometeric luminosity of 4 x 10ensuremath 6ensuremath<?supensuremath> Lensuremath $ødot$ensuremath<?subensuremath> is comparable to, or slightly greater than, the known O-star powering the UCHII region.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics. 01/2010; 518:L82?1-L82?5.
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    ABSTRACT: Context. In photodissociation regions (PDRs), the physical conditions and the excitation evolve on short spatial scales as a function of depth within the cloud, providing a unique opportunity to study how the dust and gas populations evolve with the excitation and physical conditions. The mapping of the PDRs in NGC 7023 performed during the science demonstration phase of Herschel is part of the “Evolution of interstellar dust” key program. The goal of this project is to build a coherent database on interstellar dust emission from diffuse clouds to the sites of star formation. Aims: We study the far-infrared/submillimeter emission of the PDRs and their fainter surrounding regions. We combine the Herschel and Spitzer maps to derive at each position the full emission spectrum of all dust components, which we compare to dust and radiative transfer models in order to learn about the spatial variations in both the excitation conditions and the dust properties. Methods: We adjust the emission spectra derived from PACS and SPIRE maps using modified black bodies to derive the temperature and the emissivity index β of the dust in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field. We present a first modeling of the NGC 7023-E PDR with standard dust properties and abundances. Results: At the peak positions, a value of β equal to 2 is compatible with the data. The detected spectra and the spatial structures are strongly influenced by radiative transfer effects. We are able to reproduce the spectra at the peak positions deduced from Herschel maps and emitted by dust particles at thermal equilibrium, and also the evolution of the spatial structures observed from the near infrared to the submillimeter. On the other hand, the emission of the stochastically heated smaller particles is overestimated by a factor ~2. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics. 01/2010;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
454.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille (UMR 7326 LAM)
      Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2008
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1983–2008
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2006
    • European Space Agency
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1998
    • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1994
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States