[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Chagas heart disease is developed as a result of the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Protein malnutrition contributes to secondary immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a low protein diet on the production of endothelin-1 and CX3CL1 in blood and cardiac tissue samples in an experimental model with T. cruzi infection. METHODS: Fisher rats were submitted to low protein (6%) and normal protein (15%) diets and then infected with the Y strain of T. cruzi. At days 15 and 120, parasites and immune cells were evaluated. RESULTS: The low protein diet reduced body weight and circulating serum proteins, but promoted elevation of CX3CL1 and endothelin-1 levels in infected animals, which were unable to control blood parasitemia replication. In heart tissue, the low protein diet reduced cardiac CX3CL1, endothelin-1 and leucocyte infiltration in the acute phase, in particular CD68 and CD163 macrophage phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Together, these results highlight the participation of endothelin-1 and CX3CL1 in the inflammatory process of Chagas diesease, both being mediators partially controlled by the host nutritional status.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 02/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body's defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 05/2012; 50(3):177-83. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) contains a mixture of orange-yellowish pigments due to the presence of various carotenoids that have antioxidant effect. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) as part of the body's defence mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. It is well known that the function of neutrophils is altered in diabetes; one of the major functional changes in neutrophils in diabetes is the increased generation of extracellular superoxide via the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the production of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in neutrophils from diabetic rats treated with annatto extract and β-carotene. Forty-eight female Fisher rats were distributed into six groups according to the treatment received. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after treatment, and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The ROS and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Analyses of gene expression were performed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results show that treatment with annatto extract and β-carotene was able to decrease ROS production and the mRNA levels of p22(phox) and p47(phox) and increase the mRNA levels of SOD and CAT in neutrophils from diabetic rats. These data suggest that annatto extract and β-carotene exerts antioxidant effect via inhibition of expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits and increase expression/activity of antioxidant enzymes.
Free radical research 03/2012; 46(3):329-38. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of captopril as a promoter in modulating the oxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with type 1 diabetes, and the influence of protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by bradykinin in type 1 diabetic rats. This study evaluated the redox status in both the cardiac tissue and at the cellular level (neutrophils). Two concentrations of captopril were utilized: (i) 5 mg·(kg body mass)-1, which was considered a therapeutic dose; and (ii) 10 mg·(kg body mass)-1. Body mass, plasma glucose, and serum insulin were evaluated. To investigate the redox status of the cardiac tissue, we analyzed lipid peroxidation, concentration of carbonylated protein, catalase activity, and the concentration of glutathione. For a more accurate assessment of the possible antioxidant effect of captopril, we also analyzed ROS in neutrophils (in vivo), and ROS production induced by bradykinin and the influence of the PKC pathway in this production (in vitro). Our data show that the hearts of diabetic animals have increased oxidative damage, exemplified by the increased concentration of carbonylated protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). However, animals treated with captopril at both concentrations showed lower concentrations of carbonylated protein compared with untreated diabetic animals. We found an increase of catalase activity in the heart of diabetic rats, which was reversed by captopril treatment at both of the dosages tested. Our data showed that captopril was able to reduce ROS production in the neutrophils of diabetic rats at a dose of 10 mg captopril·(kg body mass)-1. However, the antioxidant effect of captopril is independent of bradykinin. Diabetes induces oxidative stress, and these results suggest that captopril has an antioxidant effect and can modulate the production of ROS in circulating neutrophils.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 12/2011; 89(12):923-933. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baccharis trimera (Less.) (Asteraceae) is a native plant of Brazil. Also known as "carqueja", it has been popularly used to treat liver diseases, diabetes, as well as digestive disorders. Other studies have described the hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the species.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of Baccharis trimera in the neutrophils of Fisher rats in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
In the in vitro assay, the neutrophils of male rats were isolated and incubated with Baccharis trimera extract at concentrations of 0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 microg/mL. In the in vivo assay, male rats were first treated with crude extract 600 mg/kg body weight of Baccharis trimera or with 50 mg/kg body weight of quercetin (reference substance) and then treated with 835 mg/kg of acetaminophen (APAP) after 24 h.
The hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera reduced the release of reactive oxygen species in the neutrophils in both the in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Therefore confirming its antioxidant effect.
The results of this study confirm the antioxidant effect of Baccharis trimera.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2010; 129(3):381-6. · 2.32 Impact Factor